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Encyclopedia > Decoration of the Papal Tiara
16th century Papal Tiara,
the oldest surviving tiara in the papal collection.

From the 15th century when the papal tiara received its third and final tier, the decoration of papal tiaras followed a standard format. The Papal Tiara itself was laid out in felt, overwhich a silver mesh was laid. Onto that mesh, three bands (the three tiaras) were screwed. Each tiara in turn was decorated with rubies, sapphires and other precious jewels. The tiara was topped off with an orb and a crucifix and had lappets attached at the back. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Triregnum from the XVIII Century The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, Triregnum or Triregno1, is the three-tiered papal crown formerly worn by popes from Pope Clement V up to and including Pope Paul VI, who was crowned in 1963. ...

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Multiple tiaras

Unlike most monarchies, the papacy did not have one special crown that was used by all popes. In part that was due to the series of destructions of old tiaras that has occurred when at various times Rome had been invaded and papal property, including tiaras, stolen. In part, during the 19th century it was due both to the growing wealth of some Catholic sees, which enabled them to donate expensive new crowns to the papacy when their cardinal was elected pope, and also the political travails of mid and late 19th century popes. A monarch is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Pope John Paul II has reigned since 22 Oct 1978. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Heavily decorated 1834 tiara

Catholic states like Spain and Belgium donated expensive crowns to Pope Pius IX as symbolic acts of support; following his restoration to Rome after the collapse of the Roman Republic in 1850, and following his loss of Papal States in 1870 respectively, with new tiaras arriving from the Queen of Spain and the women in the Royal Court of the King of the Belgians in 1855 and 1871. Monarchs who had also clashed with the Church, such as Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany, also used the donation of tiaras as a way to make peace with popes. This work is presumed to be copyrighted, but its source has not been determined. ... This work is presumed to be copyrighted, but its source has not been determined. ... The Blessed Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), was pope for a record pontificate of over 31 years, from June 16, 1846 until his death. ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Papal States (Gli Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii, States of the Church) is one of the historical states of Italy before its unity under the crown of Savoy and comprised those territories over which the Pope was the ruler in a civil as well as a spiritual sense... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The royal palace in Brussels Successive Belgian kings are Leopold I (1831-1865) Leopold II (1865-1909) Albert I (1909-1934) Leopold III (1934-1951) abdicated Prince Charles of Belgium (1944-1950) Prince Regent Baudouin I (1951-1993) Albert II (1993- ) None of these were King of Belgium: their title... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Wilhelm I of Germany Wilhelm I, (March 22, 1797 - March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871-1888 and king of Prussia, ruled 1861-1888. ...


Others also donated tiaras to commemorate the jubilees of various popes. The fact that the late 19th century saw the second and third longest papal reigns (to that point) of Pius IX (31 years) and Leo XIII (25 years) provided additional jubilees; their length of time since ordination, length since entering the episcopate, length of papal reign, etc. This period saw the largest accumulation of papal tiaras in modern times, with both popes accumulating 10 tiaras between them, with Leo receiving an unprecedented solid gold tiara in 1903 to commemorate his Silver Jubilee on the papal throne. Leo received two alone to celebrate his Golden Jubilee as a priest, one of which was from Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany. Pope Leo XIII, born Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Pecci (March 2, 1810–July 20, 1903), was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from February 20, 1878 until his death. ... This article is about the sacrament. ... Episcopalian government in the church is rule by a hierarchy of bishops (Greek: episcopoi). ... A Reign is a period of time a person serves as a monarch or pope. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11 (IB), 6, d Density, Hardness 19. ... 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ... A Silver Jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 25th anniversary. ... Alternative meaning: The Golden Jubilee diamond A Golden Jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 50th anniversary. ... Kaiser is a German title meaning emperor, derived from the Roman title of Caesar, as is the Slavic title of Czar. ... Wilhelm I of Germany Wilhelm I, (March 22, 1797 - March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871-1888 and king of Prussia, ruled 1861-1888. ...


Decoration

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1855 tiara from Queen Isabella of Spain

It was not just the frequency of the receipt of papal tiaras that increased, but also their value and scale of the decoration. While the sole surviving tiara from before the invasion of Napoleon Bonaparte's troops in 1798 (when all the other tiaras were taken and broken up and their jewels stolen by the troops) is decorated with many jewels (see image above), the scale of its decoration pales in comparison to 19th century tiaras, such as that given to Pope Gregory XVI in 1834. (see above left.) This work is presumed to be copyrighted, but its source has not been determined. ... This work is presumed to be copyrighted, but its source has not been determined. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Gregory XVI, né Bartolommeo Alberto Cappellari (September 18, 1765 - June 1, 1846), was Pope from 1831 to 1846. ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Gregory's heavily decorated tiara was however overtaken in decor both by the tiara given by Queen Isabella II of Spain in 1855 (see right) and by the the tiara given to Pope Pius IX in 1877 by the Vatican's Palatine Honour guard in honour of his Jubilee. Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was queen of Spain. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Blessed Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), was pope for a record pontificate of over 31 years, from June 16, 1846 until his death. ...


Value of the tiaras

Some of the tiaras donated were more valuable than others. Among the valuations of tiaras reported are

  • 1804 tiara - $50,000 in 1903.
  • 1855 tiara - 500,000 francs.
  • 1887 tiara - $750,000 in 1903
  • 1888 tiara - $250,000 in 1903
  • 1903 tiara - $25,000
  • 1922 Milan tiara - 2,000,000 lire in 1922
  • 1958 tiara - $5,000
  • 1963 tiara - $10.000

1834 Tiara

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Belgian tiara of 1871

The tiara of Pope Gregory XVI (given to him in 1834) had three golden circles inlaid with diamonds over the central silver core of the crown, and above each circle a series of golden cloverleaves, inlaid with jewels. ( see it being worn by Pius X) This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Gregory XVI, né Bartolommeo Alberto Cappellari (September 18, 1765 - June 1, 1846), was Pope from 1831 to 1846. ... A scattering of round-brilliant cut diamonds shows off the many reflecting facets. ... Pope Pius X, from a 1904 Stereopticon card This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ...


1855 Spanish Tiara

The 1855 tiara donated by Queen Isabella of Spain was probably the most heavily jewel-laiden tiara ever donated, containing 18,000 diamonds, pearls, rubies, emeralds, and sapphires. Pope Pius IX sold it and donated the funds to charity.


1871 Belgian Tiara

The 'Belgian' tiara given to Pope Pius IX in 1871 had its conical shape almost hidden beneath three layers of upright golden decoration inlaid with jewels, making it one of the most unusual tiara in the papal collection. It was made in Bourdon, Ghent (Belgium) from a design by Jean Baptiste Bethume. It is decorated with gold, pearls, gilt silver, emeralds, enamel and precious stones. The Blessed Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), was pope for a record pontificate of over 31 years, from June 16, 1846 until his death. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11 (IB), 6, d Density, Hardness 19. ... For other things called pearl, see pearl (disambiguation). ... A gilt is any of the following: A thin covering of gold. ... For other things of this name, see Emerald (disambiguation). ... The word enamel can mean more than one thing: Tooth enamel Vitreous enamel Enamel (markup language) Enameled wire This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The 1877 Palatine Tiara

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The 1877 Tiara

The 1877 Tiara, the most worn one in the papal collection, and which became in effect the de facto coronation tiara, having been used by among others Pope Benedict XV in 1914, Pope Pius XII in 1939 and Pope John XXIII in 1958 consisted was inlaid with 540 pearls, 90 on each row. Download high resolution version (281x626, 36 KB) This work is copyrighted. ... Download high resolution version (281x626, 36 KB) This work is copyrighted. ... His Holiness Pope Benedict XV, born Giacomo della Chiesa (November 21, 1854 – January 22, 1922), reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City from September 3, 1914 to 1922; he succeeded Pope Saint Pius X. Della Chiesa was born in Genoa, Italy, of a noble... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Venerable Pope Pius XII, born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958 in Rome, Italy), served as the Pope from March 2, 1939 to 1958. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Blessed Pope John XXIII, born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881–June 3, 1963), reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City from October 28, 1958 until his death in 1963. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other things called pearl, see pearl (disambiguation). ...

  • The second tier is lined with 10 emeralds, 8 Balas rubies, one chrysolite, two aquamarines, six small rubies and three sapphires.
  • The third tier has 16 small Balas rubies, three larger Balas rubies, four sapphires, three hyacinths, three aquamarines, one garnet, eight gold floral ornaments each with two emeralds, one Balas ruby, a chrysolite and eight gold points, each adorned with a garnet.
  • Its top is covered with a layer of thin gold, with eight rubies and eight emeralds.
  • On top is a gold globe enamelled in blue on the top of which is aa cross composed of 11 brilliants. (See a closeup view of the tiara (http://www.royal-magazin.de/collection/tiara-papst.htm).)

For other things of this name, see Emerald (disambiguation). ... The name Hyacinth can refer to: the Hyacinth from Greek mythology. ... Aquamarine is gemstone-quality blue beryl, closely related to the emerald. ... Ruby is a red gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum in which the color is caused mainly by chromium. ... Sapphire is the single crystal form of aluminium oxide (Al2O3). ... Olivine The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 in which the ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the series: forsterite (Mg-rich) and fayalite (Fe-rich). ...

Jewels on other tiaras

The 1887 tiara given by Kaiser Wihelm I was decorated with 1,000 pearls. The 1922 Milan tiara of Pius XI had 2,000 precious stones inlaid, while John XXIII's 1959 tiara had 20 diamonds, 16 emeralds, 68 rubies and 70 pearls. The number was in fact intended to be double that, but John insisted that half the stones planned for his tiara be returned and the savings given to charity.



Papal Tiara series

Coronation| Inauguration| Papal Tiara Decoration of the Papal Tiara|
List of Tiaras| Origins of the Papal Tiara| Vicarius Filii Dei Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Historically, a Papal Coronation was a six-hour ceremony in which a new pope was crowned as head of the Roman Catholic Church (and before 1870, head of state of the Papal States). ... Pope John Paul I at the first papal inauguration, in September 1978. ... Triregnum from the XVIII Century The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, Triregnum or Triregno1, is the three-tiered papal crown formerly worn by popes from Pope Clement V up to and including Pope Paul VI, who was crowned in 1963. ... Pope John XXIII moments after his coronation in 1958. ... Vicarius Filii Dei, Vicar of the Son of God in Latin, is a title mentioned in the forged Donation of Constantine as belonging to Saint Peter. ...


Papal rituals, symbols & ceremonial

Apostolic Palace| Coat of Arms of popes| Conclave| Coronation| Holy See| Inauguration| Papal Oath| Papal Ring| Sedia Gestoria| Sistine Chapel| Cathedral of St. John Lateran| Pallium| St. Peter's Basilica| St. Peter's Square| Papal Tiara Vatican City
Vatican coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... The Apostolic Palace , also called the Papal Palace or the Palace of the Vatican, is the official residence of the Pope in the Vatican City. ... Every pope of the Roman Catholic Church has his own personal coat of arms that serves as a symbol of his papacy. ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ... Historically, a Papal Coronation was a six-hour ceremony in which a new pope was crowned as head of the Roman Catholic Church (and before 1870, head of state of the Papal States). ... Pope John Paul I at the first papal inauguration, in September 1978. ... The Papal oath, also known as the oath against modernism, was an oath taken by popes during their coronation. ... The Ring of the Fisherman or Pescatorio is an official part of the regalia worn by the pope, described by the Roman Catholic Church as the successor of Saint Peter, a fisherman by trade. ... Pope John Paul I being carried on the Sedia Gestatoria The sedia gestatoria is the portable throne on which Popes are sometimes carried. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Palace of the Vatican, the official residence of the Roman Catholic Pope in the Vatican City. ... Late Baroque façade of the Basilica, completed, after a competition for the design, by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 St. ... The Pallium or Pall (derived, so far as the name is concerned, from the Roman pallium or palla, a woollen cloak) is an ecclesiastical vestment in the Roman Catholic Church, originally peculiar to the Pope, but for many centuries past bestowed by him on metropolitans and primates as a symbol... Interior view, with the nave of the Basilica in the back St. ... Berninis piazza was extended by the Via della Conciliazione, Mussolinis grand avenue of approach. ... Triregnum from the XVIII Century The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, Triregnum or Triregno1, is the three-tiered papal crown formerly worn by popes from Pope Clement V up to and including Pope Paul VI, who was crowned in 1963. ...


 
 

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