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Encyclopedia > Deep ecology

Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological philosophy (ecosophy) that considers humankind as an integral part of its environment. It places more value on other species, ecosystems and processes in nature than that in established environmental and green movements, and therefore leads to a new system of environmental ethics. The core principle of deep ecology as originally developed is Næss's doctrine of biospheric egalitarianism — the claim that all living things have the same right to live and flourish. Deep ecology describes itself as "deep" because it is concerned with fundamental philosophical questions about the role of human life as one part of the ecosphere, rather than with a narrow view of ecology as a branch of biological science, and aims to avoid merely utilitarian environmentalism. The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Ecosophy, also ecophilosophy, is a neologism made by contracting the phrase ecological philosophy. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... The environmental movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement. ... “Greens” redirects here. ... Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers the ethical relationship between human beings and the natural environment. ... Arne Dekke Eide Næss (born January 27, 1912) is widely regarded as the foremost Norwegian philosopher of the 20th century[1], and is the founder of deep ecology. ... A false-color composite of global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Utilitarianism is a suggested theoretical framework for morality, law and politics, based on quantitative maximisation of some definition of utility for society or humanity. ...

Contents

Development

The phrase deep ecology was coined by the Norwegian philosopher Arne Næss in 1973,[1] and he helped give it a theoretical foundation. "For Arne Næss, ecological science, concerned with facts and logic alone, cannot answer ethical questions about how we should live. For this we need ecological wisdom. Deep ecology seeks to develop this by focusing on deep experience, deep questioning and deep commitment. These constitute an interconnected system. Each gives rise to and supports the other, whilst the entire system is, what Næss would call, an ecosophy: an evolving but consistent philosophy of being, thinking and acting in the world, that embodies ecological wisdom and harmony."[2] Næss rejected the idea that beings can be ranked according to their relative value. For example, judgments on whether an animal has an eternal soul, whether it uses reason or whether it has consciousness (or indeed higher consciousness) have all been used to justify the ranking of the human animal over other animals. Næss states that "the right of all forms [of life] to live is a universal right which cannot be quantified. No single species of living being has more of this particular right to live and unfold than any other species." This metaphysical idea is elucidated in Warwick Fox's claim that we and all other beings are "aspects of a single unfolding reality". As such Deep Ecology would support the view of Aldo Leopold in his book, "A Sand County Almanac" that humans are ‘plain members of the biotic community’. They also would support Leopold's "Land Ethic": "a thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise." Arne Dekke Eide Næss (born January 27, 1912) is widely regarded as the foremost Norwegian philosopher of the 20th century[1], and is the founder of deep ecology. ... The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is the self-aware essence unique to a particular living being. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Higher Consciousness - also called Super Consciousness (Yoga), Buddhic Consciousness (Theosophy), Objective Consciousness (Gurdjieff), Christ Consciousness, Cosmic Consciousness and God-consciousness (Islam and Hinduism), to name but a few - are expressions used in various traditions of spiritual science and psychology to denote the consciousness of a human being who has reached... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Warwick Fox is an Australian philosopher and ethicist. ... Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 - April 21, 1948) was a United States ecologist, forester, and environmentalist. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The land ethic is a perspective on environmental ethics first championed by Aldo Leopold in his book A Sand County Almanac. ... A biocoenosis (alternatively, biocoenose or biocenose), termed by Karl Möbius in 1877, describes all the interacting organisms living together in a specific habitat (or biotope). ...


Deep ecology offers a philosophical basis for environmental advocacy which may, in turn, guide human activity against perceived self-destruction. Deep ecology and environmentalism hold that the science of ecology shows that ecosystems can absorb only limited change by humans or other dissonant influences. Further, both hold that the actions of modern civilization threaten global ecological well-being. Ecologists have described change and stability in ecological systems in various ways, including homeostasis, dynamic equilibrium, and "flux of nature".[3] Regardless of which model is most accurate, environmentalists contend that massive human economic activity has pushed the biosphere far from its "natural" state through reduction of biodiversity, climate change, and other influences. As a consequence, civilization is causing mass extinction. Deep ecologists hope to influence social and political change through their philosophy. For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... ÛEcology is generally spoken of as a new science, having only become prominent in the second half of the 20th Century. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ... Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system,[1] especially a living organism, to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition. ... A dynamic equilibrium occurs when two reversible processes occur at the same rate. ... Environmentalism is activism aimed at improving the environment, particularly nature. ... A false-color composite of global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... An extinction event (also known as: mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE) occurs when there is a sharp decrease in the number of species in a relatively short period of time. ...


Scientific

While Næss and Fox do not claim to use logic or induction to derive the philosophy directly from scientific ecology [4] but rather hold that scientific ecology directly implies the metaphysics of deep ecology, including its ideas about the self and further, that deep ecology finds scientific underpinnings in the fields of ecology and system dynamics. Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... System Dynamics is an approach to understanding the behaviour of complex systems over time. ...


In their 1985 book Deep Ecology,[5] Devall and Sessions describe a series of sources of deep ecology. They include the science of ecology itself, and cite its major contribution as the rediscovery in a modern context that "everything is connected to everything else". They point out that some ecologists and natural historians, in addition to their scientific viewpoint, have developed a deep ecological consciousness--for some a political consciousness and at times a spiritual consciousness. This is a perspective beyond the strictly human viewpoint, beyond anthropocentrism. Among the scientists they mention particularly are Rachel Carson, Aldo Leopold, John Livingston, Paul R. Ehrlich and Barry Commoner, together with Frank Fraser Darling, Charles Sutherland Elton, Eugene Odum and Paul Sears. // Consciousness typically refers to the idea of a being who is self-aware. ... Higher consciousness, also called super consciousness (Yoga), Buddhic consciousness (Theosophy), cosmic consciousness and God-consciousness (Sufism and Hinduism)--to name but a few--are expressions used in various spiritual traditions to denote the consciousness of a human being who has reached a higher level of evolutionary development and who has... Anthropocentrism (Greek άνθρωπος, anthropos, human, κέντρον, kentron, center), or the human-centered principle, refers to the idea that humanity must always remain the central concern for humans. ... Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 — April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist and nature writer whose landmark book, Silent Spring, is often credited with having launched the global environmental movement. ... Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 - April 21, 1948) was a United States ecologist, forester, and environmentalist. ... John Allen Livingston (November 10, 1923 in Hamilton- January 17, 2006) was a Canadian naturalist, broadcaster, author, and teacher. ... Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born May 29, 1932 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a Stanford University professor and a renowned entomologist specializing in Lepidoptera (butterflies). ... Barry Commoner (born May 28, 1917) was an American biologist and college professor. ... Sir Frank Fraser Darling (born Frank Darling, June 23, 1903 - 1979) was an English ecologist, ornithologist, farmer and author. ... Charles Sutherland Elton (March 29, 1900 - May 1, 1991) was an English biologist. ... Eugene Pleasants Odum (1913-2002) was an American scientist known for his pioneering work on ecosystem ecology. The average schoolchild of today knows that humans (along with other life forms) depend on adequate conditions of food, water, and shelter from inclement elements, for instance, and also that weather, geological, and... Paul Bigelow Sears (December 17, 1891-April 30, 1990) was an American ecologist. ...


A further scientific source for deep ecology adduced by Devall and Sessions is the "new physics", which they describe as shattering Descartes's and Newton's vision of the universe as a machine explainable in terms of simple linear cause and effect, and instead providing a view of Nature in constant flux with the idea that observers are separate an illusion. They refer to Fritjof Capra's The Tao of Physics and The Turning Point for their characterisation of how the new physics leads to metaphysical and ecological views of interrelatedness which according to Capra should make deep ecology a framework for future human societies. René Descartes (French IPA: ) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... Sir Isaac Newton (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... The word linear comes from the Latin word linearis, which means created by lines. ... Dr. Fritjof Capra – photo by Kate Mount Fritjof Capra (born February 1, 1939) is an Austrian-born American physicist. ... The Tao of Physics (full title: The Tao of Physics: An Exploration of the Parallels Between Modern Physics and Eastern Mysticism) was a 1975 book by physicist Fritjof Capra, published by Shambhala Publications of Berkeley, California. ...


The scientific version of the Gaia hypothesis was also an influence on the development of deep ecology. The Gaia hypothesis, a hypothesis put forward to explain a number of paradoxes about life and the earth was first formulated in the 1960s, by the independent research scientist James Lovelock. ...


Spiritual

The central spiritual tenet of deep ecology is that the human species is a part of the Earth and not separate from it. A process of self-realisation or "re-earthing" is used for an individual to intuitively gain an ecocentric perspective. The notion is based on the idea that the more we expand the self to identify with "others" (people, animals, ecosystems), the more we realise ourselves. Transpersonal psychology has been used by Warwick Fox to support this idea. Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, the transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human mind. ... Warwick Fox is an Australian philosopher and ethicist. ...


Other traditions which have influenced deep ecology include Taoism, Buddhism and Jainism primarily because they have a non-dualistic approach to subject and object. In relation to the Judeo-Christian tradition, Næss offers the following criticism: "The arrogance of stewardship [as found in the Bible] consists in the idea of superiority which underlies the thought that we exist to watch over nature like a highly respected middleman between the Creator and Creation."[6] This theme had been expounded in Lynn Townsend White, Jr.'s 1967 article "The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis",[7] in which however he also offered as an alternative Christian view of man's relation to nature that of Saint Francis of Assisi, who he says spoke for the equality of all creatures, in place of the idea of man's domination over creation. Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article is under construction. ... In philosophy, the subject-object problem arises out of the metaphysics of Hegel. ... Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity, and typically considered (sometimes along with classical Greco-Roman civilization) a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Lynn Townsend White, Jr. ... Saint Francis of Assisi (September 26, 1181 – October 3, 1226) was a Roman Catholic friar and the founder of the Order of Friars Minor, more commonly known as the Franciscans. ...


Experiential

Drawing upon the Buddhist tradition is the work of Joanna Macy. Macy, working as an anti-nuclear activist in USA, found that one of the major impediments confronting the activists' cause was the presence of unresolved emotions of despair, grief, sorrow, anger and rage. The denial of these emotions led to apathy and disempowerment. Joanna Macy, Ph. ...


We may have intellectual understanding of our interconnectedness, but our culture, experiential deep ecologists like John Seed argue, robs us of emotional and visceral experience of that interconnectedness which we had as small children, but which has been socialised out of us by a highly anthropocentric alienating culture. John Seed is an Australian environmentalist and director of the Rainforest Information Centre which successfully campainged to save the sub-tropical rainforests of New South Wales. ...


Through "Despair and Empowerment Work" and more recently "The Work that Reconnects", Macy and others have been taking Experiential Deep Ecology into many countries including especially the USA, Europe (particularly Britain and Germany), Russia and Australia.


Principles

Proponents of deep ecology believe that the world does not exist as a resource to be freely exploited by humans. The ethics of deep ecology hold that a whole system is superior to any of its parts. They offer an eight-tier platform to elucidate their claims:[8]

  1. The well-being and flourishing of human and nonhuman life on Earth have value in themselves (synonyms: intrinsic value, inherent value). These values are independent of the usefulness of the nonhuman world for human purposes.
  2. Richness and diversity of life forms contribute to the realization of these values and are also values in themselves.
  3. Humans have no right to reduce this richness and diversity except to satisfy vital human needs.
  4. The flourishing of human life and cultures is compatible with a substantial decrease of the human population. The flourishing of nonhuman life requires such a decrease.
  5. Present human interference with the nonhuman world is excessive, and the situation is rapidly worsening.
  6. Policies must therefore be changed. These policies affect basic economic, technological, and ideological structures. The resulting state of affairs will be deeply different from the present.
  7. The ideological change is mainly that of appreciating life quality (dwelling in situations of inherent value) rather than adhering to an increasingly higher standard of living. There will be a profound awareness of the difference between big and great.
  8. Those who subscribe to the foregoing points have an obligation directly or indirectly to try to implement the necessary changes.

Movement

In practice, deep ecologists support decentralization, the creation of ecoregions, the breakdown of industrialism in its current form, and an end to authoritarianism. // Le de décentralisation de de est le processus de la dispersion prise de décision plus près du point de service ou action. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ...


Deep ecology is not normally considered a distinct movement, but as part of the green movement. The deep ecological movement could be defined as those within the green movement who hold deep ecological views. Deep ecologists welcome the labels "Gaian" and "Green" (including the broader political implications of this term, e.g. commitment to peace). Deep ecology has had a broad general influence on the green movement by providing an independent ethical platform for Green parties, political ecologists and environmentalists. “Greens” redirects here. ... A Gaian is a radical Green who views the ecology of the Earths biosphere not only as the basis of human moral examples, but of all cognition and even sentience. ... Green politics or Green ideology is the ideology of the Green Parties, mainly informed by environmentalism, ecosophy and sustainable economics and aimed at developing a sustainable society. ... A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of achieving world peace. ... This article is about the green parties around the world. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Bold textHello ...


The philosophy of deep ecology helped differentiate the modern ecology movement by pointing out the anthropocentric bias of the term "environment", and rejecting the idea of humans as authoritarian guardians of the environment. The global ecology movement is one of several new social movements that emerged at the end of the sixties; as a values-driven social movement, it should be distinguished from the pre-existing science of ecology. ... Anthropocentrism (Greek άνθρωπος, anthropos, man, human being, κέντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of regarding the existence and/or concerns of human beings as the central fact of the universe. ...


Criticisms

The notion of intrinsic value

"Shallow" ecologists criticize[citation needed] the notion that the intrinsic value of ecological systems exists independently of humanity's recognition of it. An example of this approach is that one might say that a work of art is only valuable insofar as humans perceive it to be worthwhile. Shallow ecologists feel that the ecosystem's value does not reach beyond our appreciation of it. Intrinsic value is a philosophical concept which some do not accept.[9] However, intrinsic value defined as value existing separate from human thought may in this case be conflated with intrinsic value defined as natural worth existing independent of modification or application of a substance or entity, clouding the argument.[citation needed] This entire argument, however, assumes both the primacy and uniqueness of the ability of humans to create value, as opposed to a collection of sentient beings dependent on a perfectly ordered system for life or even a natural system devoid of sentient life being incapable of possessing inherent value. It also is a result of the confusion between anthropogenic - something being created by humans, and anthropocentric - exclusive value being given to humans. Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anthropocentrism (Greek άνθρωπος, anthropos, man, human being, κέντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of regarding the existence and/or concerns of human beings as the central fact of the universe. ...


Interests in nature

For something to require rights and protection intrinsically, it must have interests.[10] Deep ecology is criticised for presuming that plants, for example, have their own interests. Deep ecologists claim to identify with the environment, and in doing so, to understand what the environment's interests are. The criticism is that the interests that a deep ecologist purports to give to nature, such as growth, individuality, balance and fairness, are really human interests. "The earth is endowed with 'wisdom', wilderness equates with 'freedom', and life forms are said to emit 'moral' qualities."[11] On the other hand, it has also been argued that species and ecosystems themselves have rights.[12] However, this argument assumes that humans, in governing their own affairs, are somehow immune from this same assumption; i.e. how can governing humans truly "speak" for the rest of humanity. While the deep ecologist critic would answer that the logical application of language and social mores would provide this justification, the deep ecologist would note that their response is dependent solely on the logical application of known facts of an entity's presumed interests, which is the same standard used by deep ecologists to create their standard of protection. See: Intrinsic and extrinsic properties (philosophy) Intensive and extensive properties (physics) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Deepness

Deep ecology is criticised for its claim to be deeper than alternative theories, which by implication are shallow. However despite repeated complaints about use of the term it still enjoys wide currency; deep evidently has an attractive resonance for many who seek to establish a new ethical framework for guiding human action with respect to the natural world. It may be presumptuous to assert that one's thinking is deeper than others'. When Arne Næss coined the term deep ecology he compared it unfavourably with shallow environmentalism which he criticized for its utilitarian and anthropocentric attitude to nature and for its materialist and consumer-oriented outlook.[13][14] Arne Dekke Eide Næss (born January 27, 1912) is widely regarded as the foremost Norwegian philosopher of the 20th century[1], and is the founder of deep ecology. ... Utilitarianism is a suggested theoretical framework for morality, law and politics, based on quantitative maximisation of some definition of utility for society or humanity. ... Anthropocentrism (Greek άνθρωπος, anthropos, man, human being, κέντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of regarding the existence and/or concerns of human beings as the central fact of the universe. ... Materialism refers to how a person or group chooses to spend their resources, particularly money and time. ... Consumerist redirects here. ...


Ecofeminist response

Both ecofeminism and deep ecology put forward a new conceptualization of the self. Some ecofeminists, such as Marti Kheel,[15] argue that self-realization and identification with all nature places too much emphasis on the whole, at the expense of the independent being. Ecofeminists contend that their concept of the self (as a dynamic process consisting of relations) is superior. Ecofeminists would also place more emphasis on the problem of androcentrism rather than anthropocentrism. Ecofeminism is a social and political movement which unites environmentalism and feminism, with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism. ... Androcentrism (Greek ανδρο, andro-, man, male, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and... Anthropocentrism (Greek άνθρωπος, anthropos, human, κέντρον, kentron, center), or the human-centered principle, refers to the idea that humanity must always remain the central concern for humans. ...


Misunderstanding scientific information

Daniel Botkin[16] has compared deep ecology unfavorably with its antithesis, the wise use movement, when he says that they both "misunderstand scientific information and then arrive at conclusions based on their misunderstanding, which are in turn used as justification for their ideologies. Both begin with an ideology and are political and social in focus." Elsewhere though, he asserts that deep ecology must be taken seriously in the debate about the relationship between humans and nature because it challenges the fundamental assumptions of western philosophy. Botkin's has also pointed out Næss's restatement and reliance upon the balance of nature myth and the contradiction between his argument that all species are morally equal and his disparaging description of pioneering species. The Wise use movement in the United States is a loose-knit coalition of groups promoting private property rights and use of the natural environment as a natural part of human survival. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


"Shallow" View superior

Writer William Grey believes that developing a non-anthropocentric set of values is "a hopeless quest" He seeks an improved "shallow" view, writing;, "What's wrong with shallow views is not their concern about the well-being of humans, but that they do not really consider enough in what that well-being consists. We need to develop an enriched, fortified anthropocentric notion of human interest to replace the dominant short-term, sectional and self-regarding conception.:[17]


Deep ecology as not "deep" enough

Social ecologists such as Murray Bookchin[18] claim that deep ecology fails to link environmental crises with authoritarianism and hierarchy. Social ecologists believe that environmental problems are firmly rooted in the manner of human social interaction, and protest that an ecologically sustainable society could still be socially exploitative. Deep ecologists reject the argument that ecological behavior is rooted in the social paradigm (according to their view, that is an anthropocentric fallacy), and they maintain that the converse of the social ecologists' objection is also true in that it is equally possible for a socially egalitarian society to continue to exploit the Earth. Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... Murray Bookchin[1] (born January 14, 1921) is an American libertarian socialist speaker and writer, and founder of the Social Ecology school of anarchist and ecological thought. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is subordinate to a single other element. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is the moral doctrine that people should be treated as equals, in some respect. ...


Socially biased

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Some criticize deep ecologists as bourgeois in that they advocate a way of living that is easier for people who are more affluent.[citation needed] That is to say, it is often difficult for certain groups of people, namely Native American tribes such as the Makah to have healthy diets in exclusion of animals. Additionally, in the case of the Makah, whaling is an integral part of the culture, and as such, critics may ascribe any move to stop it as ethnocentric or imperialistic.[citation needed] Those who criticize deep ecology for its misanthropy would likely argue that this proves how the movement is destructive to the human race.[citation needed] Some deep ecologists would likely retort that whaling in the case of the Makah is acceptable, since it does not endanger the environment on the whole as industrialism does, and in many ways recognizes whales as equal, but still part of the food chain. At this point, their practices are little different from animals who diet on other animals to stay alive.[citation needed]/ Other Deep Ecologists would respond that any utility whaling may once have had is no longer applicable, as it is certainly not currently necessary to their survival. They would further note that the prohibition of such actions is no more ethnocentric than the prohibition of any act significant to one culture which has negative applications to the world at large, such as racial, religious, or sexual oppression. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... A Makah woman. ...


Links with other movements

Parallels have been drawn between deep ecology and other movements, in particular the animal rights movement and Earth First!. A civet, or sea fox, photographed in the Zigong Peoples Zoo, Sichuan, 2001. ... The symbol of Earth First!: a Monkey wrench and stone hammer Earth First! is a radical environmentalist organization[1] that emerged in the USA, in the great southwestern desert during the spring of 1980. ...


Peter Singer's 1975 book Animal Liberation critiqued anthropocentrism and put the case for animals to be given moral consideration. This can be seen as a part of a process of expanding the prevailing system of ethics to wider groupings. However, Singer has disagreed with deep ecology's belief in the intrinsic value of nature separate from questions of suffering, taking a more utilitarian stance.[citation needed] The feminist and civil rights movements also brought about expansion of the ethical system for their particular domains. Likewise deep ecology brought the whole of nature under moral consideration.[19] The links with animal rights are perhaps the strongest, as "proponents of such ideas argue that 'All life has intrinsic value'".[20] For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals is a book by Australian philosopher Peter Singer. ... Feminism comprises a number of social, cultural and political movements, theories and moral philosophies that are concerned with the impact of cultural, political, and economic practices and inequalities on discrimination against women. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A civet, or sea fox, photographed in the Zigong Peoples Zoo, Sichuan, 2001. ...


Many in the radical environmental direct-action movement Earth First! claim to follow deep ecology, as indicated by one of their slogans No compromise in defence of mother earth. In particular, David Foreman, the co-founder of the movement, has also been a strong advocate for deep ecology, and engaged in a public debate with Murray Bookchin on the subject.[21][22] Judi Bari is another prominent Earth Firster who espouses deep ecology. Many Earth First! actions have a distinct deep ecological theme; often these actions will ostensibly be to save an area of old growth forest, the habitat of a snail or an owl, even individual trees. It should however be noted that, especially in the United Kingdom, there are also strong anti-capitalist and anarchist currents in the movement, and actions are often symbolic or have other political aims. At one point Arne Næss also engaged in environmental direct action, though not under the Earth First! banner, when he tied himself to a Norwegian fjord in a successful protest against the building of a dam.[23] The symbol of Earth First!: a Monkey wrench and stone hammer Earth First! is a radical environmentalist organization[1] that emerged in the USA, in the great southwestern desert during the spring of 1980. ... Dave Foreman (born 1947) is a US environmentalist and co-founder of the radical environmental movement Earth First! The son of a US Air Force career officer, as a young man Foreman was influenced by the writings of Ayn Rand and supported the Vietnam War. ... Murray Bookchin[1] (born January 14, 1921) is an American libertarian socialist speaker and writer, and founder of the Social Ecology school of anarchist and ecological thought. ... Judi Bari, March 3, 1995, by Xiang Xing Zhou, San Francisco Daily Journal. ... Old growth forest, sometimes called , ancient forest, virgin forest, primary forest or ancient woodland is an area of forest that has attained great age and exhibits unique biological features. ... This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Fjord in Sunnmøre, Norway Fjords are very long inlets from the sea with high steeply sloped walled sides. ...


Early Influences

Mary Hunter Austin (September 9, 1868–August 13, 1934) was an American writer of fiction and non-fiction. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 - April 21, 1948) was a United States ecologist, forester, and environmentalist. ... John Muir appears on the California quarter John Muir (April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914) was one of the first modern preservationists. ... Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau[1]) was an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, tax resister, development critic, and philosopher who is best known for Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance...

Notable advocates of deep ecology

Judi Bari, March 3, 1995, by Xiang Xing Zhou, San Francisco Daily Journal. ... Reverend Fr. ... Wendell Berry (born August 5, 1934, Henry County, Kentucky) is an American man of letters, academic, cultural and economic critic, and farmer. ... Professor Leonardo Boff Leonardo Boff was born 14 December 1938 in Concórdia, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. ... Dr. Fritjof Capra – photo by Kate Mount Fritjof Capra (born February 1, 1939) is an Austrian-born American physicist. ... The Rev. ... Dave Foreman (born 1947) is a US environmentalist and co-founder of the radical environmental movement Earth First! The son of a US Air Force career officer, as a young man Foreman was influenced by the writings of Ayn Rand and supported the Vietnam War. ... Warwick Fox is an Australian philosopher and ethicist. ... Edward (Teddy) Goldsmith (b. ... Félix Guattari (1930 - 1992) was a French pioneer of institutional psychotherapy, as well as the founder of both Schizoanalysis and the science of Ecosophy. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (pronounced ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Dolores LaChapelle is a mountaineer, skier, Tai Chi teacher, Independent scholar, and leader in the Deep ecology movement. ... Pentti Linkola Kaarlo Pentti Linkola (born December 7, 1932 in Helsinki) is a radical Finnish environmentalist who has often been accused of ecofascism. ... Joanna Macy, Ph. ... Jerry Mander is an American activist best known for his book Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television (1977), and for his contribution to a book on an unrelated topic, The Great International Paper Airplane Book (1971). ... Freya Mathews is an Australian philosopher and author. ... For the Canadian writer, actor, producer & director, see Terence McKenna (film producer). ... Arne Dekke Eide Næss (born January 27, 1912) is widely regarded as the foremost Norwegian philosopher of the 20th century[1], and is the founder of deep ecology. ... Daniel Quinn (born 1935 in Omaha, Nebraska) is a United States writer. ... Oberon Zell-Ravenheart (b. ... Theodore Roszak (born 1933) is an American professor, social thinker, writer, and critic. ... John Seed is an Australian environmentalist and director of the Rainforest Information Centre which successfully campainged to save the sub-tropical rainforests of New South Wales. ... Paul Howe Shepard, Jr. ... Young Gary Snyder, on one of his early book covers Gary Snyder (born May 8, 1930) is an American poet (originally, often associated with the Beat Generation), essayist, lecturer, and environmental activist. ... Richard Sylvan, born as Richard Routley (1935 - 16 June 1996) was a philosopher and writer. ... Douglas Tompkins (born 1943 in New York) is an American radical ecologist and multimillionairse businessman. ... John Allen Livingston (November 10, 1923 in Hamilton- January 17, 2006) was a Canadian naturalist, broadcaster, author, and teacher. ... John Zerzan (born 1943) is an American anarchist and primitivist philosopher and author. ...

See also

Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. ... Much as space and time came to be linked a century ago, so today’s scientists are exploring a variety of ways in which Earth and its humans are linked. ... Eco-Communalism is an environmental philosophy based on ideals of simple living, local economies, and self-sufficiency (often associated with the ideologies of socialism, communalism, and sustainability). ... Ecofeminism is a social and political movement which unites environmentalism and feminism, with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The global ecology movement is one of several new social movements that emerged at the end of the sixties; as a values-driven social movement, it should be distinguished from the pre-existing science of ecology. ... Ecopsychology connects psychology and ecology in a new scientific paradigm. ... Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers the ethical relationship between human beings and the natural environment. ... Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between humans and their surroundings. ... Ecotheology is a form of Constructive Theology that focuses on the interrelationships of religion and nature, particularly in the light of environmental concerns. ... A Gaian is a radical Green who views the ecology of the Earths biosphere not only as the basis of human moral examples, but of all cognition and even sentience. ... Greens are people who support some or all of goals of a Green Party without necessarily working with or voting for that or any party. ... Growth Fetish is a book (ISBN 1741140781) about economics and politics by the Australian left-wing political theorist Clive Hamilton. ... Human ecology is an academic discipline that deals with the relationship between humans and their natural, social and created environments. ... Murray Bookchin[1] (born January 14, 1921) is an American libertarian socialist speaker and writer, and founder of the Social Ecology school of anarchist and ecological thought. ... Negative Population Growth is a membership organization in the United States, founded in 1972. ... Population Connection is an organization in the United States, formerly known as Zero Population Growth. ... Permaculture Mandala summarising the ethics and principles of permaculture design. ... Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... Systems theory is a transdisciplinary/multiperspectual scientific domain that seeks to derive and formulate those principles that are isomorphic to all fields of scientific inquiry. ... The Great Story, the Story of the Universe, or the Epic of Evolution are titles for the core belief of a social movement (or new religious movement) that tells the history of the universe in a way that is simultaneously scientific and sacred. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that may be overly long, confusing, or ambiguous. ... VHEMT logo Voluntary Human Extinction Movement, or VHEMT (pronounced vehement[1]), is a movement that calls for the voluntary extinction of the human race. ... Wilderness is generally defined as a natural environment on Earth that has not been modified by human activity. ... The Wise use movement in the United States is a loose-knit coalition of groups promoting private property rights and use of the natural environment as a natural part of human survival. ... Development criticism refers to far-reaching criticisms of modernization and its central aspects : modern technology, industrialization, capitalism and economic globalization . ...

Notes

  1. ^ Næss, Arne (1973) 'The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movement.' Inquiry 16: 95-100
  2. ^ Harding, Stephan (2002), "What is Deep Ecology"
  3. ^ Botkin, Daniel B. (1990). Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the Twenty-First Century. Oxford Univ. Press, NY, NY. ISBN 0-19-507469-6.
  4. ^ :The Shallow and the Deep, Long Range Ecology movements A summary by Arne Naess
  5. ^ Devall, Bill; Sessions, George (1985). Deep Ecology. Gibbs M. Smith. ISBN 0-87905-247-3.  pp. 85-88
  6. ^ Næss, Arne. (1989). Ecology, Community and Lifestyle: Outline of an Ecosophy. p. 187. ISBN 0-521-34873-0
  7. ^ White, Jr, Lynn Townsend (March 1967). "The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis". Science 155 (3767): 1203-1207. DOI:10.1126/science.155.3767.1203.  (HTML copy, PDF copy).
  8. ^ Devall and Sessions, op. cit., p. 70.
  9. ^ Zimmerman, Michael J. "Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Value: 3. Is There Such a Thing As Intrinsic Value At All?" in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2004 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed).
  10. ^ Feinberg, Joel. The Rights of Animals and Future Generations. Retrieved on 2006-04-25.
  11. ^ Joff (2000). The Possibility of an Anti-Humanist Anarchism. Retrieved on 2006-04-25.
  12. ^ Pister, E. Phil (1995). "The Rights of Species and Ecosystems". Fisheries 20 (4). Retrieved on 2006-04-25. 
  13. ^ Great River Earth Institute. Deep Ecology: Environmentalism as if all beings mattered. Retrieved on 2006-04-25.
  14. ^ Panaman, Ben. Animal Ethics Encyclopedia: Deep Ecology. Retrieved on 2006-04-25.
  15. ^ Kheel, Marti. (1990): Ecofeminism and Deep Ecology; reflections on identity and difference from: Diamond, Irene. Orenstein. Gloria (editors), Reweaving the World; The emergence of ecofeminism. Sierra Club Books. San Francisco. pp 128-137. ISBN 0-87156-623-0
  16. ^ Botkin, Daniel B. (2000). No Man's Garden: Thoreau and a New Vision for Civilization and Nature. Shearwater Books, pp. 42, 39. ISBN 1-55963-465-0. 
  17. ^ Anthropocentrism and Deep Ecology by William Grey
  18. ^ Bookchin, Murray (1987). Social Ecology versus Deep Ecology: A Challenge for the Ecology Movement. Green Perspectives/Anarchy Archives.
  19. ^ Alan AtKisson. "Introduction To Deep Ecology, an interview with Michael E. Zimmerman". In Context (22). Retrieved on 2006-05-04. 
  20. ^ Wall, Derek (1994). Green History. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07925-X. 
  21. ^ (1991) in David Levine: Defending the Earth: a dialogue between Murray Bookchin and Dave Foreman. 
  22. ^ Bookchin, Murray; Graham Purchace, Brian Morris, Rodney Aitchtey, Robert Hart, Chris Wilbert (1993). Deep Ecology and Anarchism. Freedom Press. ISBN 0-900384-67-0. 
  23. ^ J. Seed, J. Macy, P. Flemming, A. Næss, Thinking like a mountain: towards a council of all beings, Heritic Books (1988), ISBN 0-946097-26-7, ISBN 0-86571-133-X.

Lynn Townsend White, Jr. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Joel Feinberg (October 19, 1926 - March 29, 2004) is an American philosopher. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Devall, W. and G. Sessions. 1985. Deep Ecology: Living As if Nature Mattered Salt Lake City: Gibbs M. Smith, Inc.
  • Drengson, Alan. 1995. The Deep Ecology Movement
  • Katz, E., A. Light, et al. 2000. Beneath the Surface: Critical Essays in the Philosophy of Deep Ecology Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
  • Næss, A. 1989. Ecology, Community and Lifestyle: Outline of an Ecosophy Translated by D. Rothenberg. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Passmore, J. 1974. Man’s Responsibility for Nature London: Duckworth.
  • Sessions, G. (ed) 1995. Deep Ecology for the Twenty-first Century Boston: Shambhala.

Further reading

  • Jozef Keulartz, Struggle for nature : a critique of radical ecology, London [etc.] : Routledge, 1998
  • Michael Tobias ed, Deep Ecology, Avant Books (1984, 1988) ISBN 0-932238-13-0.
  • Harold Glasser (ed), The Selected Works of Arne Næss, Volumes 1-10. Springer, (2005), ISBN 1-4020-3727-9. (review)
  • Jack Turner, The Abstract Wild, Tucson, Univ of Arizona Press (1996)

External links

  • Nature Worship in Hinduism
  • Church of Deep Ecology
  • Deep Ecology - Nature Does Matter!
  • Deep Ecology Movement, Alan Drengson, Foundation for Deep Ecology.
  • Environmental Ethics Journal
  • Foundation for Deep Ecology
  • Green Parties World Wide
  • The Great Story - a leading Deep Ecology/Deep Time educational website
  • Gaia Foundation: an Australian organisation based upon the principles of Deep Ecology. See especially its links page.
  • The Green Web a left biocentric environmental research group, with a number of writings on deep ecology
  • The Trumpeter, Canadian journal of ecosophy, quite a number of articles from Næss among others
  • Welcome to All Beings: Joanna Macy on the work of Experiential Deep Ecology
  • Social Ecology vs Deep Ecology - A Challenge for the Ecology Movement by Murray Bookchin

  Results from FactBites:
 
Deep ecology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1997 words)
Deep ecology is a recent philosophy or ecosophy based on a shift away from the anthropocentric bias of established environmental and green movements.
In response, deep ecologists claim that they advocate a new relationship between humanity and the ecosphere, a relationship that seeks to end authoritarianism through decentralizaton, and espouse a less dominating and aggressive posture towards nature; a position that appears to be the opposite of fascism.
Deep ecologists reject the argument that ecological behavior is rooted in the social paradigm (according to their view, that is an anthropocentric fallacy), and they maintain that the converse of the social ecologists' objection is also true in that it is equally possible for a socially egalitarian society to continue to exploit the Earth.
Deep Ecology (company) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (156 words)
Deep Ecology is a company started by Kenneth O'Keefe to pursue his passion to protect the ocean realm.
Aside from turtle rescues, Deep Ecology conducted one Spotted Eagle Ray rescue and 13 'ghost net' (abandoned or lost fishing nets) recoveries, including two at 200 ft deep.
Deep Ecology also conducted dozens of beach clean-ups and collected thousands of pounds of nets to construct a massive ghost net sculpture at the back of the store.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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