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Encyclopedia > Deconstructivism
Libeskind's Imperial War Museum North in Manchester comprises three apparently intersecting curved volumes.
Libeskind's Imperial War Museum North in Manchester comprises three apparently intersecting curved volumes.

Deconstructivism in architecture, also called deconstruction, is a development of postmodern architecture that began in the late 1980s. It is characterized by ideas of fragmentation, an interest in manipulating ideas of a structure's surface or skin, non-rectilinear shapes which serve to distort and dislocate some of the elements of architecture, such as structure and envelope. The finished visual appearance of buildings that exhibit the many deconstructivist "styles" is characterised by a stimulating unpredictability and a controlled chaos. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 163 KB)East face of the Imperial War Museum North by the Salford Quays. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 163 KB)East face of the Imperial War Museum North by the Salford Quays. ... Daniel Libeskind in front of his extension to the Denver Art Museum. ... The main entrance of the Imperial War Museum North, with the air shard tower. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... 1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. ... Rectilinear: Characterized by straight lines, as opposed to curvilinear which is characterized by curved lines. ... Design principles and elements Design principles and elements are the basic design tactics in every design discipline. ... A building envelope is the exterior assembly that encloses the interior space of a building. ...


Important events in the history of the deconstructivist movement include the 1982 Parc de la Villette architectural design competition (especially the entry from Jacques Derrida and Peter Eisenman[1] and Bernard Tschumi's winning entry), the Museum of Modern Art’s 1988 Deconstructivist Architecture exhibition in New York, organized by Philip Johnson and Mark Wigley, and the 1989 opening of the Wexner Center for the Arts in Columbus, designed by Peter Eisenman. The New York exhibition featured works by Frank Gehry, Daniel Liebeskind, Rem Koolhaas, Peter Eisenman, Zaha Hadid, Coop Himmelb(l)au, and Bernard Tschumi. Since the exhibition, many of the architects who were associated with Deconstructivism have distanced themselves from the term. Nonetheless, the term has stuck and has now, in fact, come to embrace a general trend within contemporary architecture. A folly in the Parc de la Villette The Parc de la Villette is a park in Paris at the outer edge of the 19th arrondissement, bordering Seine-Saint-Denis. ... An architectural design competition is a special type of competition in which an organization or government body that plans to build a new (often public) building asks for architects to enter differing designs for the building. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: [1]) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Installation art by Peter Eisenman in the courtyard of Castelvecchio Museum in Verona, Italy, Entitled: Il giardino dei passi perduti, (The garden of the lost steps) Peter Eisenman (born August 11, 1932 in Newark, New Jersey) is one of the foremost practitioners of deconstructivism in American architecture. ... Bernard Tschumi (born January 25, 1944 Lausanne, Switzerland) is an architect, writer, and educator. ... This article is about the museum in New York City. ... 1933 Portrait of Philip Johnson by Carl Van Vechten Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an influential American architect. ... Mark Wigley is an architect, author, and educator. ... The south side of the Wexner Center. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Delaware, and Fairfield Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City  212. ... Frank Owen Gehry (born Ephraim Owen Goldberg, February 28, 1929) is a Pritzker Prize winning architect based in Los Angeles, California. ... The aluminium clad east face of the Imperial War Museum North in Manchester. ... Seattle Central Library, designed by OMA Rem Koolhaas (born November 17, 1944 in Rotterdam, Netherlands) is a Dutch architect, former journalist and screenwriter who studied architecture at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London. ... Installation art by Peter Eisenman in the courtyard of Castelvecchio Museum in Verona, Italy, Entitled: Il giardino dei passi perduti, (The garden of the lost steps) Peter Eisenman (born August 11, 1932 in Newark, New Jersey) is one of the foremost practitioners of deconstructivism in American architecture. ... Zaha Hadid Portrait Interior of Phaeno Science Center in Wolfsburg, Germany Bergisel Ski Jump, Innsbruck BMW Central Building, Leipzig Vitra fire station, Weil am Rhein, Germany Zaha Hadid (Arabic: زها حديد) CBE (born October 31, 1950, Baghdad, Iraq) is a notable Iraqi-British deconstructivist architect. ... UFA-Palast in Dresden Groninger Museum, in the Netherlands Arteplage in Biel/Bienne from Expo. ... Bernard Tschumi (born January 25, 1944 Lausanne, Switzerland) is an architect, writer, and educator. ...


Originally, some of the architects known as Deconstructivists were influenced by the ideas of the French philosopher Jacques Derrida. Eisenman developed a personal relationship with Derrida, but even so his approach to architectural design was developed long before he became a Deconstructivist. For him Deconstructivism should be considered an extension of his interest in radical formalism. Some practitioners of deconstructivism were also influenced by the formal experimentation and geometric imbalances of Russian constructivism. There are additional references in deconstructivism to 20th-century movements: the modernism/postmodernism interplay, expressionism, cubism, minimalism and contemporary art. The attempt in deconstructivism throughout is to move architecture away from what its practitioners see as the constricting 'rules' of modernism such as "form follows function," "purity of form," and "truth to materials." Jacques Derrida (IPA: [1]) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Constructivist architecture was a form of modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Expressionist architecture occurs in architecture when an architect distorts a building or design for an emotional effect. ... Woman with a guitar by Georges Braque, 1913 Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist house in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic Cubism was a 20th century art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Form follows function is a principle associated with Modern architecture and industrial design in the 20th Century, which states that the shape of a building or object should be predicated on its intended purpose. ... Purism was a form of Cubism advocated by the French painter Amédée Ozenfant and the architect Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier). ... Truth to materials is a tenet of modern architecture (as opposed to postmodern architecture), which holds that any material should be used where it is most appropriate and its nature should not be hidden. ...



Contents

History, context & influences

Modernism and postmodernism

Deconstructivism in contemporary architecture stands in opposition to the ordered rationality of Modernism. Its relationship with Postmodernism is also decidedly contrary. Though postmodernist and nascent deconstructivist architects published theories alongside each other in the journal Oppositions (published 1973–84), that journal's contents mark the beginning of a decisive break between the two movements. Deconstruction took a confrontational stance toward much of architecture and architectural history, wanting to disjoin and disassemble architecture.[2] While postmodernism returned to embrace— often slyly or ironically—the historical references that modernism had shunned, deconstructivism rejects the postmodern acceptance of such references. It also rejects the idea of ornament as an after-thought or decoration. These principles have meant that deconstructivism aligns itself somewhat with the sensibilities of modernist anti-historicism. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 2145 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 2145 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Seattle Central Library Exterior The Seattle Central Library is the flagship library of the Seattle Public Library system. ... Seattle Central Library, designed by OMA Rem Koolhaas (born November 17, 1944 in Rotterdam, Netherlands) is a Dutch architect, former journalist and screenwriter who studied architecture at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London. ... The Office for Metropolitan Architecture, in short OMA, is the Rotterdam based architecture firm of Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas. ... Contemporary architecture is the architecture being made at the present time. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... 1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. ... Oppositions was an architectural journal produced by the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in the years 1973 to 1984. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In addition to Oppositions, another text that separated deconstructivism from the fray of modernism and postmodernism was the publication of Robert Venturi's Complexity and Contradiction in architecture (1966). A defining point for both postmodernism and for deconstructivism, Complexity and Contradiction argues against the purity, clarity and simplicity of modernism. With its publication, functionalism and rationalism, the two main branches of modernism, were overturned as paradigms according to postmodernist and deconstructivist readings, with differing readings. The postmodern reading of Venturi (who was himself a postmodernist) was that ornament and historical allusion added a richness to architecture that modernism had foregone. Some Postmodern architects endeavored to reapply ornaments even to economical and minimal buildings, an effort best illustrated by Venturi's concept of "the decorated shed." Rationalism of design was dismissed but the functionalism of the building was still somewhat intact. This is close to the thesis of Venturi's next major work,[3] that signs and ornament can be applied to a pragmatic architecture, and instill the philosophic complexities of semiology. Robert Charles Venturi (June 25, 1925 -) is an award winning American architect. ... Functionalism, in architecture, is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Look up sign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Semiotics (also spelled Semeiotics) is the study of signs and sign systems. ...

The deconstructivist reading of Complexity and Contradiction is quite different. The basic building was the subject of problematics and intricacies in deconstructivism, with no detachment for ornament. Rather than separating ornament and function, like postmodernists such as Venturi, the functional aspects of buildings were called into question. Geometry was to deconstructivists what ornament was to postmodernists, the subject of complication, and this complication of geometry was in turn, applied to the functional, structural, and spacial aspects of deconstructivist buildings. One example of deconstructivist complexity is Frank Gehry's Vitra Design Museum in Weil-am-Rhein, which takes the typical unadorned white cube of modernist art galleries and deconstructs it, using geometries reminiscent of cubism and abstract expressionism. This subverts the functional aspects of modernist simplicity while taking modernism, particularly the international style, of which its white stucco skin is reminiscent, as a starting point. Another example of the deconstructivist reading of Complexity and Contradiction is Peter Eisenman's Wexner Center for the Arts. The Wexner Center takes the archetypal form of the castle, which it then imbues with complexity in a series of cuts and fragmentations. A three-dimensional grid, runs somewhat arbitrarily through the building. The grid, as a reference to modernism, of which it is an accoutrement, collides with the medieval antiquity of a castle. Some of the grid's columns intentionally don't reach the ground, hovering over stairways creating a sense of neurotic unease and contradicting the structural purpose of the column. The Wexner Center deconstructs the archetype of the castle and renders its spaces and structure with conflict and difference. Image File history File links Vitra002a. ... Image File history File links Vitra002a. ... The Vitra Design Museum building by Frank O. Gehry, front view The Vitra Design Museum is an internationally renowned, privately owned museum for design in Weil am Rhein, Germany. ... Weil am Rhein is home to the Vitra Design Museum Weil am Rhein is a German town and commune situated on the east bank of the River Rhine, and close to the point at which the Swiss, French and German borders meet. ... Frank Owen Gehry (born Ephraim Owen Goldberg, February 28, 1929) is a Pritzker Prize winning architect based in Los Angeles, California. ... The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. ... Installation art by Peter Eisenman in the courtyard of Castelvecchio Museum in Verona, Italy, Entitled: Il giardino dei passi perduti, (The garden of the lost steps) Peter Eisenman (born August 11, 1932 in Newark, New Jersey) is one of the foremost practitioners of deconstructivism in American architecture. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... Look up grid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Column (disambiguation). ...


Deconstructivist philosophy

Installation art by Peter Eisenman in the courtyard of Castelvecchio Museum in Verona, Italy, Entitled: "Il giardino dei passi perduti," ("The garden of lost steps").

The main channel from deconstructivist philosophy to architectural theory was through the philosopher Jacques Derrida's influence with Peter Eisenman. Eisenman drew some philosophical bases from the literary movement Deconstruction, and collaborated directly with Derrida on projects including an entry for the Parc de la Villette competition, documented in Chora l Works. Both Derrida and Eisenman, as well as Daniel Libeskind[4] were concerned with the "metaphysics of presence," and this is the main subject of deconstructivist philosophy in architecture theory. The presupposition is that architecture is a language capable of communicating meaning and of receiving treatments by methods of linguistic philosophy.[5] The dialectic of presence and absence, or solid and void occurs in much of Eisenman's projects, both built and unbuilt. Both Derrida and Eisenman believe that the locus, or place of presence, is architecture, and the same dialectic of presence and absence is found in construction and deconstruction.[6] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (604x800, 113 KB) Summary Installation art by architect Peter Eisenman in the courtyard of Castelvecchio Museum in Verona, Italy, Entitled: Il giardino dei passi perduti, (The garden of the lost steps) (2oo4). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (604x800, 113 KB) Summary Installation art by architect Peter Eisenman in the courtyard of Castelvecchio Museum in Verona, Italy, Entitled: Il giardino dei passi perduti, (The garden of the lost steps) (2oo4). ... Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. ... Installation art by architect Peter Eisenman in the courtyard of Castelvecchio Museum Castelvecchio (old castle) was built from 1354-1356 as a fortification against threats from outside of Verona, and from insurgents within. ... Architectural theory is the act of thinking, discussing, or most importantly writing about architecture. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: [1]) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Installation art by Peter Eisenman in the courtyard of Castelvecchio Museum in Verona, Italy, Entitled: Il giardino dei passi perduti, (The garden of the lost steps) Peter Eisenman (born August 11, 1932 in Newark, New Jersey) is one of the foremost practitioners of deconstructivism in American architecture. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... A folly in the Parc de la Villette The Parc de la Villette is a park in Paris at the outer edge of the 19th arrondissement, bordering Seine-Saint-Denis. ... Daniel Libeskind in front of his extension to the Denver Art Museum. ... The concept of the metaphysics of presence is an important consideration within the area of deconstruction. ... The word locus (plural loci) is Latin for place: In biology and evolutionary computation, a locus is the position of a gene (or other significant sequence) on a chromosome. ...


According to Derrida, readings of texts are best carried out when working with classical narrative structures. Any architectural deconstruction requires the existence of a particular archetypal construction, a strongly-established conventional expectation to play flexibly against.[7] The design of Frank Gehry’s own Santa Monica residence, (from 1978), has been cited as a prototypical deconstructivist building. His starting point was a prototypical suburban house embodied with a typical set of intended social meanings. Gehry altered its massing, spatial envelopes, planes and other expectations in a playful subversion, an act of "de"construction"[8] Frank Owen Gehry (born Ephraim Owen Goldberg, February 28, 1929) is a Pritzker Prize winning architect based in Los Angeles, California. ... Santa Monica Pier Santa Monica is a coastal city located in Los Angeles County, California USA, by the Pacific Ocean, south of Pacific Palisades and Brentwood, west of Westwood, Los Angeles, and north of Venice. ...


In addition to Derrida's concepts of the metaphysics of presence and deconstruction, his notions of trace and erasure, embodied in his philosophy of writing and arche-writing[9] found their way into deconstructivist memorials. Daniel Libeskind envisioned many of his early projects as a form of writing or discourse on writing and often works with a form of concrete poetry. He made architectural sculptures out of books and often coated the models in texts, openly making his architecture refer to writing. The notions of trace and erasure were taken up by Libeskind in essays and in his project for the Jewish Museum Berlin. The museum is conceived as a trace of the erasure of the Holocaust, intended to make its subject legible and poignant. Memorials such as Maya Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial and Peter Eisenman's Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe also reflect themes of trace and erasure. The memorial at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific in Hawaii commemorates American dead from wars in the Pacific. ... Concrete poetry, pattern poetry or shape poetry is poetry in which the typographical arrangement of words is as important in conveying the intended effect as the conventional elements of the poem, such as meaning of words, rhythm, rhyme and so on. ... Jewish Museum Berlin Shalechet (Fallen Leaves) by Menashe Kadishman The Jewish Museum Berlin (Jüdisches Museum Berlin) is a museum in Berlin covering two millennia of German Jewish history. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Visitors at Vietnam Veterans Memorial Maya Ying Lin (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; born October 5, 1959) is an American artist who has become known for her work in architecture. ... The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is a national war memorial located in Washington, D.C., that honors members of the U.S. armed forces who had died in service or are unaccounted for during the Vietnam War. ... Holocaust-Memorial (Spring 2004) The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, also known as Holocaust memorial for short, is a memorial in Berlin a block to the south of the Brandenburg Gate. ...


Constructivism and Russian Futurism

Wolkenbügel ("Cloud-hanger"): photomontage of an unexecuted building designed by El Lissitzky in 1924.[10]

Another major current in deconstructivist architecture takes inspiration from the Russian Constructivist and Futurist movements of the early twentieth century, both in their graphics and in their visionary architecture, little of which was actually constructed. ImageMetadata File history File links A photomontage of a building, The Wolkenbügel, designed, but not built, by Russian artist El Lissitzky. ... ImageMetadata File history File links A photomontage of a building, The Wolkenbügel, designed, but not built, by Russian artist El Lissitzky. ...   (Лазарь Маркович Лисицкий, November 23, 1890 – December 30, 1941), better known as El Lissitzky (Эль Лисицкий), was a Russian artist, designer, photographer, teacher, typographer, and architect. ... Tatlin Tower. ... El Lissitzkys poster for a post-revolutionary production of the Victory Over the Sun. ...


Artists Naum Gabo, El Lissitzky, Kazimir Malevich, and Alexander Rodchenko, have influenced the graphic sense of geometric forms of deconstructivist architects such as Zaha Hadid and Coop Himmelb(l)au. Both Deconstructivism and Constructivism have been concerned with the tectonics of making an abstract assemblage. Both were concerned with the radical simplicity of geometric forms as the primary artistic content, expressed in graphics, sculpture and architecture. The Constructivist tendency toward purism, though, is absent in Deconstructivism: form is often deformed when construction is deconstructed. Also lessened or absent is the advocacy of socialist and collectivist causes, propaganda for which informed constructivism. Naum Gabo KBE (August 5, 1890 - August 23, 1977) was a prominent Russian sculptor in the Constructivism movement and a pioneer of Kinetic Art. ...   (Лазарь Маркович Лисицкий, November 23, 1890 – December 30, 1941), better known as El Lissitzky (Эль Лисицкий), was a Russian artist, designer, photographer, teacher, typographer, and architect. ... Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (Russian: , Polish: , Ukrainian Казимір Северинович Малевич, German: ), (February 23, 1878 – May 15, 1935) was a painter and art theoretician, pioneer of geometric abstract art and one of the most important members of the Russian avant-garde. ... Image:1924 Alexander Rodchenko in industrial suit by Mikhail Kaufman. ... Zaha Hadid Portrait Interior of Phaeno Science Center in Wolfsburg, Germany Bergisel Ski Jump, Innsbruck BMW Central Building, Leipzig Vitra fire station, Weil am Rhein, Germany Zaha Hadid (Arabic: زها حديد) CBE (born October 31, 1950, Baghdad, Iraq) is a notable Iraqi-British deconstructivist architect. ... UFA-Palast in Dresden Groninger Museum, in the Netherlands Arteplage in Biel/Bienne from Expo. ... Purism was a form of Cubism advocated by the French painter Amédée Ozenfant and the architect Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier). ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The primary graphic motifs of constructivism were the rectangular bar and the triangular wedge, others were the more basic geometries of the square and the circle. In his series Prouns, El Lizzitzky assembled collections of geometries at various angles floating free in space. They evoke basic structural units such as bars of steel or sawn lumber loosely attached, piled, or scattered. They were also often drafted and share aspects with technical drawing and engineering drawing. Similar in composition is the more recent deconstructivist series Micromegas by Daniel Libeskind. Technical drawing, also known as drafting, is the practice of creating accurate representations of objects for technical, architectural and engineering needs. ... Technical drawing, also known as drafting, is the practice of creating accurate representations of objects for technical, architectural and engineering needs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Technical drawing. ...

The symbolic breakdown of the wall effected by introducing the Constructivist motifs of tilted and crossed bars sets up a subversion of the walls that define the bar itself. ...This apparent chaos actually constructs the walls that define the bar; it is the structure. The internal disorder produces the bar while splitting it even as gashes open up along its length.

Phillip Johnson and Mark Wigley, Deconstructive Architecture, p.34

The raw structuralism of constructivist architects Ivan Leonidov, Konstantin Melnikov, Alexander Vesnin and Vladimir Tatlin have also had an impact on deconstructivist architects, notably Rem Koolhaas. Their work, in final form, seems to embody the process of construction. They finalize the temporary and transitional aspects of building sites, the scaffolds and cranes necessary for buildings of large scope. El Lissitzky's Das Wolkenbügel (illustration), resembling cranes connected and made habitable, is a good precedent for Koolhaas' China Central Television tower. Koolhaas also takes after Ivan Leonidov in an architecture that seems like a perennial construction site. Ivan Leonidov (1902-1959) was a Russian constructivist architect. ... One of buildings designed by Melnikov Konstantin Stepanovitch Melnikov (Russian Константин Степанович Мельников; July 22 (August 3) 1890, Moscow - November 28, 1974, Moscow) was a Russian architect and major figure member of the Constructivist avant-garde in the early 20th century. ... Alexander Vesnin (1883-1959) was a Russian constructivist architect. ... Vladimir Yevgrafovich Tatlin (Владимир Евграфович Татлин) (December 28, 1885 (OS: December 16) – May 31, 1953) worked as a painter and architect. ... Scaffold may refer to: scaffolding as used in construction A gallows The Scaffold, UK musical group Scaffold - GNOME Development Environment Scaffold (Protein ECM) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A modern crawler type derrick crane with outriggers. ... China Central Television or Chinese Central Television, commonly abbreviated as CCTV (Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is the major broadcast television network in Mainland China. ...


Contemporary art

Two strains of modern art, minimalism and cubism, have had an influence on deconstructivism. Analytical cubism had a sure effect on deconstructivism, as forms and content are dissected and viewed from different perspectives simultaneously. A synchronicity of disjoined space is evident in many of the works of Frank Gehry and Bernard Tschumi. Synthetic cubism, with its application of found art, is not as great an influence on deconstructivism as Analytical cubism, but is still found in the earlier and more vernacular works of Frank Gehry. Deconstructivism also shares with minimalism a disconnection from cultural references. It also often shares with minimalism notions of conceptual art. Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features. ... Woman with a guitar by Georges Braque, 1913 Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist house in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic Cubism was a 20th century art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cubism. ... Frank Owen Gehry (born Ephraim Owen Goldberg, February 28, 1929) is a Pritzker Prize winning architect based in Los Angeles, California. ... Bernard Tschumi (born January 25, 1944 Lausanne, Switzerland) is an architect, writer, and educator. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cubism. ... Fountain by Marcel Duchamp. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cubism. ... Frank Owen Gehry (born Ephraim Owen Goldberg, February 28, 1929) is a Pritzker Prize winning architect based in Los Angeles, California. ... Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965) Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. ...

UFA-Palast in Dresden by Coop Himmelb(l)au
UFA-Palast in Dresden by Coop Himmelb(l)au

With its tendency toward deformation and dislocation, there is also an aspect of expressionism and expressionist architecture associated with deconstructivism. At times deconstructivism mirrors varieties of expressionism, neo-expressionism, and abstract expressionism as well. The angular forms of the Ufa Cinema Center by Coop Himmelb(l)au recall the abstract geometries of the numbered paintings of Franz Kline, in their unadorned masses. The UFA Cinema Center also would make a likely setting for the angular figures depicted in urban German street scenes by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. The work of Wassily Kandinsky also bears similarities to deconstructivist architecture. His movement into abstract expressionism and away from figurative work,[11] is in the same spirit as the deconstructivist rejection of ornament for geometries. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 267 KB) Dresden, Germany: UFA Cinema Center Architects: Coop Himmelb(l)au Photographed by Andreas Praefcke, 2003 File links The following pages link to this file: Coop Himmelblau ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 267 KB) Dresden, Germany: UFA Cinema Center Architects: Coop Himmelb(l)au Photographed by Andreas Praefcke, 2003 File links The following pages link to this file: Coop Himmelblau ... Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Czech: ) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... UFA-Palast in Dresden Groninger Museum, in the Netherlands Arteplage in Biel/Bienne from Expo. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ... Expressionist architecture occurs in architecture when an architect distorts a building or design for an emotional effect. ... Neo-expressionism was a style of modern painting that emerged in the late 1970s and dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Franz Klines Painting Number 2, 1954 Franz Kline (May 23, 1910 - May 13, 1962) was an American painter mainly associated with the Abstract Expressionist group which was centered, geographically, around New York, and temporally, in the 1940s and 1950s; but not limited to that setting. ... Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (May 6, 1880 – June 15, 1938) was a German expressionist painter and one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or The Bridge. ... Wassily Kandinsky (Russian: Василий Кандинский, first name pronounced as [vassi:li]) (December 16 [O.S. December 4] 1866 – December 13, 1944) was a Russian painter, printmaker and art theorist. ...


Several artists in the 1980s and 1990s contributed work that influenced or took part in deconstructivism. Maya Lin and Rachel Whiteread are two examples. Lin's 1982 project for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, with its granite slabs severing the ground plane, is one. Its shard-like form and reduction of content to a minimalist text influenced deconstructivism, with its sense of fragmentation and emphasis on reading the monument. Lin also contributed work for Eisenman's Wexner Center. Rachel Whiteread's cast architectural spaces are another instance where contemporary art is confluent with architecture. Ghost (1990), an entire living space cast in plaster, solidifying the void, alludes to Derrida's notion of architectural presence. Gordon Matta-Clark's Building cuts were deconstructed sections of buildings exhibited in art galleries. Visitors at Vietnam Veterans Memorial Maya Ying Lin (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; born October 5, 1959) is an American artist who has become known for her work in architecture. ... Rachel Whiteread CBE (born 1963) is a British artist, best known for her sculptures, which typically take the form of casts, and first woman to win the Turner Prize. ... The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is a national war memorial located in Washington, D.C., that honors members of the U.S. armed forces who had died in service or are unaccounted for during the Vietnam War. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Gordon Matta-Clark (June 22, 1943 – August 27, 1978) was an American artist best known for his site-specific artworks he made in the 1970s. ...


1988 MOMA exhibition

Dancing House in Prague by Vlado Milunić and Frank Gehry
Dancing House in Prague by Vlado Milunić and Frank Gehry

Mark Wigley and Phillip Johnson curated the 1988 Museum of Modern Art exhibition Deconstructivist architecture, which crystallized the movement, and brought fame and notoriety to its key practitioners. The architects presented at the exhibition were Peter Eisenman, Frank Gehry, Zaha Hadid, Coop Himmelblau, Rem Koolhaas, Daniel Libeskind, and Bernard Tschumi. Mark Wigley wrote the accompanying essay and tried to show a common thread among the various architects whose work was usually more noted for their differences. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1506x1600, 560 KB) Summary Description: Ginger and Fred (Architekt: Frank Gehry) Source: eigene Fotografie, 2005 Photographer: Hans Peter Schaefer, http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1506x1600, 560 KB) Summary Description: Ginger and Fred (Architekt: Frank Gehry) Source: eigene Fotografie, 2005 Photographer: Hans Peter Schaefer, http://www. ... Building photo The Dancing House or Fred and Ginger is the nickname given to an office building in downtown Prague, Czech Republic. ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... Dancing House in Prague Vlado Milunić is an architect born in Zagreb, Croatia, now living in Prague. ... Frank Owen Gehry (born Ephraim Owen Goldberg, February 28, 1929) is a Pritzker Prize winning architect based in Los Angeles, California. ... Mark Wigley is an architect, author, and educator. ... Philip Cortalyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 (Cleveland, Ohio) – January 25, 2005 (New Canaan, Connecticut)) was a distinguished American architect. ... This article is about the museum in New York City. ... Installation art by Peter Eisenman in the courtyard of Castelvecchio Museum in Verona, Italy, Entitled: Il giardino dei passi perduti, (The garden of the lost steps) Peter Eisenman (born August 11, 1932 in Newark, New Jersey) is one of the foremost practitioners of deconstructivism in American architecture. ... Frank Owen Gehry (born Ephraim Owen Goldberg, February 28, 1929) is a Pritzker Prize winning architect based in Los Angeles, California. ... Zaha Hadid Portrait Interior of Phaeno Science Center in Wolfsburg, Germany Bergisel Ski Jump, Innsbruck BMW Central Building, Leipzig Vitra fire station, Weil am Rhein, Germany Zaha Hadid (Arabic: زها حديد) CBE (born October 31, 1950, Baghdad, Iraq) is a notable Iraqi-British deconstructivist architect. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Seattle Central Library, designed by OMA Rem Koolhaas (born November 17, 1944 in Rotterdam, Netherlands) is a Dutch architect, former journalist and screenwriter who studied architecture at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London. ... Daniel Libeskind in front of his extension to the Denver Art Museum. ... Bernard Tschumi (born January 25, 1944 Lausanne, Switzerland) is an architect, writer, and educator. ...

The projects in this exhibition mark a different sensibility, one in which the dream of pure form has been disturbed. It is the ability to disturb our thinking about form that makes these projects deconstructive. The show examines an episode, a point of intersection between several architects where each constructs an unsettling building by exploiting the hidden potential of modernism.

Phillip Johnson and Mark Wigley, Excerpts from Deconstructivist Architecture

Computer-aided design

Computer aided design is now an essential tool in most aspects of contemporary architecture, but the particular nature of deconstrucivism makes the use of computers especially pertinent. Three-dimensional modelling and animation (virtual and physical) assists in the conception of very complex spaces, while the ability to link computer models to manufacturing jigs (CAM - Computer-aided manufacturing) allows the mass production of subtly different modular elements to be achieved at affordable costs. In retrospect many early deconstructivist works appear to have been conceived with the aid of a computer, but were not; Zaha Hadid's sketches for instance. Also, Gehry is noted for producing many physical models as well as computer models as part of his design process. Though the computer has made the designing of complex shapes much easier, not everything that looks odd is "deconstructivist." A photograph of MITs Stata Center. ... A photograph of MITs Stata Center. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Stata Center Building 32 at Night View from a window The Ray and Maria Stata Center is a 430,000-ft² (40,000 m²) academic complex designed by Pritzker Prize-winning architect Frank Gehry for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about computer-aided design. ... Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of a wide range of computer-based software tools that assist engineers and CNC machinists in the manufacture or prototyping of product components. ... Zaha Hadid Portrait Interior of Phaeno Science Center in Wolfsburg, Germany Bergisel Ski Jump, Innsbruck BMW Central Building, Leipzig Vitra fire station, Weil am Rhein, Germany Zaha Hadid (Arabic: زها حديد) CBE (born October 31, 1950, Baghdad, Iraq) is a notable Iraqi-British deconstructivist architect. ...


Critical responses

Since the publication of Kenneth Frampton's Modern Architecture: A Critical History (first edition 1980) there has been a keen consciousness of the role of criticism within architectural theory. Whilst referencing Derrida as a philosophical influence, deconstructivism can also be seen as having as much a basis in critical theory as the other major offshoot of postmodernism, critical regionalism. The two aspects of critical theory, urgency and analysis, are found in deconstructivism. There is a tendency to re-examine and critique other works or precedents in deconstructivism, and also a tendency to set esthetic issues in the foreground. An example of this is the Wexner Center. Critical Theory, however, had at its core a critique of capitalism and its excess, and from that respect many of the works of the Deconstructivists would fail in that regard if only they are made for an elite and are, as objects, highly expensive, despite whatever critique they may claim to impart on the conventions of design. Kenneth Frampton (born 1930, Woking, UK), is a British architect, critic, historian and Professor of Architecture at the Graduate School of Architecture and Planning, Columbia University, New York. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... The Sydney Opera House - designed to evoke the sails of yatchs in Sydney harbour Critical regionalism is an approach to architecture that strives to counter the placelessness and lack of meaning in Modern Architecture by using contextual forces to give a sense of place and meaning. ... The north side of the Wexner Center The Wexner Center for the Arts is a contemporary art gallery and research laboratory for the arts at the Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ...


The Wexner Center brings vital architectural topics such as function and precedent to prominence and displays their urgency in architectural discourse, in an analytical and critical way. The difference between criticality in deconstructivism and criticality in critical regionalism, is that critical regionalism reduces the overall level of complexity involved and maintains a clearer analysis while attempting to reconcile modernist architecture with local differences. In effect, this leads to a modernist "vernacular." Critical regionalism displays a lack of self-criticism and a utopianism of place. Deconstructivism, meanwhile, maintains a level of self-criticism, as well as external criticism and tends towards maintaining a level of complexity. Some architects identified with the movement, notably Frank Gehry, who often takes an anti-philosophical stance,[12] have actively rejected the classification of their work as deconstructivist. Others remain critical as much of their own work as that of precedents and contemporaries. The north side of the Wexner Center The Wexner Center for the Arts is a contemporary art gallery and research laboratory for the arts at the Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio. ... Left panel (The Earthly Paradise, Garden of Eden), from Hieronymus Boschs The Garden of Earthly Delights. ... Frank Owen Gehry (born Ephraim Owen Goldberg, February 28, 1929) is a Pritzker Prize winning architect based in Los Angeles, California. ...

The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao by Frank Gehry, on the Nervión River in downtown Bilbao, Spain.
The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao by Frank Gehry, on the Nervión River in downtown Bilbao, Spain.

Critics of deconstructivism see it as a purely formal exercise with little social significance. Kenneth Frampton finds it "elitist and detached."[13] Other criticisms are similar to those of deconstructivist philosophy—that since the act of deconstruction is not an empirical process, it can result in whatever an architect wishes, and it thus suffers from a lack of consistency. Today there is a sense that the philosophical underpinnings of the beginning of the movement have been lost, and all that is left is the aesthetic of deconstruction.[14] Other criticisms reject the premise that architecture is a language capable of being the subject of linguistic philosophy, or, if it was a language in the past, critics claim it is no longer.[5] Others question the wisdom and impact on future generations of an architecture that rejects the past and presents no clear values as replacements and which often pursues strategies that are intentionally aggressive to human senses.[5] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x608, 157 KB)Guggenheim Museum Bilbao. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x608, 157 KB)Guggenheim Museum Bilbao. ... The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, along the Nervión River in downtown Bilbao, with the Maman, a huge spider by Louise Bourgeois The Guggenheim museum in Bilbao, Spain, which is made of glass, titanium, and limestone. ... Frank Owen Gehry (born Ephraim Owen Goldberg, February 28, 1929) is a Pritzker Prize winning architect based in Los Angeles, California. ... The river Nervión runs through the city of Bilbao, Spain into the Bay of Biscay. ... La Muy Noble y Muy Leal e Invicta (The most noble and most loyal and undefeated) Location Location of Bilbao in Spain and Biscay Coordinates : 43,15° n. ... Kenneth Frampton (born 1930, Woking, UK), is a British architect, critic, historian and Professor of Architecture at the Graduate School of Architecture and Planning, Columbia University, New York. ...


See also

In philosophy, Architectonic (or archetectonic) is used to mean the scientific systematisation of all knowledge. ... Günther Behnisch is a German architect (born 1922 in Dresden, Germany); Behnisch is one of the most prominent architects representing deconstructivism. ... Tatlin Tower. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Futurism was a 20th century art movement. ... El Lissitzkys poster for a post-revolutionary production of the Victory Over the Sun. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Lucy the Elephant, July 2004 New York-New York Hotel & Casino. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Thom Mayne (image courtesy Morphosis Thom Mayne (b. ... Dancing House in Prague Vlado Milunić is an architect born in Zagreb, Croatia, now living in Prague. ... The north side of the Wexner Center The Wexner Center for the Arts is a contemporary art gallery and research laboratory for the arts at the Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio. ...

Notes

Postmodernism series

Previous: Modernism Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ...

Age of Postmodernity
Postmodern philosophy
Postmodern architecture
Postmodern art
Postmodernist film
Postmodern literature
Postmodern music
Postmodern theatre
Critical theory
Globalization
Minimalism in Art
Minimalism in Music
Consumerism
  1. ^ Jacques Derrida and Peter Eisenman, Chora L Works (New York: Monacelli Press, 1997)
  2. ^ Tschumi, Architecture and Disjunction
  3. ^ Venturi, Learning From Las Vegas
  4. ^ Libeskind, Daniel. "Imperial War Museum North Earth Time" quote "This project develops the realm of the in between, the inter-est.... Pointing to that which is absent". Retrieved April, 2006
  5. ^ a b c Curl, James Stevens [2006]. A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (Paperback), Second (in English), Oxford University Press, 880 pages. ISBN 0198606788. 
  6. ^ Eisenman and Derrida, Chora l Works
  7. ^ Derrida, Of Grammatology
  8. ^ Holloway, Robert (1994)."Mattaclarking" Dissertation Exploring the work of Gordon Matta-Clark. Retrieved April, 2006.
  9. ^ Derrida, Of Grammatology (1967)
  10. ^ Frampton, Modern architecture - a critical history, p.172
  11. ^ Kandinsky, "Point and Line to Plane"
  12. ^ Archipedia, "Deconstructivism Architecture" Retrieved April 2006. Frank Gehry quote on Eisenman's Aronoff Center, "The best thing about peters buildings is the insane spaces he ends up with. All that other stuff, the philosophy and all, is just bullshit as far as I'm concerned."
  13. ^ Frampton, Kenneth. Modern Architecture: A Critical History. Thames & Hudson, 3rd edition, 1992, p. 313
  14. ^ Deconstruction: From Philosophy to Design. Arizona State University, retrieved June 2006. Today, in the mid 90's the term 'deconstruction' is used casually to label any work that favours complexity over simplicity and dramatises the formal possibilities of digital production.

Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ... Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive movement characterized by its criticism of Western philosophy. ... 1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. ... Postmodern art (sometimes called po-mo) is a term used to describe art which is thought to be after or in contradiction to some aspect of modernism. ... Postmodernist film describes the ideas of postmodernism in film. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Postmodern music is both a musical style and a musical condition. ... Postmodern theatre is a recent phenomenon in world theatre, coming as it does out of the postmodern philosophy that originated in Europe in the 1960s. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... A KFC franchise in Kuwait. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features. ... This article is about a musical style. ... “Consumerist” redirects here. ... Entrance to the Aronoff Center in downtown Cincinnati. ...

References

  • Derrida, Jacques (1976). Of Grammatology, (hardcover: ISBN, paperback: ISBN, corrected edition: ISBN) trans. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Derrida, Jacques & Eisenman, Peter (1997). Chora l Works. Monacelli Press. ISBN.
  • Derrida, Jacques & Husserl, Edmund (1989). Edmund Husserl's Origin of Geometry: An Introduction. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN
  • Frampton, Kenneth (1992). Modern Architecture, a critical history. Thames & Hudson- Third Edition. ISBN
  • Johnson, Phillip & Wigley, Mark (1988). Deconstructivist Architecture: The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Little Brown and Company. ISBN-X
  • Hays, K.M. (edited) (1998). Oppositions Reader. Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN
  • Kandinsky, Wassily. Point and Line to Plane. Dover Publications, New York. ISBN
  • Rickey, George (1995). Constructivism: Origins and Evolution. George Braziller; Revised edition. ISBN
  • Tschumi, Bernard (1994). Architecture and Disjunction. The MIT Press. Cambridge. ISBN
  • Van der Straeten, Bart. Image and Narrative – The Uncanny and the architecture of Deconstruction Retrieved April, 2006.
  • Venturi, Robert (1966). Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture, The Museum of Modern Art Press, New York. ISBN
  • Venturi, Robert (1977). Learning from Las Vegas (with D. Scott Brown and S. Izenour), Cambridge MA, 1972, revised 1977. ISBN-X
  • Wigley, Mark (1995). The Architecture of Deconstruction: Derrida's Haunt. The MIT Press. ISBN.

Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak (born February 24, 1942) is an Indian literary critic and theorist. ...

External links

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Deconstructivism

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference for Deconstructivism - Search.com (3228 words)
Deconstructivism in architecture, also called deconstruction, is a development of postmodern architecture that began in the late 1980s.
In addition to Oppositions, another text that separated deconstructivism from the fray of modernism and postmodernism was the publication of Robert Venturi's Complexity and Contradiction in architecture (1966).
The difference between criticality in deconstructivism and criticality in critical regionalism, is that critical regionalism reduces the overall level of complexity involved and maintains a clearer analysis while attempting to reconcile modernist architecture with local differences.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Deconstructivism (7855 words)
Deconstructivism in architecture, also called deconstruction, is a development of postmodern architecture that began in the late 1980s.
The attempt in deconstructivism throughout is to move architecture away from what its practitioners see as the constricting 'rules' of modernism such as "form follows function", "purity of form", "truth to materials", and expression of structure.
In addition to Oppositions, another text that separated deconstructivism from the fray of modernism and postmodernism was the publication of Robert Venturi's Complexity and Contradiction in architecture (1966).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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