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Encyclopedia > Deep Blue
Kasparov vs. Deep Blue
Kasparov vs. Deep Blue

Deep Blue was a chess-playing computer developed by IBM. In 1997, the machine defeated world champion Garry Kasparov. Deep Blue is the alias of electronic and Drum and Bass musician Sean OKeeffe. ... The Blue Planet is a Discovery Channel/BBC Natural History Unit co-produced television series subtitled a natural history of the oceans, consisting of eight episodes, presented by David Attenborough, originally transmitted in September/ October 2001. ... Image File history File links Garry Kasparov playing Deep Blue in 1997. ... Image File history File links Garry Kasparov playing Deep Blue in 1997. ... Chess (Sanskrit: Chaturanga) is an abstract strategy board game and mental sport for two players. ... 1990s Pressure-sensory Chess Computer with LCD screen The idea of creating a chess-playing machine dates back to the eighteenth century. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ... Garry Kasparov Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Russian: ; IPA: ) (born April 13, 1963) is a chess grandmaster and former World Chess Champion. ...

Contents

History

Wikisource has the Game record.
Kasparov vs. Deep Blue

The computer system dubbed "Deep Blue" was the first machine to win a chess game against a reigning world champion (Garry Kasparov) under regular time controls. This first win occurred on February 10, 1996, and Deep Blue - Kasparov, 1996, Game 1 is a famous chess game. However, Kasparov won 3 games and drew 2 of the following games, beating Deep Blue by a score of 4–2. The match concluded on February 17, 1996. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Deep Blue - Kasparov, 1996, Game 1 is a famous chess game. ... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...


Deep Blue was then heavily upgraded (unofficially nicknamed "Deeper Blue") and played Kasparov again in May 1997, winning the six-game rematch 3.5–2.5, ending on May 11th, finally ending in game six. Deep Blue thus became the first computer system to defeat a reigning world champion in a match under standard chess tournament time controls. 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... The infamous Sixth game of the Deep Blue - Kasparov rematch, played in New York City on May 11, 1997 and starting at 3:00 p. ...


The project was started as "ChipTest" at Carnegie Mellon University by Feng-hsiung Hsu; the computer system produced was named Deep Thought after the fictional computer of the same name from The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Hsu joined IBM (Research division) in 1989 and worked with Murray Campbell on parallel computing problems. Deep Blue was developed out of this. The name is a play on Deep Thought and Big Blue, IBM's nickname. ChipTest was a chess playing computer built by Feng-hsiung Hsu at Carnegie Mellon University. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Author of the book Behind Deep Blue: Building the Computer that Defeated the World Chess Champion, Feng-hsiung Hsu started his graduate work at Carnegie Mellon in the field of computer chess in the year 1985 which eventually culminated in the defeat of the World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov in... Deep Thought is a computer, first in a line of chess computers that included Deep Blue, the computer that defeated Garry Kasparov in a six-game chess match. ... The cover of the first novel in the Hitchhikers series, from a late 1990s printing. ... IBM Research, a subsidiary of IBM, has existed since 1945 and currently consists of eight locations throughout the world and hundreds of projects. ... Parallel computing is the simultaneous execution of the same task (split up and specially adapted) on multiple processors in order to obtain results faster. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ...


The system derives its playing strength mainly out of brute force computing power. It is a massively parallel, 30-node, RS/6000, SP-based computer system enhanced with 480 special purpose VLSI chess chips. Its chess playing program is written in C and ran under the AIX operating system. It was capable of evaluating 200,000,000 positions per second, twice as fast as the 1996 version. In June 1997, Deep Blue was the 259th most powerful supercomputer, capable of calculating 11.38 gigaflops, although this did not take into account Deep Blue's special-purpose hardware for chess. The IBM pSeries, formerly called RS/6000 (for RISC System/6000), is IBMs current RISC/UNIX-based workstation and server computer line. ... Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) of systems of transistor-based circuits into integrated circuits on a single chip first occurred in the 1980s as part of the semiconductor and communication technologies that were being developed. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of C Programming The C programming language (often, just C) is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in the early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie for use on the Unix operating system. ... AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive) is a proprietary operating system developed by IBM based on UNIX System V. Before the product was ever marketed, the acronym AIX originally stood for Advanced IBM UNIX. AIX has pioneered numerous network operating system enhancements, introducing new innovations later adopted by Unix-like operating systems... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For commercial failures, see list of commercial failures. ...


The Deep Blue chess computer which defeated Kasparov in 1997 could search to a depth of 12 ply. An increase in search depth of one ply corresponds on the average to an increase in playing strength of approximately 80 Elo points. Garry Kasparov Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Russian: ; IPA: ) (born April 13, 1963) is a chess grandmaster and former World Chess Champion. ... In chess, ply refers to a half-move: one turn of one of the players. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


Deep Blue's evaluation function was initially written in a generalized form, with many to-be-determined parameters (e.g. how important is a safe king position compared to a space advantage in the center, etc.). The optimal values for these parameters were then determined by the system itself, by analyzing thousands of master games. The evaluation function had been split into 8,000 parts, many of them designed for special positions. In the opening book there were over 4,000 positions and 700,000 grandmaster games. The endgame database contained many six piece endgames and five or fewer piece positions. Before the second match, the chess knowledge of the program was fine tuned by grandmaster Joel Benjamin. The opening library was provided by grandmasters Miguel Illescas, John Fedorovich and Nick De Firmian. Deep Blue's programmers tailored the computer program to beat Kasparov by studying in great detail prior games Kasparov had played. When Kasparov requested that he be allowed to study other games that Deep Blue had played so as to better understand his opponent, IBM refused. Joel Benjamin (born March 11, 1964) is a chess Grandmaster. ... Nick de Firmian (born July 26, 1957), is a chess grandmaster and three time U.S. chess champion, winning in 1987, 1995, and 1999. ...


After losing the match, Kasparov said that he sometimes saw deep intelligence and creativity in the machine's moves, which he could not understand. He also suggested that humans may have helped the machine during the match. His argument was based on the fact that other computer programs at that time could not find some of the strong moves that Deep Blue did. In particular, 37. Be4 in the second game. However, recent computer programs such as Rybka and the Computer Assistant Project find this move. In addition, Kasparov said the program played a human-like mistake on move 44. Kf1 in the same game. However, recent programs also make the same mistake. Kasparov demanded a rematch, but IBM declined and retired Deep Blue. Rybka is an experimental computer chess engine by International Master Vasik Rajlich. ...


In 2003 a documentary film was made that explored these claims. It was titled Game Over: Kasparov and the Machine and implied that Deep Blue's heavily promoted victory was a plot by IBM to boost its stock value. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


These allegations were correct at least in part. The rules allowed the developers to modify the program between games. Deep Blue was modified between games to understand Kasparov's playstyle better, allowing it to avoid a trap in the final game that the AI had fallen for twice before. // Hondas intelligent humanoid robot AI redirects here. ...


One of the two racks that made up Deep Blue is on display at the National Museum of American History in their exhibit about the Information Age; the other rack appears at the Computer History Museum in their "Mastering The Game: A History of Computer Chess" exhibit. The National Museum of American History is a museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution and located in Washington, D.C., on the National Mall. ... Information Age is a name given to a period after the industrial age and before the Knowledge Economy. ... The Computer History Museum in Mountain View. ...


Future

Feng-hsiung Hsu later claimed in his book Behind Deep Blue: Building the Computer that Defeated the World Chess Champion that he had the rights to use the Deep Blue design to build a bigger machine independently of IBM to take Kasparov's rematch offer, but Kasparov refused a rematch (see also Hsu's open letter about the rematch linked below). Kasparov's side responded that Hsu's offer was empty and more of a demand than an offer because Hsu had no sponsors, no money, no hardware, no technical team, just some patents and demands that Kasparov commit to putting his formal world title on the line before further negotiations could even begin (with no guarantees as to fair playing conditions or proper qualification matches). Author of the book Behind Deep Blue: Building the Computer that Defeated the World Chess Champion, Feng-hsiung Hsu started his graduate work at Carnegie Mellon in the field of computer chess in the year 1985 which eventually culminated in the defeat of the World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov in... Behind Deep Blue: Building the Computer that Defeated the World Chess Champion (ISBN 0691090653) is a book by Feng-hsiung Hsu. ...


Kasparov's loss to Deep Blue inspired the creation of a new game called Arimaa which is still played with a standard chess set, but which is also much more difficult for computers. Arimaa is a two-player board game invented by Omar Syed, a computer engineer trained in artificial intelligence. ...


Deep Blue in Popular Culture

Futurama is an American animated television series that follows Philip J. Fry after he is cryogenically frozen at midnight, December 31, 1999, and is revived a thousand years later in the year 2999. ... Anthology of Interest I is episode 16 in season 2 of Futurama. ... Servotron was an alternative rock band which existed between 1995 and 1999. ... Entertainment Program for Humans (Second Variety) is Servotrons second and final album. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen Colbert and Jon Stewart on the set of The Daily Show The Daily Show (currently The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, also known as TDS to fans and staffers) is a half-hour satirical fake news program produced by and run on the Comedy Central cable television network in... Bobby Fischer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Garry Kasparov Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Russian: ; IPA: ) (born April 13, 1963) is a chess grandmaster and former World Chess Champion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Peter Mulvey is a acoustic musician based out of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ...

See also

Arimaa is a two-player board game invented by Omar Syed, a computer engineer trained in artificial intelligence. ... Blue Gene/L Blue Gene is a computer architecture project designed to produce several next-generation supercomputers, designed to reach operating speeds in the petaflops range, and currently reaching speeds over 280 teraflops (sustained). ... 1990s Pressure-sensory Chess Computer with LCD screen The idea of creating a chess-playing machine dates back to the eighteenth century. ... Deep Thunder is a research project by IBM that aims to improve short-term local weather forecasting through the use of high-performance computing. ... X3D Fritz is the version of the chess playing program Fritz which in November 2003 played a four game match against world number one Grandmaster Garry Kasparov. ... Hydra is a chess machine, designed by a team with Dr. Christian Chrilly Donninger, Ulf Lorenz, GM Christopher Lutz and Muhammad Nasir Ali. ... Shredder is a very strong chess program developed in Germany by Stefan Meyer-Kahlen in 1993. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
IBM Deep Blue - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1078 words)
Deep Blue was then heavily upgraded (unofficially nicknamed "Deeper Blue") and played Kasparov again in May 1997, winning the six-game rematch 3.5–2.5, ending on May 11th, finally ending in game six.
Deep Blue was modified between games to understand Kasparov's playstyle better, allowing it to avoid a trap in the final game that the AI had fallen for twice before.
Deep Blue was seen on the Futurama episode "Anthology of Interest I".
Filmtracks: Deep Blue (George Fenton) (1141 words)
Deep Blue: (George Fenton) At the start of the 2000's, the BBC television series The Blue Planet took the world by storm, featuring IMAX-sized visuals of the oceans' wonders and selling in great numbers once available.
For the 2004 expansion of the The Blue Planet concept, a major documentary feature film from BBC Worldwide and Greenlight Media entitled Deep Blue was made as a normal cinema counterpart for the television series.
His choice for the scoring duties of Deep Blue was not to be doubted, and this time, the score has taken a turn of historical importance for the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra in Germany.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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