FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Deep lake water cooling
Energy Portal

Deep lake water cooling uses cold water pumped from the bottom of a lake as a heat sink for climate control systems. Because heat pump efficiency improves as the heat sink gets colder, deep lake water cooling can reduce the electrical demands of large cooling systems where it is available. Image File history File links Portal. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Thermal management of electronic devices and systems. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... A diagram of a simple heat pumps vapor-compression refrigeration cycle: 1) condenser, 2) expansion valve, 3) evaporator, 4) compressor. ...

Unlike most materials, water has a temperature at which it is most dense: 3.98 °C at standard atmospheric pressure. Below this temperature, the density of water falls. As a result, the bottom of most deep bodies of water located well away from the equatorial regions is at a constant 3.98 °C.[citation needed]

Air conditioners are heat pumps. During the summer, when outside air temperatures are higher than the thermostat set temperature inside a building, air conditioners use electricity to pump heat uphill, from the cooler interior of the building to the warmer exterior ambient. This process is expensive because large buildings collect an enormous amount of solar thermal energy (at noon, about one kilowatt per square meter facing the sun), and require lots of electrical energy to pump out all that heat.

Unlike residential air conditioners, most modern commercial air conditioning systems do not pump heat directly into the exterior air. Instead, water is brought down to the wet-bulb temperature by partial evaporation in a cooling tower. This cold water then acts as the heat sink for the heat pump. The improvement in heat pump efficiency saves so much energy that cooling towers have become ubiquitous on the rooftops and mechanical floors of skyscrapers. Wet-bulb temperature ... Image 1: Natural draft wet cooling towers at Didcot Power Station, UK Cooling towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling water or other working medium to near the ambient wet-bulb air temperature. ...

Deep lake water cooling goes even further. Except in the dryest of summer conditions, deep lake water will be cooler than the ambient wet bulb temperature. Because it is a colder heat sink it saves still more electricity. For many buildings, the sink should be sufficiently cold that the heat pumps can be shut down and the building can use free cooling, allowing interior heat to conduct directly to the heat sink. "Free cooling" is not actually free, since pumps and fans still must be run to circulate the heat sink water and building air.

One added attraction of deep lake water cooling is that it saves energy during peak load times--summer afternoons when a sizeable chunk of the total electrical grid load is air conditioning.


First System in Canada

Since August 2004, a deep lake water cooling system has been operated by the Enwave Energy Corporation in Toronto, Ontario.[1] It draws water from Lake Ontario through tubes extending 5 km into the lake, reaching to a depth of 83 metres. The lake-bottom water is at 4 °C year-round even at the height of summer, when the surface water is warm. The cooler denser water remains near the bottom. The deep lake water cooling system is part of an integrated district cooling system that covers Toronto's financial district, and has a cooling power of 59,000 tons (207 MW). The system currently has enough capacity to cool 3.2 million square meters of office space. [1] Enwave is a private corporation jointly owned by the City of Toronto and the Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System and is one of the largest district energy systems in North America. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 4th... Lake Ontario, bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south by Ontarios Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, USA, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... District heating (less commonly called teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ...

The cold water drawn from Lake Ontario's deep layer in the Enwave system is not returned directly to the lake, once it has been run through the heat exchange system. The Enwave system only uses water that is destined to meet the city's domestic water needs. Therefore, the Enwave system does not pollute the lake with a plume of waste heat.

First Major System in United States

Cornell University's Lake Source Cooling System uses Cayuga Lake as a heat sink to operate the central chilled water system for its campus and to also provide cooling to the Ithaca School District. The system has operated since the summer of 2000 and was built at a cost of $55-60 million. It cools a 14,500 ton load. Cornell University is a private university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and Education City, Qatar. ... Cayuga Lake is the longest of western New Yorks glacial Finger Lakes, and is the second largest in surface area. ...

Lake water enters the system via a screened intake structure 10,400 feet away in 250 feet of water. The intake pipeline is 63 inch High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) that was deployed from the surface using a "controlled" sink process where water was pumped in at the shallow end and air was released at the other end. A series of stiffener rings and concrete collars keep the pipeline on the lake floor and protect it from mechanical forces. The outfall is 48 inch HDPE and is approximately 750 feet long. The last 100 feet of the outfall has 38, 6 inch nozzles about 1 foot above the bottom of the lake floor in 14 feet of water, pointed up at a 20 degree angle and pointed north only. This helps promote mixing of the return water into the receiving water. The water cools a heat-exchanger which is connected to a closed-loop campus chilled water distribution system which links many buildings on the main campus.

Comparison to related technologies

This water-cooling technology has some relationship to an older technology and a possible future technology.

Icehouse cooling

Looking back to the past, water-cooling recalls well insulated icehouses which were used to store ice throughout the year prior to the invention of refrigeration. Icehouses were filled with fresh ice collected from lake surfaces during the winter whereas deep lake water cooling taps a permanent store of cold water. An ancient ice house, called a yakhchal, built in Kerman, Iran during the middle ages, for storing ice during summers. ... Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ...

OTEC power generation

Looking towards the future, water-cooling uses cold deep water just as ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) does. However, OTEC is intended to be used for generating energy by operating a heat engine on the temperature difference between the ocean bottom and the ocean surface. Deep lake water cooling bypasses the need for electricity generation altogether and, so, is a simpler and more immediately practical technology than OTEC. Ambitious OTEC projects have yet to realize their full potential because they present far more demanding engineering challenges. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A heat engine is a physical or theoretical device that converts thermal energy to mechanical output. ...

See also

A Solar pond is large-scale solar energy collector with integral heat storage for supplying thermal energy. ...


  1. ^ http://www.enwave.com/enwave/view.asp?/about/history

External sources

  Results from FactBites:
Deep lake water cooling - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (743 words)
Deep lake water cooling uses cold water pumped from the bottom of a lake as a heat sink for climate control systems.
The lake-bottom water is at 4 °C year-round even at the height of summer, when the surface water is warm.
The deep lake water cooling system is part of an integrated district cooling system that covers Toronto's financial district, and has a cooling power of 59,000 tons (207 MW).
lake: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (4555 words)
Lakes are of particular importance since they act as catchment basins for close to 40% of the landscape, supply drinking water, generate electricity, are used to irrigate fields, and serve as recreational areas.
Lakes are transient features on the earth's surface and generally disappear in a relatively short period of geologic time by a combination of processes (e.g., erosion of an outlet or climatic changes that bring drier conditions).
When the temperature of the water at the surface of a lake reaches the same temperature as deeper water (such as during the cooler months in temperate climates), the water in the lake can mix, bringing oxygen starved water up from the depths, and bringing oxygen down to decomposing sediments.
  More results at FactBites »



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m