FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning is reasoning whose conclusions are intended to necessarily follow from its premises. It is more commonly understood as the type of reasoning that proceeds from general principles or premises to derive particulars[1], although this is a less precise understanding. Deductive reasoning "merely" reveals the implications of propositions, laws, or general principles, so that, like some philosophers claim, it does not add to truth. Reasoning is the mental (cognitive) process of looking for reasons to support beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. ... A conclusion is a final proposition, which is arrived at after the consideration of evidence, arguments or premises. ... Look up Premise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The material conditional, also known as the material implication or truth functional conditional, expresses a property of certain conditionals in logic. ... This article is about the word proposition as it is used in logic, philosophy, and linguistics. ...

Contents

Background

Deductive reasoning was developed by Aristotle, Thales, Pythagoras, and other Greek philosophers of the Classical Period (600 to 300 B.C.). Aristotle, for example, relates a story of how Thales used his skills to deduce that the next season's olive crop would be a very large one. He therefore bought all the olive presses and made a fortune when the bumper olive crop did indeed arrive.[2] For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For the Defense and Security Company, see Thales Group. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; born between 580 and 572 BC, died between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian Greek mathematician[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ...


Deductive reasoning is dependent on its premises. That is, a false premise can possibly lead to a false result, and inconclusive premises will also yield an inconclusive conclusion.[3]


Alternative to deductive reasoning is inductive reasoning. The basic difference between the two can be summarized in the deductive dynamic of logically progressing from general evidence to a particular truth or conclusion; whereas with induction the logical dynamic is precisely the reverse. Inductive reasoning starts with a particular observation that is believed to be a demonstrative model for a truth or principle that is assumed to apply generally. Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ...


Deductive reasoning applies general principles to reach specific conclusions, whereas inductive reasoning examines specific information, perhaps many pieces of specific information, to impute a general principle. By thinking about phenomena such as how apples fall and how the planets move, Isaac Newton induced his theory of gravity. In the 19th century, Adams and LeVerrier applied Newton's theory (general principle) to deduce the existence, mass, position, and orbit of Neptune (specific conclusions) from perturbations in the observed orbit of Uranus (specific data). Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Isaac Newtons theory of universal gravitation (part of classical mechanics) states the following: Every single point mass attracts every other point mass by a force pointing along the line combining the two. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Neptune The discovery of the planet Neptune on September 23, 1846 was a dramatic incident in the history of astronomy that also led to a tense international dispute over priority. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ...


Deductive logic

Deductive reasoning is supported by deductive logic (which is not quite the same thing).


For example:

All apples are fruit.
All fruits grow on trees.
Therefore all apples grow on trees.

Or

All apples are fruit.
Some apples are red.
Therefore some fruits are red.

Intuitively, one might deny the major premise and hence the conclusion; yet anyone accepting the premises accepts the conclusion.


Natural deduction

Main article: Natural deduction

Deductive reasoning should be distinguished from the related concept of natural deduction, an approach to proof theory that attempts to provide a formal model of logical reasoning as it "naturally" occurs. In mathematical logic, natural deduction is an approach to proof theory that attempts to provide a formal model of logical reasoning as it naturally occurs. ... In mathematical logic, natural deduction is an approach to proof theory that attempts to provide a formal model of logical reasoning as it naturally occurs. ...


Cultural references

Sherlock Holmes, the fictional detective created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, is well known for referring to deductive reasoning in numerous of Doyle's stories. This article is about Arthur Conan Doyles fictional detective. ... A fictional character is any person, persona, identity, or entity whose existence originates from a work of fiction. ... Gumshoe redirects here. ... Arthur Conan Doyle Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (May 22, 1859 - July 7, 1930) is the British author most famously known for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction. ...


Further reading

  • Vincent F. Hendricks, Thought 2 Talk: A Crash Course in Reflection and Expression, New York: Automatic Press / VIP, 2005, ISBN 87-991013-7-8
  • Zarefsky, David, Argumentation: The Study of Effective Reasoning Parts I and II, The Teaching Company 2002

Vincent F. Hendricks is a philosopher and logician. ...

References

See also

Logic Portal
Look up Deductive reasoning in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Abduction, or inference to the best explanation, is a method of reasoning in which one chooses the hypothesis that would, if true, best explain the relevant evidence. ... Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ... The correspondence theory of truth states that something (for example, a proposition or statement or sentence) is rendered true by the existence of a fact with corresponding elements and a similar structure. ... Defeasible reasoning (sometimes called defeasible logic) is the study of forms of reasoning that, while convincing, are not as formal and rigorous as deductive reasoning. ... This article or section should include material from Hypothetico deductive model The hypothetico-deductive method is a theory about scientific method. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ... Logical consequence is the relation that holds between a set of sentences and a sentence when the latter follows from the former. ... In logic and mathematics, a propositional calculus (or a sentential calculus) is a formal system in which formulas representing propositions can be formed by combining atomic propositions using logical connectives, and a system of formal proof rules allows to establish that certain formulas are theorems of the formal system. ... Similar to induction, but predicated on a known relationary rule(s) and an observation(s). ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... (This article discusses the soundess notion of informal logic. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. ... This page lists some links to ancient philosophy, although for Western thinkers prior to Socrates, see Pre-Socratic philosophy. ... Buddhist Teachings deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology. ... Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with Neo-Platonism. ... The holiest Jain symbol is the right facing swastika, or svastika, shown above. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Philosophy seated between the seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Europe and the Middle East in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Filled with OR and completely unsourced. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... 17th-century philosophy in the West is generally regarded as seeing the start of modern philosophy, and the shaking off of the mediæval approach, especially scholasticism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Philosophy is a broad field of knowledge in which the definition of knowledge itself is one of the subjects investigated. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to philosophy, beginning with the letters A through C. This is so that those interested in the subject can monitor changes to the pages by clicking on Related changes in the sidebar. ... The alphabetical list of p is so large it had to be broken up into several pages. ... Philosophies: particular schools of thought, styles of philosophy, or descriptions of philosophical ideas attributed to a particular group or culture - listed in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of topics relating to philosophy that end in -ism. ... A philosophical movement is either the appearance or increased popularity of a specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject. ... This is a list of philosophical lists. ... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... Ethics is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Philosophy of action is chiefly concerned with human action, intending to distinguish between activity and passivity, voluntary, intentional, culpable and involuntary actions, and related question. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... The philosophy of information (PI) is a new area of research, which studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, and philosophy. ... Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Philosophical anthropology is the philosophical discipline that seeks to unify the several empirical investigations and phenomenological explorations of human nature in an effort to understand human beings as both creatures of their environment and creators of their own values. ... Philosophy of Humor is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the philosophical study of humor. ... Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ... Philosophy and literature is the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes. ... // Philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Some of the questions relating to the philosophy of music are: What, exactly is music (what are the necessary and sufficient conditions for it)? What is the relationship between music and emotion? Peter Kivy, Professor of Philosophy at Rutgers University, in particular, sets out to argue how music, which is... Metaphilosophy (from Greek meta + philosophy) is the study of the subject and matter, methods and aims of philosophy. ... Philosophy of physics is the study of the fundamental, philosophical questions underlying modern physics, the study of matter and energy and how they interact. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Philosophy of psychology typically refers to a set of issues at the theoretical foundations of modern psychology. ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... Philosophy of social science is the scholarly elucidation and debate of accounts of the nature of the social sciences, their relations to each other, and their relations to the natural sciences (see natural science). ... The Philosophy of technology is a philosophical field dedicated to studying the nature of technology and its social effects. ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Averroism is the term applied to either of two philosophical trends among scholastics in the late 13th century, the first of which was based on the Arab philosopher Averroës or Ibn Rushd interpretations of Aristotle and the resolution of various conflicts between the writings of Aristotle and the Muslim... Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ... Critical theory, in sociology and philosophy, is shorthand for critical theory of society or critical social theory, a label used by the Frankfurt School, i. ... This page is about the school of philosophy. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... Deontological ethics or deontology (Greek: δέον (deon) meaning obligation or duty) is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, as opposed to the rightness or wrongness of the consequences of those actions. ... According to many followers of the theories of Karl Marx (or Marxists), dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... This article does not cite any sources. ... Hegelianism is a philosophy developed by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel which can be summed up by a favorite motto by Hegel, the rational alone is real, which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities — particularly rationality. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... One of major longstanding schools of Islamic philosophy, حكمت اشراق or kihmat-al-Ishraq or Illuminationist Philosophy has been created and developed by Suhrawardi, famous Persian Philosopher. ... Kant redirects here. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Logical positivism grew from the discussions of Moritz Schlicks Vienna Circle and Hans Reichenbachs Berlin Circle in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... The New Philosophers (French nouveaux philosophes) were a group of French philosophers (for example, André Glucksmann and Bernard Henri-Lévy) who appeared in the early 1970s, as critics of the previously-fashionable philosophers (roughly speaking, the post-structuralists). ... This article is about the philosophical position. ... This article is about the philosophy of Ayn Rand. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. ... Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive movement characterized by its criticism of Western philosophy. ... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ... The Pre-Socratic philosophers were active before Socrates or contemporaneously, but expounding knowledge developed earlier. ... Philosophical quietists want to release us from the deep perplexity that philosophical contemplation often causes. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Contemporary philosophical realism, also referred to as metaphysical realism, is the belief in a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. ... For the physics theory with a similar name, see Theory of Relativity. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Philosophical scepticism (UK spelling, scepticism) is both a philosophical school of thought and a method that crosses disciplines and cultures. ... Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy, founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early third century BC. It proved to be a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... حكمت متعاليه Transcendent theosophy or al-hikmat al-muta’liyah, the doctrine and philosophy that has been developed and perfected by Persian Philosopher Mulla Sadra, is one of tow main disciplines of Islamic Philosophy which is very live & active even today. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... The history of logic documents the development of logic as it occurs in various rival cultures and traditions in history. ... In Islamic philosophy, logic played an important role. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... Philosophical logic is the application of formal logical techniques to problems that concern philosophers. ... Philosophy of logic is the branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature and justification of systems of logic. ... Mathematical logic is a major area of mathematics, which grew out of symbolic logic. ... The metalogic of a system of logic is the formal proof supporting its soundness. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Reasoning is the mental (cognitive) process of looking for reasons to support beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. ... Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ... Abduction, or inference to the best explanation, is a method of reasoning in which one chooses the hypothesis that would, if true, best explain the relevant evidence. ... Informal logic is the study of arguments as presented in ordinary language, as contrasted with the presentations of arguments in an artificial (technical) or formal language (see formal logic). ... This article is about the word proposition as it is used in logic, philosophy, and linguistics. ... Inference is the act or process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what one already knows. ... Look up argument in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In logic, the form of an argument is valid precisely if it cannot lead from true premises to a false conclusion. ... An argument is cogent if and only if the truth of the arguments premises would render the truth of the conclusion probable (i. ... Traditional logic, also known as term logic, is a loose term for the logical tradition that originated with Aristotle and survived broadly unchanged until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century. ... are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ... Look up fallacy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A syllogism (Greek: — conclusion, inference), usually the categorical syllogism, is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two others (the premises) of a certain form. ... Argumentation theory, or argumentation, embraces the arts and sciences of civil debate, dialogue, conversation, and persuasion. ... Philosophy of logic is the branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature and justification of systems of logic. ... Logicism is one of the schools of thought in the philosophy of mathematics, putting forth the theory that mathematics is an extension of logic and therefore some or all mathematics is reducible to logic. ... Logical atomism is a philosophical belief that originated in the early 20th century with the development of analytic philosophy. ... Logical positivism grew from the discussions of Moritz Schlicks Vienna Circle and Hans Reichenbachs Berlin Circle in the 1920s and 1930s. ... In philosophy, nominalism is the theory that abstract terms, general terms, or universals do not represent objective real existents, but are merely names, words, or vocal utterances (flatus vocis). ... Fictionalism is a doctrine in philosophy that suggests that statements of a certain sort should not be taken to be literally true, but merely a useful fiction. ... Philosophy of mathematics is that branch of philosophy which attempts to answer questions such as: why is mathematics useful in describing nature?, in which sense, if any, do mathematical entities such as numbers exist? and why and how are mathematical statements true?. The various approaches to answering these questions will... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... In the philosophy of mathematics, intuitionism, or neointuitionism (opposed to preintuitionism), is an approach to mathematics as the constructive mental activity of humans. ... In the philosophy of mathematics, constructivism asserts that it is necessary to find (or construct) a mathematical object to prove that it exists. ... In the philosophy of mathematics, finitism is an extreme form of constructivism, according to which a mathematical object does not exist unless it can be constructed from natural numbers in a finite number of steps. ... Mathematical logic is a major area of mathematics, which grew out of symbolic logic. ... In mathematical logic, a formula is a formal syntactic object that expresses a proposition. ... In logic, WFF is an abbreviation for well-formed formula. ... In mathematics, a set can be thought of as any collection of distinct objects considered as a whole. ... In mathematics, an element (also called a member) is an object contained in a set (or more generally a class). ... In set theory and its applications throughout mathematics, a class is a collection of sets (or sometimes other mathematical objects) that can be unambiguously defined by a property that all its members share. ... This article is about a logical statement. ... A mathematical picture paints a thousand words: the Pythagorean theorem. ... In mathematics, a proof is a demonstration that, assuming certain axioms, some statement is necessarily true. ... Look up Consistency in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... (This article discusses the soundess notion of informal logic. ... Look up completeness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A logical system or theory is decidable if the set of all well-formed formulas valid in the system is decidable. ... 3SAT redirects here. ... In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a formal language is a language that is defined by precise mathematical or machine processable formulas. ... In logic and mathematics, a formal system consists of two components, a formal language plus a set of inference rules or transformation rules. ... Set theory is the mathematical theory of sets, which represent collections of abstract objects. ... Proof theory is a branch of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques. ... In mathematics, model theory is the study of the representation of mathematical concepts in terms of set theory, or the study of the structures that underlie mathematical systems. ... Recursion theory, or computability theory, is a branch of mathematical logic dealing with generalizations of the notion of computable function, and with related notions such as Turing degrees and effective descriptive set theory. ... At the broadest level, type theory is the branch of mathematics and logic that first creates a hierarchy of types, then assigns each mathematical (and possibly other) entity to a type. ... Syntax in logic is a systematic statement of the rules governing the properly formed formulas (WFFs) of a logical system. ... The truth conditions of various sentences we may encounter in arguments will depend upon their meaning, and so conscientious logicians cannot completely avoid the need to provide some treatment of the meaning of these sentences. ... Propositional logic or sentential logic is the logic of propositions, sentences, or clauses. ... A Boolean function describes how to determine a Boolean value output based on some logical calculation from Boolean inputs. ... In logic, the monadic predicate calculus is the fragment of predicate calculus in which all predicate letters are monadic (that is, they take only one argument), and there are no function letters. ... In logic and mathematics, a propositional calculus (or a sentential calculus) is a formal system in which formulas representing propositions can be formed by combining atomic propositions using logical connectives, and a system of formal proof rules allows to establish that certain formulas are theorems of the formal system. ... In logic, a logical connective is a syntactic operation on sentences, or the symbol for such an operation, that corresponds to a logical operation on the logical values of those sentences. ... Truth tables are a type of mathematical table used in logic to determine whether an expression is true or whether an argument is valid. ... ... First-order logic (FOL) is a formal deductive system used by mathematicians, philosophers, linguists, and computer scientists. ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... In mathematical logic, second-order logic is an extension of first-order logic, which itself is an extension of propositional logic. ... In formal logic, a modal logic is any logic for handling modalities: concepts like possibility, existence, and necessity. ... Deontic logic is the field of logic that is concerned with obligation, permission, and related concepts. ... Michaels the greatest boyfriend in the whole wide world, and Id love to call him in a phonebooth sometime. ... In logic, the term temporal logic is used to describe any system of rules and symbolism for representing, and reasoning about, propositions qualified in terms of time. ... doxastic logic is a modal logic that is concerned with reasoning about beliefs. ... Classical logic identifies a class of formal logics that have been most intensively studied and most widely used. ... Introduced by Giorgi Japaridze in 2003, Computability logic is a research programme and mathematical framework for redeveloping logic as a systematic formal theory of computability, as opposed to classical logic which is a formal theory of truth. ... Fuzzy logic is derived from fuzzy set theory dealing with reasoning that is approximate rather than precisely deduced from classical predicate logic. ... In mathematical logic, linear logic is a type of substructural logic that denies the structural rules of weakening and contraction. ... Relevance logic, also called relevant logic, is any of a family of non-classical substructural logics that impose certain restrictions on implication. ... A non-monotonic logic is a formal logic whose consequence relation is not monotonic. ... A paraconsistent logic is a logical system that attempts to deal nontrivially with contradictions. ... Dialetheism is a paraconsistent logic typified by its tolerance of at least some contradictions. ... Intuitionistic logic, or constructivist logic, is the logic used in mathematical intuitionism and other forms of mathematical constructivism. ... Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Antinomy (Greek anti-, against, plus nomos, law) is a term used in logic and epistemology, which, loosely, means a paradox or unresolvable contradiction. ... Is logic empirical? is the title of two articles that discuss the idea that the algebraic properties of logic may, or should, be empirically determined; in particular, they deal with the question of whether empirical facts about quantum phenomena may provide grounds for revising classical logic as a consistent logical... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) was a well-known Persian theologian and philosopher from Ray. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Not to be confused with George Boolos. ... Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (March 3, 1845[1] – January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf, Germany – September 14, 1970, Santa Monica, California) was an influential philosopher who was active in central Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Dharmakirti (circa 7th century), was an Indian scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic. ... Dignāga (5th century AD), was an Indian scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic. ... Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848, Wismar – 26 July 1925, IPA: ) was a German mathematician who became a logician and philosopher. ... Gerhard Karl Erich Gentzen (November 24, 1909 – August 4, 1945) was a German mathematician and logician. ... Kanada (also transliterated as Kanad and in other ways; Sanskrit कणाद) was a Hindu sage who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika. ... Kurt Gödel (IPA: ) (April 28, 1906 Brünn, Austria-Hungary (now Brno, Czech Republic) – January 14, 1978 Princeton, New Jersey) was an Austrian American mathematician and philosopher. ... The Nyāya SÅ«tras is an ancient Indian text on of philosophy composed by (also Gotama; c. ... | name = David Hilbert | image = Hilbert1912. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... Abu Muhammad Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa`id ibn Hazm (أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم) (November 7, 994 – August 15, 1069) was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and theologian of Persian descent [1] born in Córdoba, present day Spain. ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: )(January 22, 1263 - 1328), was a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... Saul Aaron Kripke (born in November 13, 1940 in Bay Shore, New York) is an American philosopher and logician now emeritus from Princeton and teaches as distinguished professor of philosophy at CUNY Graduate Center. ... Mozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Mo Tzu, Lat. ... For other uses, see Nagarjuna (disambiguation). ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ... Giuseppe Peano Giuseppe Peano (August 27, 1858 – April 20, 1932) was an Italian mathematician and philosopher best known for his contributions to set theory. ... Charles Sanders Peirce (IPA: /pɝs/), (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American polymath, physicist, and philosopher, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Hilary Whitehall Putnam (born July 31, 1926) is an American philosopher who has been a central figure in Western philosophy since the 1960s, especially in philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, and philosophy of science. ... For people named Quine, see Quine (surname). ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Albert Thoralf Skolem (May 23, 1887 - March 23, 1963) was a Norwegian mathematician. ... Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi (from the Arabicشهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) (born 1153 in North-West-Iran; died 1191 in Aleppo) was a persian philosopher and Sufi, founder of School of Illumination, one of the most important islamic doctrine in Philosophy. ... // Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1902, Warsaw, Russian-ruled Poland – October 26, 1983, Berkeley, California) was a logician and mathematician who spent four decades as a professor of mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ... Alfred North Whitehead, OM (February 15, 1861, Ramsgate, Kent, England – December 30, 1947, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.) was an English-born mathematician who became a philosopher. ... Lotfali Askar Zadeh (born February 4, 1921) is a mathematician and computer scientist, and a professor of computer science at the University of California, Berkeley. ... This is a list of topics in logic. ... For a more comprehensive list, see the List of logic topics. ... This is a list of mathematical logic topics, by Wikipedia page. ... Algebra of sets George Boole Boolean algebra Boolean function Boolean logic Boolean homomorphism Boolean Implicant Boolean prime ideal theorem Boolean-valued model Boolean satisfiability problem Booles syllogistic canonical form (Boolean algebra) compactness theorem Complete Boolean algebra connective -- see logical operator de Morgans laws Augustus De Morgan duality (order... Set theory Axiomatic set theory Naive set theory Zermelo set theory Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory Kripke-Platek set theory with urelements Simple theorems in the algebra of sets Axiom of choice Zorns lemma Empty set Cardinality Cardinal number Aleph number Aleph null Aleph one Beth number Ordinal number Well... A logician is a person, such as a philosopher or mathematician, whose topic of scholarly study is logic. ... This is a list of rules of inference. ... This is a list of paradoxes, grouped thematically. ... This is a list of fallacies. ... In logic, a set of symbols is frequently used to express logical constructs. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Anxiety Zone - Deductive reasoning (342 words)
Deductive reasoning is the process of reaching a conclusion that is guaranteed to follow, if the evidence provided is true and the reasoning used to reach the conclusion is correct.
Deductive reasoning was first described by the ancient Greek philosophers such as Aristotle.
Deductive reasoning is fundamentally in the form of an assertion of idea to materialisation, while inductive reasoning is from empirical evidence to formulate the generalise knowledge of the observation thereof.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m