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Encyclopedia > Decolonization
Colonialism in 1945
Colonialism in 1945

Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. The term generally refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. This conforms with an intellectual movement known as Post-Colonialism. A particularly active period of decolonization occurred between 1945 to 1960, beginning with the independence of Pakistan and the Republic of India from Great Britain in 1947 and the First Indochina War. A number of national liberation movements were established prior to the war, but most did not achieve their aims until after it. Decolonization can be achieved by attaining independence, integrating with the administering power or another state, or establishing a "free association" status. The United Nations has stated that in the process of decolonization there is no alternative to the principle of self-determination. Decolonization may involve peaceful negotiation and/or violent revolt and armed struggle by the native population. Download high resolution version (1357x628, 37 KB)Created by User:Aris Katsaris to replace and partially correct the smallerImage:800px_colonization_1945. ... Download high resolution version (1357x628, 37 KB)Created by User:Aris Katsaris to replace and partially correct the smallerImage:800px_colonization_1945. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The Decolonisation of Africa was the withdrawal of colonial powers from Africa after World War II.[1] // Main article: Scramble for Africa Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is under construction. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... A non-violent revolution is a revolution using mostly nonviolent protest against governments seen as entrenched and authoritarian to advocate democracy, liberalism or national independence in their nation. ... Flag of Mozambique — independent since 1975, with the kalashnikov as symbol of the armed struggle against the Portuguese empire, the book as symbol of instruction and a farm instrument as symbol of economic growth. ...

Contents

Methods and stages

Decolonization is a political process, frequently involving violence. In extreme circumstances, there is a war of independence, sometimes following a revolution. More often, there is a dynamic cycle where negotiations fail, minor disturbances ensue resulting in suppression by the police and military forces, escalating into more violent revolts that lead to further negotiations until independence is granted. In rare cases, the actions of the native population are characterized by non-violence, India being an example of this, and the violence comes as active suppression from the occupying forces or as political opposition from forces representing minority local communities who feel threatened by the prospect of independence. For example, there was a war of independence in French Indochina, while in some countries in French West Africa (excluding the Maghreb countries) decolonization resulted from a combination of insurrection and negotiation. The process is only complete when the de facto government of the newly independent country is recognized as the de jure sovereign state by the community of nations. The term War of Independence is generally used to describe a war occurring over a territory that has declared independence. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... This article is about revolution in the sense of a drastic change. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...


Independence is often difficult to achieve without the encouragement and practical support from one or more external parties. The motives for giving such aid are varied: nations of the same ethnic and/or religious stock may sympathize with oppressed groups, or a strong nation may attempt to destabilize a colony as a tactical move to weaken a rival or enemy colonizing power or to create space for its own sphere of influence; examples of this include British support of the Haitian Revolution against France, and the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, in which the United States warned the European powers not to interfere in the affairs of the newly independent states of the Western Hemisphere. Combatants Haiti France Commanders Toussaint Louverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines Charles Leclerc, vicomte de Rochambeau, Napoleon Bonaparte Strength Regular army: <55,000, Volunteers: <100,000 Regular army: 60,000, 86 warships and frigates Casualties Military deaths: unknown, Civilian deaths: <100,000 Military deaths: 57,000 (37,000 combat; 20,000 yellow... U.S. President James Monroe The Monroe Doctrine is a U.S. doctrine which, on December 2, 1823, proclaimed that European powers would no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the newly independent nations of the Americas. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ...


As world opinion became more pro-emancipation following World War I, there was an institutionalized collective effort to advance the cause of emancipation through the League of Nations. Under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, a number of mandates were created. The expressed intention was to prepare these countries for self-government, but the reality was merely a redistribution of control over the former colonies of the defeated powers, mainly Germany and the Ottoman Empire. This reassignment work continued through the United Nations, with a similar system of trust territories created to adjust control over both former colonies and mandated territories administered by the nations defeated in World War II, including Japan. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... United Nations Trust Territories were the successors of the League of Nations mandates and came into being when the League of Nations ceased to exist in 1946. ...


In referendums, some colonized populations have chosen to retain their colonial status, such as Gibraltar and French Guiana. On the other hand, colonial powers have sometimes promoted decolonization in order to shed the financial, military and other burdens that tend to grow in those colonies where the colonial regimes have become more benign.


Empires have expanded and contracted throughout history but, in several respects, the modern phenomenon of decolonization has produced different outcomes. Now, when states surrender both the de facto rule of their colonies and their de jure claims to such rule, the ex-colonies are generally not absorbed by other powers. Further, the former colonial powers have, in most cases, not only continued existing, but have also maintained their status as Powers, retaining strong economic and cultural ties with their former colonies. Through these ties, former colonial powers have ironically maintained a significant proportion of the previous benefits of their empires, but with smaller costs — thus, despite frequent resistance to demands for decolonisation, the outcomes have satisfied the colonizers' self-interests. [citation needed] This article is about the political and historical term. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ...


Decolonization is rarely achieved through a single historical act, but rather progresses through one or more stages of emancipation, each of which can be offered or fought for: these can include the introduction of elected representatives (advisory or voting; minority or majority or even exclusive), degrees of autonomy or self-rule. Thus, the final phase of decolonisation may in fact concern little more than handing over responsibility for foreign relations and security, and soliciting de jure recognition for the new sovereignty. But, even following the recognition of statehood, a degree of continuity can be maintained through bilateral treaties between now equal governments involving practicalities such as military training, mutual protection pacts, or even a garrison and/or military bases. “Sovereign” redirects here. ...


There is some debate over whether or not the United States, Canada and Latin America can be considered decolonized, as it was the colonist and their descendants who revolted and declared their independence instead of the indigenous peoples, as is usually the case. Scholars such as Elizabeth Cook-Lynn (Dakota) and Devon Mihesuah (Choctaw) have argued that portions of the United States still are in need of decolonisation[citation needed]. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Elizabeth Cook-Lynn (born 1930) is a Crow Creek Lakota Sioux novelist, poet and academic, whose trenchant views on Native American politics, particularly tribal sovereignty, have caused controversy. ... Look up Dakota in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Devon A. Mihesuah is a Choctaw historian and writer, and a previous editor of the American Indian Quarterly. ... For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ...


Decolonization in a broad sense

Stretching the notion further, internal decolonization can occur within a sovereign state. Thus, the expansive United States created territories, destined to colonize conquered lands bordering the existing states, and once their development proved successful (often involving new geographical splits) allowed them to petition statehood within the federation, granting not external independence but internal equality as 'sovereign' constituent members of the federal Union. France internalized several overseas possessions as Départements d'outre-mer. Under the 1946 Constitution of the Fourth Republic, the French colonies of Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana in the Caribbean and Réunion in the Indian Ocean became départements doutre-mer (Overseas departments) or DOMs. ...


Even in a state which legally does not colonize any of its 'integral' parts, real inequality often causes the politically dominant component - often the largest and/or most populous part (such as Russia within the formally federal USSR as earlier in the czar's empire),[citation needed] or the historical conqueror (such as Austria, the homelands of the ruling Habsburg dynasty, within an empire of mainly Slavonic 'minorities' from Silesia to the shifting Ottoman border)[citation needed] - to be perceived, at least subjectively, as a colonizer in all but name; hence, the dismemberment of such a 'prison of peoples' is perceived as decolonisation de facto.[citation needed]


To complicate matters even further, this may coincide with another element. Thus, the three Baltic republics - Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania - argue that they, in contrast with other constituent SSRs, could not have been granted independence at the dismemberment of the Soviet Union because they never joined, but were militarily annexed by Stalin, and thus had been illegally colonized, including massive deportations of their nationals and uninvited immigration of ethnic Russians and other soviet nationalities.[citation needed] Even in other post-Soviet states which had formally acceded, most ethnic Russians were so much identified with the Soviet 'colonization,' they felt unwelcome and migrated back to Russia.[citation needed] Post-Soviet states in alphabetical order: 1. ...


Amongst the countries which are likely to decolonise territories over the next two decades are the U.K. (Bermuda, Gibraltar, Sovereign Bases in Cyprus, British Virgin Islands, Falklands, etc), U.S.A. (U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, etc), and France (French Guiana, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Reunion, Guadalope, etc).


Decolonization before 1918

....

See also: Decolonization of the Americas

Decolonization of the Americas refers to the process by which the countries in North America and South America gained their independence. ...

Decolonization after 1918

Western European colonial powers

Further information: New Imperialism and Colonialism
Czechoslovak anti-colonialist propaganda poster: "Socialism opened the door of liberation for colonial nations."
Czechoslovak anti-colonialist propaganda poster: "Socialism opened the door of liberation for colonial nations."

The New Imperialism period, with the scramble for Africa and the Opium Wars, marked the zenith of European colonization. It also marked the acceleration of the trends that would end it. The extraordinary material demands of the conflict had spread economic change across the world (notably inflation), and the associated social pressures of "war imperialism" created both peasant unrest and a burgeoning middle class. The term New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europes powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Czechoslovak propaganda poster saying: Socialism opened door of liberation for colonial nations. ... Image File history File links Czechoslovak propaganda poster saying: Socialism opened door of liberation for colonial nations. ... The term New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europes powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... There were two Opium Wars between Britain and China. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


Economic growth created stakeholders with their own demands, while racial issues meant these people clearly stood apart from the colonial middle-class and had to form their own group. The start of mass nationalism, as a concept and practice, would fatally undermine the ideologies of imperialism. World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


There were, naturally, other factors, from agrarian change (and disaster – French Indochina), changes or developments in religion (Buddhism in Burma, Islam in the Dutch East Indies, marginally people like John Chilembwe in Nyasaland), and the impact of the depression of the 1930s. Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The present paper banknotes of Malawi feature John Chilembwe Reverend John Chilembwe (1860s – February 3, 1915) was a orthodox Baptist educator and a early figure in resistance to colonialism in Nyasaland, now Malawi. ... Motto Unity and Freedom Anthem (Chichewa) Oh God Bless Our Land of Malawi Capital Lilongwe Largest city Blantyre Official languages English (official) Chichewa (national) Demonym Malawian Government Multi-party democracy  -  President Bingu wa Mutharika Independence from the UK   -  Independence declared July 6, 1964   -  Republic July 6, 1966  Area  -  Total 118...


The Great Depression, despite the concentration of its impact on the industrialized world, was also exceptionally damaging in the rural colonies. Agricultural prices fell much harder and faster than those of industrial goods. From around 1925 until World War II, the colonies suffered. The colonial powers concentrated on domestic issues, protectionism and tariffs, disregarding the damage done to international trade flows. The colonies, almost all primary "cash crop" producers, lost the majority of their export income and were forced away from the "open" complementary colonial economies to "closed" systems. While some areas returned to subsistence farming (British Malaya) others diversified (India, West Africa), and some began to industrialise. These economies would not fit the colonial strait-jacket when efforts were made to renew the links. Further, the European-owned and -run plantations proved more vulnerable to extended deflation than native capitalists, reducing the dominance of "white" farmers in colonial economies and making the European governments and investors of the 1930s co-opt indigenous elites — despite the implications for the future. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for money. ... Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Fundamentally, a plantation is usually a large farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or trees and the like is cultivated, usually by resident laborers. ... “Deflation” redirects here. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ... The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ...


The efforts at colonial reform also hastened their end — notably the move from non-interventionist collaborative systems towards directed, disruptive, direct management to drive economic change. The creation of genuine bureaucratic government boosted the formation of indigenous bourgeoisie. This was especially true in the British Empire, which seemed less capable (or less ruthless) in controlling political nationalism. Driven by pragmatic demands of budgets and manpower the British made deals with the nationalist elites. They dealt with the white Dominions, retained strategic resources at the cost of reducing direct control in Egypt, and made numerous reforms in the Raj, culminating in the Government of India Act (1935). Collaboration is a process defined by the recursive interaction of knowledge[1] and mutual learning between two or more people working together[2] toward a common goal typically creative in nature. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... 24. ...


Africa was a very different case from Asia between the wars. Tropical Africa was not fully drawn into the colonial system before the end of the 19th century, excluding only the complexities of the Union of South Africa (busily introducing racial segregation from 1924 and thus catalyzing the anti-colonial political growth of half the continent) and the Empire of Ethiopia. Colonial controls ranged between extremes. Economic growth was often curtailed. There were no indigenous nationalist groups with widespread popular support before 1939. Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Flag Capital Addis Ababa Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1270-1285 Yekuno Amlak  - 1930-1974 Haile Selassie I History  - Overthrow of Zagwe kings 1270  - Italian occupation 1936  - Liberation 1941  - Coup detat 1974  - Monarchy abolished March 12, 1975 The Ethiopian Empire, also known as Abyssinia, existed from approximately 1270 AD (beginning of...


The United States

Main article: American empire

At end of the Spanish-American War, at the end of the 19th century, the United States of America held several colonial territories seized from Spain, among them the Philippines and Puerto Rico. Although the United States had initially embarked upon a policy of colonization of these territories (and had fought to suppress local "insurgencies" there, such as in the Philippine-American War), by the 1930s, the U.S. policy for the Philippines had changed toward the direction of eventual self-government. Following the invasion and occupation of the Philippines by Japan during World War II, the Philippines gained independence peacefully from the United States in 1946. For other uses, see American Empire (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties... Combatants United States Philippines several groups post-1902 Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Wesley Merritt Elwell Stephen Otis J. Franklin Bell Henry Ware Lawton† John J. Pershing Joseph Wheeler Emilio Aguinaldo Miguel Malvar Pio del Pilar Manuel Tinio Gregorio del Pilar† Licerio Geronimo Vicente Lukban Juan Cailles Maximino Hizon Antonio...


However, other U.S. possessions, such as Puerto Rico, did not gain full independence. Puerto Ricans have held U.S. citizenship since 1917, but do not vote in federal elections or pay federal taxes. Puerto Rico achieved self-government in 1952 and became a commonwealth in association with the United States. Puerto Rico was taken off the UN list of non-sovereign territories in 1953 through resolution 748. In 1967, 1993 and 1998, Puerto Rican voters rejected proposals to grant the territory statehood or independence. Nevertheless, the island's political status remains a hot topic of debate. “Citizen” redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of...


Japan

As the only Asian nation to become a colonial power during the modern era, Japan had gained several substantial colonial concessions in east Asia such as Taiwan and Korea. Pursuing a colonial policy comparable to those of European powers, Japan settled significant populations of ethnic Japanese in its colonies while simultaneously suppressing indigenous ethnic populations by enforcing the learning and use of the Japanese language in schools. Other methods such as public interaction, and attempts to eradicate the use of Korean and Taiwanese (Min Nan) among the indigenous peoples, were seen to be used. Japan also set up the Imperial university in Korea (Keijo Imperial University) and Taiwan (Taihoku University) to compel education. This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Not to be confused with the Javanese language. ... See alternative meanings for other possible definitions. ... M&#464;n N n (Chinese: &#38313;&#21335;&#35486;), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... The title Imperial university should literally denote a university established under an empire, however many universities have adopted the title simply to add a sense of prestige or lineage. ... Keijo Imperial University (京城帝国大学, Keijō Teikoku Daigaku; 경성제국대학, Gyeongseong Jeguk Daehak; abbreviated to 城大 Jōdai) is a Japanese university that existed at Seoul, Korea between 1924 and the end of World War II. History Keijo Imperial University was founded in 1924 as the sixth Imperial University of Japan during the period of...


World War II gave Japan occasion to conquer vast swaths of Asia, sweeping into China and seizing the Western colonies of Vietnam, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Burma, Malaya, Timor and Indonesia among others, albeit only for the duration of the war. Following its surrender to the Allies in 1945, Japan was deprived of all its colonies. Japan further claims that the southern Kuril Islands are a small portion of its own national territory, colonized by the Soviet Union. Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Portuguese Timor is the former name (1596 - 1975) of East Timor when it was under Portuguese control. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the political history of the sovereignty conflict, see Kuril Islands dispute. ...


French Decolonization

Further information: French colonial empires

After World War I, the colonized people were frustrated at France's failure to recognize the effort provided by the French colonies (resources, but more importantly colonial troops - the famous tirailleurs). Although in Paris the Great Mosque of Paris was constructed as recognition of these efforts, the French state had no intention to allow self-rule, let alone independence to the colonized people. Thus, nationalism in the colonies became stronger in between the two wars, leading to Abd el-Krim's Rif War (1921-1925) in Morocco and to the creation of Messali Hadj's Star of North Africa in Algeria in 1925. However, these movements would gain full potential only after World War II. The October 27, 1946 Constitution creating the Fourth Republic substituted the French Union to the colonial empire. On the night of March 29, 1947, a nationalist uprising in Madagascar led the French government led by Paul Ramadier (Socialist) to violent repression: one year of bitter fighting, in which 90,000 to 100,000 Malagasy died. On May 8, 1945, the Sétif massacre took place in Algeria. For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... Tirailleur means sharpshooter in French. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Minaret of the Paris Mosque The Grande Mosquée de Paris (Paris Great Mosque), located in the Ve arrondissement, was founded after World War I as a sign of Frances greatfullness to the Muslim tirailleurs from the colonies who had fought against Germany. ... Self rule is used to described a people or group being able to exercise all of the necessary functions of power without intervention from any authority which they cannot themselves alter. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... 199. ... Combatants Spain France Republic of the Rif Commanders Manuel Silvestre Dámaso Berenguer José Millán Astray Miguel Primo de Rivera Philippe Pétain Abd el-Krim Strength 465,000 regulars 15,000 irregulars Casualties 31,000 dead or wounded 54,000 dead or wounded The Rif War of 1920... Messali Hadj (مصالي الحاج) was the founder of the Mouvement National Algérien, an early Algerian nationalist group and rival of the Front de Libération Nationale. ... ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... French prime minister Paul Ramadier Paul Ramadier (March 17, 1888 - October 14, 1961) was a prominent French Socialist politician of the Third and Fourth Republics. ... The Section Française de lInternationale Ouvrière (SFIO, French section of the Workers International), founded in 1905, was a French socialist political party, designed as the local section of the Second International (i. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Map of Algeria showing Sétif province The Sétif massacre refers to widespread disturbances in and around the Algerian market town of Setif located to the west of Constantine in 1945. ...


In 1946, the states of French Indochina withdrew from the Union, leading to the Indochina War (1946-54) against Ho Chi Minh, who had been a co-founder of the French Communist Party in 1920 and had founded the Vietminh in 1941. In 1956, Morocco and Tunisia gained their independence, while the Algerian War was raging (1954-1962). With Charles de Gaulle's return to power in 1958 amidst turmoil and threats of a right-wing coup d'Etat to protect "French Algeria", the decolonization was completed with the independence of Sub-Saharan Africa's colonies in 1960 and the March 19, 1962 Evian Accords, which put an end to the Algerian war. The OAS movement unsuccessfully tried to block the accords with a series of bombings, including an attempted assassination against Charles de Gaulle. Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Vi&#7879;t Nam Ð&#7897;c L&#7853;p Ð&#7891;ng Minh H&#7897;i, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj General Jacques Massu General Maurice Challe Bachaga Said Boualam... Please post proper article, this page was tampered with, thank you. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... The Organisation de larmée secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization) was a short-lived French right-wing terrorist group formed in January 1961 to resist the granting of independence to the French colony of Algeria (Algérie française). ...


To this day, the Algerian war — officially called until the 1990s a "public order operation" — remains a trauma for both France and Algeria. Philosopher Paul Ricœur has spoken of the necessity of a "decolonization of memory", starting with the recognition of the 1961 Paris massacre during the Algerian war and the recognition of the decisive role of African and especially North African immigrant manpower in the Trente Glorieuses post-World War II economic growth period. In the 1960s, due to economic needs for post-war reconstruction and rapid economic growth, French employers actively sought to recruit manpower from the colonies, explaining today's multiethnic population. Paul Ricoeur, French philosopher Paul RicÅ“ur (February 27, 1913, Valence - May 20, 2005, Chatenay Malabry) was a French philosopher and anthropologist best known for his attempt to combine phenomenological description with hermeneutic interpretation. ... The Paris massacre of 1961 was an incident in Paris, France, in which on October 17 the French police attacked an unarmed demonstration of Algerians, who demanded independence for their homeland from French colonial rule. ... Immigration is the movement of people into one place from another. ... The Trente Glorieuses (Thirty Glorious Years) were the years between 1945 (end of the Second World War) and 1974 (following the 1973 energy crisis) as seen from a French perspective. ... This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ...


The Soviet Union and anti-colonialism

The Soviet Union sought to effect the abolishment of colonial governance by Western countries, either by direct subversion of Western-leaning or -controlled governments or indirectly by influence of political leadership and support. Many of the revolutions of this time period were inspired or influenced in this way. The conflicts in Vietnam, Nicaragua, Congo, and Sudan, among others, have been characterized as such.


Most Soviet leaders expressed the Marxist-Leninist view that imperialism was the height of capitalism, and generated a class-stratified society. It followed, then, that Soviet leadership would encourage independence movements in colonized territories, especially as the Cold War progressed. Because so many of these wars of independence expanded into general Cold War conflicts, the United States also supported several such independence movements in opposition to Soviet interests. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


During the Vietnam War, Communist countries supported anti-colonialist movements in various countries still under colonial administration through propaganda, developmental and economic assistance, and in some cases military aid. Notably among these were the support of armed rebel movements by Cuba in Angola, and the Soviet Union (as well as the People's Republic of China) in Vietnam.


It is noteworthy that while England, Spain, Portugal, France, and the Netherlands took colonies overseas, the Russian Empire expanded via land across Asia. The Soviet Union did not make any moves to return this land. The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ...


The emergence of the Third World (1945-)

Further information: Decolonization of Africa
Czechoslovak anti-colonialist propaganda poster: "Africa - fighting for freedom".
Czechoslovak anti-colonialist propaganda poster: "Africa - fighting for freedom".

The term "Third World" was coined by French demographer Alfred Sauvy in 1952, on the model of the Third Estate, which, according to the Abbé Sieyès, represented everything, but was nothing: "...because at the end this ignored, exploited, scorned Third World like the Third Estate, wants to become something too" (Sauvy). The emergence of this new political entity, in the frame of the Cold War, was complex and painful. Several tentatives were made to organize newly independent states in order to oppose a common front towards both the US's and the USSR's influence on them, with the consequences of the Sino-Soviet split already at works. Thus, the Non-Aligned Movement constituted itself, around the main figures of Nehru, the leader of India, Sukarno, The Indonesian prime minister, Tito the Communist leader of Yugoslavia, and Nasser, head of Egypt who successfully opposed the French and British imperial powers during the 1956 Suez crisis. After the 1954 Geneva Conference which put an end to the French war against Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam, the 1955 Bandung Conference gathered Nasser, Nehru, Tito, Sukarno, the leader of Indonesia, and Zhou Enlai, Premier of the People's Republic of China. In 1960, the UN General Assembly voted the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. The next year, the Non-Aligned Movement was officially created in Belgrade (1961), and was followed in 1964 by the creation of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) which tried to promote a New International Economic Order (NIEO). The NIEO was opposed to the 1944 Bretton Woods system, which had benefited the leading states which had created it, and remained in force until 1971 after the United States' suspension of convertibility from dollars to gold. The main tenets of the NIEO were: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (555x756, 110 KB)Czechoslovak poster Africa - fighting for freedom This is a copyrighted poster. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (555x756, 110 KB)Czechoslovak poster Africa - fighting for freedom This is a copyrighted poster. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Alfred Sauvy by Erling Mandelmann © http://www. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Third Estate (tiers état) indicated the generality of people which were not part of the clergy (the First Estate) nor of the nobility (the Second Estate). ... Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes, 1817, by Jacques-Louis David Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (May 3, 1748 – June 20, 1836) (IPA: or ) was a French abbé and statesman, one of the chief theorists of the French Revolution, French Consulate, and First French Empire. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Jawaharlal Nehru (&#2332;&#2357;&#2366;&#2361;&#2352;&#2354;&#2366;&#2354; &#2344;&#2375;&#2361;&#2352;&#2370;) (November 14, 1889 - May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the (moderately) socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British... Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... The Bandung Conference was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, organized by Egypt, Indonesia, Burma, Ceylon(Sri Lanka), India, and Pakistan. ... Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949... The Premier ( Chinese: &#24635;&#29702; pinyin: z&#335;ngl&#301;), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of Central Peoples Government. ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ... The Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples was a milestone in the process of decolonization. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body, UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment and development issues. ... New international economic order is a set of proposals put forward during the 1970s by developing countries through UNCTAD to promote their interests by improving their terms of trade, increasing development assistance, developed-country tariff reductions, and other means. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

  1. Developing countries must be entitled to regulate and control the activities of multinational corporations operating within their territory.
  2. They must be free to nationalise or expropriate foreign property on conditions favourable to them.
  3. They must be free to set up associations of primary commodities producers similar to the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, created on September 17, 1960 to protest pressure by major oil companies (mostly owned by U.S., British, and Dutch nationals) to reduce oil prices and payments to producers.); all other States must recognize this right and refrain from taking economic, military, or political measures calculated to restrict it.
  4. International trade should be based on the need to ensure stable, equitable, and remunerative prices for raw materials, generalized non-reciprocal and non-discriminatory tariff preferences, as well as transfer of technology to developing countries; and should provide economic and technical assistance without any strings attached.
The UN Human Development Index (HDI) is a quantitative index of development, alternative to the classic Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which some use as a proxy to define the Third World. While the GDP only calculates economic wealth, the HDI includes life expectancy, public health and literacy as fundamental factors of a good quality of life.
The UN Human Development Index (HDI) is a quantitative index of development, alternative to the classic Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which some use as a proxy to define the Third World. While the GDP only calculates economic wealth, the HDI includes life expectancy, public health and literacy as fundamental factors of a good quality of life.

The UNCTAD however wasn't very effective in implementing this New International Economic Order (NIEO), and social and economic inequalities between industrialized countries and the Third World kept on growing through-out the 1960s until the 21st century. The 1973 oil crisis which followed the Yom Kippur War (October 1973) was triggered by the OPEC which decided an embargo against the US and Western countries, causing a fourfold increase in the price of oil, which lasted five months, starting on October 17, 1973, and ending on March 18 1974. OPEC nations then agreed, on January 7, 1975, to raise crude oil prices by 10%. At that time, OPEC nations — including many who had recently nationalised their oil industries — joined the call for a New International Economic Order to be initiated by coalitions of primary producers. Concluding the First OPEC Summit in Algiers they called for stable and just commodity prices, an international food and agriculture program, technology transfer from North to South, and the democratization of the economic system. But industrialized countries quickly began to look for substitutes to OPEC petroleum, with the oil companies investing the majority of their research capital in the US and European countries or others, politically sure countries. The OPEC lost more and more influence on the world prices of oil. A multinational corporation (MNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... Expropriation is the act of removing from control the owner of an item of property. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A voluntary association (also sometimes called an unincorporated association, or just an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ... Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Not to be confused with APEC. OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international cartel[1][2] made up of Iraq, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Angola, Algeria, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term state may refer to: a sovereign political entity, see state unitary state nation state a non-sovereign political entity, see state (non-sovereign). ... In jurisprudence and law, a right is the legal or moral entitlement to do or refrain from doing something or to obtain or refrain from obtaining an action, thing or recognition in civil society. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... This article is about concept of equity in Anglo-American jurisprudence. ... Look up Remuneration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For people whose family name is Price see Price (disambiguation). ... A Raw material is something that is acted upon by human labour or industry to create some product that humans desire. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: reciprocity Reciprocity may mean: Reciprocity (international relations), a principle that favours, benefits, or penalties that are granted by one state to the citizens or legal entities of another, should be returned in kind. ... This article is about discrimination in the social science sense. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... Technology transfer is the process of developing practical applications for the results of scientific research. ... Development aid (also development assistance, international aid, overseas aid or foreign aid) is aid given by developed countries to support economic development in developing countries. ... A conditionality in international development is a condition attached to a loan or to debt relief, typically by the International Monetary Fund or World Bank. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 31 KB) Summary World map: HDI for UN member states (2003) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 31 KB) Summary World map: HDI for UN member states (2003) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The UN Human Development Index (HDI) measures poverty, literacy, education, life expectancy, and other factors. ... This article is about GDP in the context of economics. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ... The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ... The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The second oil crisis occurred in the wake of the 1979 Iranian Revolution. Then, the 1982 Latin American debt crisis exploded in Mexico first, then Argentina and Brazil, whom proved unable to pay back their debts, jeopardizing the existence of the international economic system. Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... The Latin American debt crisis refers to a period in the early 1980s (and for some countries starting in the 1970s) where countries in the region reached a point where their foreign debt exceeded their earning power and they were not able to repay it. ...


The 1990s were characterized by the prevalence of the Washington consensus on neoliberal policies, "structural adjustment" and "shock therapies" for the former Communist states. The Washington Consensus is a phrase initially coined in 1987-88 by John Williamson to describe a relatively specific set of ten economic policy prescriptions that he considered to constitute a standard reform package promoted for crisis-wracked countries by Washington-based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, World... For the school of international relations, see Neoliberalism in international relations. ... Structural adjustment is a term used to describe the policy changes implemented by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (the Bretton Woods Institutions) in developing countries. ... In economics, shock therapy refers to the sudden release of price and currency controls, withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country. ...


Modern approaches to decolonization

Though the term "decolonization" is not well received among donors in international development today, the root of the emerging emphasis on projects to promote "democracy, governance and human rights" by international donors and to promote "institution building" and a "[human rights based approach]" to development is really to achieve decolonization. This article is about International Development. ...


In many independent, post-colonial nations, the systems and cultures of colonialism continue. Weak Parliaments and Ministerial governments (where Ministries issue their own edicts and write laws rather than the Parliament) are holdovers of colonialism since political decisions were made outside the country, Parliaments were at most for show, and the executive branch (then, foreign Governor Generals and foreign civil servants) held local power. Similarly, militaries are strong and civil control over them is weak; a holdover of military control exercised by a foreign military. In some cases, the governing systems in post-colonial countries could be viewed as ruling elites who succeeded in coup d'etats against the foreign colonial regime but never gave up the system of control.


In many countries, the human rights challenges are to empower women and reverse the legacy of missionization that promoted patriarchy and to empower individuals and civil society through changes in education systems that were set up by colonial governments to train obedient servants of colonial regimes. Look up patriarchy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Often the impact of colonialism is more subtle, with preferences for clothes (such as "blue" shirts of French officials and pith helmets), drugs (alcohol and tobacco that colonial governments introduced, often as a way to tax locals) and other cultural attributes remain.


Some experts in development, such as David Lempert, have suggested an opening of dialogues from the colonial powers on the systems they introduced and the harms that continue as a way of decolonizing in rights policy documents for the UN system and for Europe. First World countries often seem reluctant to engage in this form of decolonization, however, since they may benefit from the legacies of colonialism that they created, in contemporary trade and political relations. David Howard Lempert is an internationally known Anthropologist, Author, Social Entrepreneur, and Development Consultant. ...


Assassinated anticolonialist leaders

A non-exhaustive list of assassinated leaders would include: This is an incomplete list of persons who were assassinated; that is, important people who were murdered, usually for ideological or political reasons. ...

Many of these assassinations are still unsolved cases as of 2007, but foreign power interference is undeniable in many of these cases — although others were for internal matters. To take only one case, the investigation concerning Mehdi Ben Barka is continuing to this day, and both France and the United States have refused to declassify files they acknowledge having in their possession[3] The Phoenix Program, a CIA program of assassination during the Vietnam War, should also be named. Ruben Um Nyobé (1913-September 13, 1958) was an anti-imperialist Cameroonian leader, slain by the French army on September 13, 1958, near his natal village of Boumnyebel, in the department of Nyong-et-Kellé in the maquis Bassa. ... The Union of the Peoples of Cameroon (French: Union des Populations du Cameroun) is a political party in Cameroon. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Barthélemy Boganda - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Félix-Roland Moumié was a Cameroonian Marxist leader, assassinated in Geneva in 1960 by the SDECE (French secret services) with thalium [1]. Félix-Roland Moumié succeeded to Ruben Um Nyobe, killed in September 1958, as leader of the Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC - or also Union du... The Union of the Peoples of Cameroon (French: Union des Populations du Cameroun) is a political party in Cameroon. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... The Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnage (External Documentation and Counter-Espionage Service, SDECE) was Frances external intelligence agency from November 6, 1944 to April 2, 1982 when it was replaced by the Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure. ... Patrice Lumumba as the Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1960 Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Louis Rwagasore (10 January 1932-13 October 1961) was a Burundi nationalist and prime minister. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pierre Ngendandumwe (1930 - January 15, 1965) was a Burundian political figure. ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Sylvanus Epiphanio Olympio (September 1902 - 13 January 1963) was a Togolese political figure. ... This page contains a list of presidents of Togo. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gnassingbé Eyadéma - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé (born June 6, 1966), also known as Faure Eyadéma, has been the President of Togo since May 4, 2005; he was previously president for twenty days from February 5 to February 25, 2005. ... Mehdi Ben Barka (1920 in Rabat – disappeared 1965 in Paris) was a Moroccan politician. ... The UNFP or Union Nationale des Forces Populaires was founded in 1959 in Morocco by Mehdi Ben Barka and his entourage because they found that Istiqlal (meaning Independence) wasnt radical enough. ... Poster of the OSPAAAL. Africa, Asia and Latin America at the sides of the Arab Peoples. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... A Forced disappearance occurs when an organization (usually a ruling government and that is usually a police state or dictatorship) forces a person to disappear from public view. ... Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello (1909 - 1966) was a Nigerian politician, born on 12th June, 1909 in Rabbah, Sokoto State. ... Mondlane on a Mozambican 1000 metical note. ... The Mozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO, pronounced fray-LEE-moo; Portuguese: Frente de Libertação de Moçambique) is a political party that has ruled Mozambique since independence in 1975. ... Operation Gladio Operation Gladio was a clandestine stay-behind operation sponsored by the CIA and NATO to counter communist influence in Italy, as well as in other European countries. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Pan-African people are all people with African physical features. ... Tom Joseph Odhiambo Mboya (August 15, 1930 - July 5, 1969) was a Kenyan politician during Jomo Kenyattas government. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Sheikh Abeid Amani Karume. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070... Amílcar Lopes Cabral (September 21, 1924 – January 20, 1973) was an African agronomic engineer, writer and nationalist politician. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Outel Bono (died 26 August 1973) was a Chadian medical doctor and politician. ... François (Ngarta) Tombalbaye (June 15, 1918 - April 13, 1975) was the first president of Chad. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Françafrique is a term that refers to alleged neocolonialism by France in Africa. ... Herbert Witshire Chitepo (15th June, 1923 &#8211; 18th March, 1975) was a prominent Barrister in Southern Africa who was leader of ZANUs war to liberate Rhodesia from the white-minority government, led by Ian Smith. ... The Zimbabwe African National Union was a political party during the struggle for Rhodesias, ultimately Zimbabwes, independence, formed as a split from ZAPU. It won the 1980 elections under the leadership of Robert Mugabe, and eight years later merged again with Joshua Nkomos ZAPU to form Zanu... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez (August 15, 1917 – March 24, 1980), commonly known as Monseñor Romero or Padre Romero, was a priest of the Roman Catholic Church in El Salvador. ... Look up prelate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Christianity, liberation theology is a school of theology that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Dulcie Evonne September (died March 29, 1988) was a notable murder victim. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... The arms industry is a massive global industry. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... The Phoenix Program (Vietnamese: Kế Hoạch Phụng Hoàng, a word related to fenghuang, the Chinese phoenix) or Operation Phoenix was a military, intelligence, and internal security coordination program designed by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the Vietnam War. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Post-colonial organizations

Four international organizations whose membership largely follows the pattern of previous colonial empires.
Four international organizations whose membership largely follows the pattern of previous colonial empires.

Due to a common history and culture, former colonial powers created institutions which more loosely associated their former colonies. Membership is voluntary, and in some cases can be revoked if a member state loses some objective criteria (usually a requirement for democratic governance). The organizations serve cultural, economic, and political purposes between the associated countries, although no such organization has become politically prominent as an entity in its own right. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 58 KB) Summary Created by User:Aris Katsaris, by modifying Image:BlankMap-World-v2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 58 KB) Summary Created by User:Aris Katsaris, by modifying Image:BlankMap-World-v2. ...

Former Colonial Power Organization Founded
Britain Commonwealth of Nations 1931
Commonwealth Realms 1931
Associated states 1967
France French Union 1946
French Community 1958
Francophonie 1970
Spain & Portugal Latin Union 1954
Organization of Ibero-American States 1991
Community of Portuguese Language Countries 1996
United States Commonwealths 1934
Freely Associated States 1982
European Union ACP countries 1975

The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... An associated state is used to describe a free relationship between a territory and a larger nation. ... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... The French Community was the political entity which replaced the French Union, which in turn was the descendant of the French Empire following the Second World War. ... Motto Égalité, Complémentarité, Solidarité Members and participants of La Francophonie. ... The Latin Union is an international organization of nations that use a Romance language. ... The Organization of Ibero-American States is an international organisation, comprising Latin America, Spain and Portugal. ... Headquarters Lisbon, Portugal Official language Portuguese Membership 8 (plus 2 observers) Leaders  -  Executive Secretariat Luís de Matos Monteiro da Fonseca Establishment 1996 Website http://www. ... For other uses of Commonwealth, see Commonwealth. ... The Compact of Free Association (COFA) defines the relationship that three sovereign states—the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the Republic of Palau—have entered into as associated states with the United States. ... ACP States The ACP States are the countries that are signatories of the Lomé Convention. ...

Differing perspectives

There is quite a bit of controversy over decolonisation. The end goal tends to be universally regarded as good, but there has been much debate over the best way to grant full independence.


Decolonization and political instability

Some say the post–World War II decolonisation movement was too rushed, especially in Africa, and resulted in the creation of unstable regimes in the newly independent countries. Thus causing war between and within the new independent nation-states.


Others argue that this instability is largely the result of problems from the colonial period, including arbitrary nation-state borders, lack of training of local populations and disproportional economy. However by the 20th century most colonial powers were slowly being forced by the moral beliefs of population to increase the welfare of their colonial subjects.


Some would argue a form of colonialisation still exists in the form of american economic colonialism in the form of U.S owned multinational corporations.


Economic effects

Effects on the colonizers

John Kenneth Galbraith argues that the post-World War II decolonization was brought about for economic reasons. In A Journey Through Economic Time, he writes, "The engine of economic well-being was now within and between the advanced industrial countries. Domestic economic growth — as now measured and much discussed — came to be seen as far more important than the erstwhile colonial trade... The economic effect in the United States from the granting of independence to the Philippines was unnoticeable, partly due to the Bell Trade Act, which allowed American monopoly in the economy of the Philippines. The departure of India and Pakistan made small economic difference in Britain. Dutch economists calculated that the economic effect from the loss of the great Dutch empire in Indonesia was compensated for by a couple of years or so of domestic post-war economic growth. The end of the colonial era is celebrated in the history books as a triumph of national aspiration in the former colonies and of benign good sense on the part of the colonial powers. Lurking beneath, as so often happens, was a strong current of economic interest — or in this case, disinterest." John Kenneth Galbraith John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908–April 29, 2006) was an influential Canadian-American economist. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Part of the reason for the lack of economic impact felt by the colonizer upon the release of the colonized was that costs and benefits were not eliminated, but shifted. The colonizer no longer had the burden of obligation, financial or otherwise, to their colony. The colonizer continued to be able to obtain cheap goods and labor as well as economic benefits (see Suez Canal Crisis) from the former colonies. Financial, political and military pressure could still be used to achieve goals desired by the colonizer. The most obvious difference is the ability of the colonizer to disclaim responsibility for the colonized. Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 300,000 Casualties 177 Israeli KIA 16 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 33 French WIA 1,650 KIA 4,900 WIA...


Effects on the former colonies

Further information: Third World debt

Third World debt is external debt incurred by Third World countries. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Settled populations

Decolonization is not an easy matter in colonies where a large population of settlers lives, particularly if they have been there for several generations. This population, in general, may have to be repatriated, often losing considerable property. For instance, the decolonisation of Algeria by France was particularly uneasy due to the large European and Sephardic Jewish population (see also pied noir), which largely evacuated to France when Algeria became independent. In Zimbabwe, former Rhodesia, president Robert Mugabe has, starting in the 1990s, targeted white farmers and forcibly seized their property. In some cases, decolonisation is hardly possible or impossible because of the importance of the settler population or where the indigenous population is now in the minority; such is the case of the British population of the Cayman Islands and the Russian population of Kazakhstan, as well as the settler societies of North America. Pied-noir (plural pieds-noirs) is a term for the former population of European descent of North Africa, especially Algeria, which was divided into three French departments until its 1962 independence. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Mugabe redirects here. ...


Charts of the independences

In this chronological overview, not every date is indisputably the decisive moment. Often, the final phase, independence, is mentioned here, though there may be years of autonomy before, e.g. as an Associated State under the British crown. For such details, see each national history.


Furthermore, note that some cases have been included that were not strictly colonized but rather protectorate, co-dominium, lease... Changes subsequent to decolonization are usually not included; nor is the dissolution of the Soviet Union. This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ...


18th and 19th centuries

Year Colonizer Event
1776 Great Britain The 13 original colonies of the United States declare independence a year after their insurrection begins.
1783 Great Britain The British Crown recognizes the independence of the United States.
1803 France Via the Louisiana purchase, the last French territories in North America are handed over to the United States.
1804 France Haiti declares independence, the first non-white nation to emancipate itself from European rule.
1808 Portugal Brazil, the largest Portuguese colony, achieves a greater degree of authonomy after the exiled king of Portugal establishes residence there. After he returns home in 1821, his son and regent declares an independent "Empire" in 1822.
1810 Spain United Provinces of the River Plate and Chile. First declaration of an autonomous government within the Spanish Crown. Full independence would be finally achieved in 1816. (see below)
1813 Spain Paraguay becomes independent.
1816 Spain Chile and the United Provinces of the River Plate (former Argentina and Uruguay) declare independence. The latter would then secede and gain independence in 1828 after periods of Brazilian occupation and of federation with Argentina)
1818 Spain Second and final declaration of independence of Chile
1819 Spain New Granada attains independence as Gran Colombia (later to become the independent states of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela).
1821 Spain The Dominican Republic (then Santo Domingo), Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador and Costa Rica all declare independence; Venezuela and Mexico both achieve independence.
1822 Spain Ecuador attains independence from Spain (and independence from Colombia 1830).
1824 Spain Peru and Bolivia attain independence.
1847 United States Liberia becomes a free and independent African state.
1865 Spain The Dominican Republic gains its final independence after four years as a restored colony.
1868 Spain Cuba declares independence and is reconquered; taken by the United States in 1898; governed under U.S. military administration until 1902.
1898 Spain The Philippines declares independence but is taken by the United States in 1899; governed under U.S. military and then civilian administration until 1934.

For an explanation of terms such as Great Britain, British, United Kingdom, England, Scotland and Wales, see British Isles (terminology). ... U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is the document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ... For the musical, see Louisiana Purchase (musical) and Louisiana Purchase (film). ... The United Provinces of Silver River, (Spanish: Provincias Unidas de la Río de la Plata) also called United Provinces of South America was the official name of Argentina from 1816 to 1853, the year in which that name and the names República Argentina and Confederación Argentina would... The United Provinces of Silver River, (Spanish: Provincias Unidas de la Río de la Plata) also called United Provinces of South America was the official name of Argentina from 1816 to 1853, the year in which that name and the names República Argentina and Confederación Argentina would... The Viceroyalty of New Granada was the name given to a group of colonial provinces in northern South America, corresponding mainly to modern Colombia. ... Gran Colombia Capital Bogotá Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic History  - Established December 17, 1819  - Disestablished November 19, 1831 Gran Colombia (Spanish for Great Colombia) is a name used today for the Republic of Colombia of the period 1819-1831. ... It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ...

20th Century

Year Colonizer Event
1919 United Kingdom End of the protectorate over Afghanistan, when Britain accepts the presence of a Soviet ambassador in Kabul.
1921 China The strong empire loses all control over Outer Mongolia but retains the larger, progressively sinified, Inner Mongolia), which has been granted autonomy in 1912 (as well as Tibet), and now becomes a popular republic and, as of 1924, a de facto satellite of the USSR. Formal recognition of Mongolia will follow in 1945.
1922 United Kingdom In Ireland, following insurgency by the IRA, most of Ireland separates from the United Kingdom as the Irish Free State, reversing 800 years of British presence. Northern Ireland, the northeast area of the island, remains within the United Kingdom.
1923 United Kingdom End of the de facto protectorate over Nepal which was never truly colonized.
1930 United Kingdom The United Kingdom returns the leased port territory at Weihaiwei to China, the first episode of decolonisation in East Asia.
1931 United Kingdom The Statute of Westminster grants virtually full independence to Canada, New Zealand, Newfoundland, the Irish Free State, the Commonwealth of Australia, and the Union of South Africa, when it declares the British parliament incapable of passing law over these former colonies without their own consent.
1932 United Kingdom Ends League of Nations Mandate over Iraq. Britain continues to station troops in the country and influence the Iraqi government until 1958.
1934 United States Makes the Philippine Islands a Commonwealth. Abrogates Platt Amendment, which gave it direct authority to intervene in Cuba.
1941 France Lebanon declares independence, effectively ending the French mandate (previously together with Syria) - it is recognized in 1943.
1941 Italy Ethiopia, Eritrea & Tigray (appended to it), and the Italian part of Somalia are liberated by the Allies after an uneasy occupation of Ethiopia since 1935-36, and no longer joined as one colonial federal state; the Ogaden desert (disputed by Somalia) remains under British military control until 1948.

This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Outer Mongolia makes up Mongolia (presently a sovereign state) and Tannu Uriankhai (the majority of which is the modern-day Tuva Republic, a federal subject of the Russian Federation), while Inner Mongolia (内蒙古; Nèi MÄ›nggÇ”) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: &#6181;&#6186;&#6182;&#6199; &#6190;&#6179;&#6184;&#6202;&#6180;&#6191;&#6180;&#6184; &#6181;&#6186;&#6177;&#6199;&#6194;&#6177;&#6202;&#6177;&#6184; &#6197;&#6176;&#6192;&#6176;&#6188;&#6180; &#6179;&#6199;&#6180;&#6184; r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: &#20869;&#33945;&#21476;&#33258;&#27835;&#21306;; Hanyu Pinyin: N... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... This article is about the prior state. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Weihai (&#23041;&#28023;; pinyin: w&#275;ih&#462;i, also Weihaiwei) is a seaport city on the Bohai Gulf in north-east Shandong province, China. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... This article is about the prior state. ... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... Mandate can mean: An obligation handed down by an inter-governmental body; see mandate (international law) The power granted by an electorate; see mandate (politics) A League of Nations mandate To some Christians, an order from God; see mandate (theology) The decision of an appeals court; see mandate (law) The... The Philippine islands is a commonly mistaken description for the Philippines. ... Anthem Lupang Hinirang Location of the Philippines in Asia Capital Manila ¹ Language(s) Pilipino, English, Spanish Government Republic President  - 1935-1944 Manuel L. Quezon  - 1944-1946 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Manuel Roxas Vice President  - 1935-1944 Sergio Osmeña  - 1946 Elpidio Quirino Historical era American colonization  - Philippine Independence Act March... Page one of the Platt Amendment The Platt Amendment was a rider amended to the Army Appropriations Act, a United States federal law passed on March 2, 1901 that stipulated the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba since the Spanish-American War, and defined the... Tigray was a province of Ethiopia. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... This article is about the geographical area. ...

From World War II to the present

Year Colonizer Event
1945 Japan After surrender of Japan, North Korea was reigned by Soviet Union and South Korea was reigned by United States.
Japan The Republic of China possesses Taiwan
France Vietnam declares independence but only to be recognised 9 years later
1946 United States The sovereignty of the Philippines is recognized by the United States, which conquered the islands during the Philippine-American War. But, the United States continues to station troops in the country as well as influence the Philippine government and economy (through the Bell Trade Act) until the fall of Marcos in 1986, which allowed Filipinos to author a genuinely Filipino constitution.
United Kingdom The former emirate of Transjordan (present-day Jordan) becomes an independent Hashemite kingdom when Britain relinquishes UN trusteeship.
1947 United Kingdom The Republic of India and Muslim State of Pakistan (including present-day Bangladesh) achieve direct independence in an attempt to separate the native Hindus officially from secular and Muslim parts of former British India.
1948 United Kingdom In the Far East, Burma and Ceylon (Sri Lanka) become independent. In the Middle East, Israel becomes independent less than a year after the British government withdraws from the Palestine Mandate; the remainder of Palestine becomes part of the Arab states of Egypt and Transjordan.
United States Republic of Korea was established.
Soviet Union Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established.
1949 France Laos becomes independent.
The Netherlands Independence of United States of Indonesia is recognized by United Nations and subsequently overthrown by the Republic of Indonesia led by Sukarno
1951 Italy Libya becomes an independent kingdom.
1952 United States Puerto Rico in the Antilles becomes a self governing Commonwealth associated to the US.
1953 France France recognizes Cambodia's independence.
1954 France Vietnam's independence recognized, though the nation is partitioned. The Pondichery enclave is incorporated into India. Beginning of the Algerian War of Independence
United Kingdom The United Kingdom withdraws from the last part of Egypt it controls: the Suez Canal zone.
1956 United Kingdom Anglo-Egyptian Sudan becomes independent.
France Tunisia and the sherifian kingdom of Morocco in the Maghreb achieve independence.
Spain Spain-controlled areas in Morroco become independent.
1957 United Kingdom Ghana becomes independent, initiating the decolonisation of sub-Saharan Africa.
United Kingdom The Federation of Malaya becomes independent.
1958 France Guinea on the coast of West-Africa is granted independence.
United States Signing the Alaska Statehood Act by Dwight D. Eisenhower, granting Alaska the possibility of the equal rights of statehood
United Kingdom UN trustee Britain withdraws from Iraq, which becomes an independent Hashemite Kingdom (like Jordan, but soon to become a republic through the first of several coups d'état).
1960 United Kingdom Nigeria, British Somaliland (present-day Somalia), and most of Cyprus become independent, though the UK retains sovereign control over Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
France Benin (then Dahomey), Upper Volta (present-day Burkina Faso), Cameroon, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, the Mali Federation (split the same year into present-day Mali and Senegal), Mauritania, Niger, Togo and the Central African Republic (the Oubangui Chari) and Madagascar all become independent.
Belgium The Belgian Congo (also known as Congo-Kinshasa, later renamed Zaire and presently the Democratic Republic of the Congo), becomes independent.
1961 United Kingdom Tanganyika (formerly a German colony under UK trusteeship, merged to federal Tanzania in 1964 with the island of Zanzibar, formerly a proper British colony wrested from the Omani sultanate); Sierra Leone, Kuwait and British Cameroon become independent. South Africa declares independence.
Portugal The former coastal enclave colonies of Goa, Daman and Diu are taken over by India.
1962 United Kingdom Uganda in Africa, and Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean, achieve independence.
France End of Algerian War of Independence, Algeria becomes independent.
Belgium Rwanda and Burundi (then Urundi) attain independence through the ending of the Belgian trusteeship.
New Zealand The South Sea UN trusteeship over the Polynesian kingdom of Western Samoa (formerly German Samoa and nowadays called just Samoa) is relinquished.
1963 United Kingdom Kenya becomes independent.
United Kingdom Singapore, together with Sarawak and Sabah on North Borneo, form Malaysia with the pensinsular Federation of Malaya.
1964 United Kingdom Northern Rhodesia declares independence as Zambia and Malawi, formerly Nyasaland does the same, both from the United Kingdom. The Mediterranean island of Malta becomes independent.
1965 United Kingdom Southern Rhodesia (the present Zimbabwe) declares independence as Rhodesia, a second Apartheid regime, but is not recognized. Gambia is recognized as independent. The British protectorate over the Maldives archipelago in the Indian Ocean is ended.
1966 United Kingdom In the Caribbean, Barbados and Guyana; and in Africa, Botswana (then Bechuanaland) and Lesotho become independent.
1967 United Kingdom On the Arabian peninsula, Aden colony becomes independent as South Yemen, to be united with formerly Ottoman North Yemen in 1990-1991.
1968 United Kingdom Mauritius and Swaziland achieve independence.
Portugal After nine years of organized guerrilla resistance, most of Guinea-Bissau comes under native control.
Spain Equatorial Guinea (then Rio Muni) is made independent.
Australia Relinquishes UN trusteeship (nominally shared by the United Kingdom and New Zealand) of Nauru in the South Sea.
1971 United Kingdom Fiji and Tonga in the South Sea are given independence; South Asia East Pakistan achieves independence with the help of India.
United Kingdom Bahrain, Qatar, Oman and seven Trucial States (the same year, six federated together as United Arab Emirates and the seventh, Ras al-Kaimah, joined soon after) become independent Arab monarchies in the Persian Gulf as the British protectorates are lifted.
1973 United Kingdom The Bahamas are granted independence.
Portugal Guerrillas unilaterally declare independence in the Southeastern regions of Guinea-Bissau.
1974 United Kingdom Grenada in the Caribbean becomes independent.
Portugal Guinea-Bissau on the coast of West-Africa is recognized as independent by Portugal.
1975 France The Comoros archipelago in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa is granted independence.
Portugal Angola, Mozambique and the island groups of Cape Verde and São Tomé and Príncipe, all four in Africa, achieve independence. East Timor declares independence, but is subsequently occupied and annexed by Indonesia nine days later.
The Netherlands Suriname (then Dutch Guiana) becomes independent.
Australia Released from trusteeship, Papua New Guinea gains independence.
1976 United Kingdom Seychelles archipelago in the Indian Ocean off the African coast becomes independent (one year after granting of self-rule).
Spain The Spanish colonial rule de facto terminated over the Western Sahara (then Rio de Oro), when the territory was passed on to and partitioned between Mauritania and Morocco (which annexes the entire territory in 1979), rendering the declared independence of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic ineffective to the present day. Since Spain did not have the right to give away Western Sahara, under international law the territory is still under Spanish administration. The de facto administrator is however Morocco.
1977 France French Somaliland, also known as Afar & Issa-land (after its main tribal groups), the present Djibouti, is granted independence.
1978 United Kingdom Dominica in the Caribbean and the Solomon Islands, as well as Tuvalu (then the Ellice Islands), all in the South Sea, become independent.
1979 United States Returns the Panama Canal Zone (held under a regime sui generis since 1903) to the republic of Panama.
United Kingdom The Gilbert Islands (present-day Kiribati) in the South Sea as well as Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Saint Lucia in the Caribbean become independent.
1980 United Kingdom Zimbabwe (then [Southern] Rhodesia), already independent de facto, becomes formally independent. The joint Anglo-French colony of the New Hebrides becomes the independent island republic of Vanuatu.
1981 United Kingdom Belize (then British Honduras) and Antigua & Barbuda become independent.
1983 United Kingdom Saint Kitts and Nevis (an associated state since 1963) becomes independent.
1984 United Kingdom Brunei sultanate on Borneo becomes independent.
1990 South Africa Namibia becomes independent from South Africa.
United States The UN Security Council gives final approval to end the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific (dissolved already in 1986), finalizing the independence of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, having been a colonial possession of the empire of Japan before UN trusteeship.
1991 United States U.S. forces withdraw from Subic Bay and Clark Air Base in the Philippines ending major U.S. military presence, which lasted for almost a century.
1994 United States Palau (after a transitional period as a Republic since 1981, and before part of the U.S. Trust territory of the Pacific) becomes independent from its former trustee, having been a mandate of the Japanese Empire before UN trusteeship.
1997 United Kingdom The sovereignty of Hong Kong is transferred to China.
1999 Portugal The sovereignty of Macau is transferred to China on schedule. It is the last in a series of coastal enclaves that militarily stronger powers had obtained through treaties from the Chinese Empire. Like Hong Kong, it is not organized into the existing provincial structure applied to other provinces of the People's Republic of China, but is guaranteed a quasi-autonomous system of government within the People's Republic of China.
2002 Indonesia East Timor formally achieves independence after a transitional UN administration, three years after Indonesia ended its violent quarter-century military occupation of the former Portuguese colony.

For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Combatants United States Philippines several groups post-1902 Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Wesley Merritt Elwell Stephen Otis J. Franklin Bell Henry Ware Lawton† John J. Pershing Joseph Wheeler Emilio Aguinaldo Miguel Malvar Pio del Pilar Manuel Tinio Gregorio del Pilar† Licerio Geronimo Vicente Lukban Juan Cailles Maximino Hizon Antonio... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Civilians; Defected Troops Marcos Loyalist Troops Commanders Corazon Aquino Archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin Vice Chief of Staff Fidel Ramos Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos Imelda Marcos Chief of Staff Fabian Ver Casualties None 1 “People Power” redirects here. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Constitution of the... Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... In common law legal systems, a trust is a relationship in which a person or entity (the trustee) has legal control over certain property (the trust property or trust corpus), but is bound by fiduciary duty to exercise that legal control for the benefit of someone else (the beneficiary), according... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... On June 24, 1922 the League of Nations agreed upon a document called the Palestine Mandate. ... For other uses, see Jordan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Netherlands (disambiguation). ... Motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Old Javanese/Kawi: Unity in Diversity) National ideology: Pancasila Anthem: Indonesia Raya Capital Jakarta Largest city Jakarta Official language(s) Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia, a standardized dialect of the Malay language) Government President Republic Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono Independence - Declared - Recognised From Netherlands 17 August 1945 27 December... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... For other uses of Commonwealth, see Commonwealth. ... Pondicherry (&#2346;&#2377;&#2306;&#2337;&#2367;&#2330;&#2375;&#2352;&#2368; in Hindi), currently undergoing a name change to Puduchery, is the name of a union territory and its capital in the south of India. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj General Jacques Massu General Maurice Challe Bachaga Said Boualam... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... The Kingdom of Morocco is a country in northwest Africa. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... The Alaska Statehood Act, signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on July 7, 1958, allowing Alaska to enter the Union on January 3, 1959. ... Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... The British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... Anthem God Save the Queen Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Occupied Areas) Sovereign Base Areas indicated in pink. ... Flag of Deutsch-Ostafrika (1885-1919) Flag of Tanganyika (1919-1961) Flag of the Republic of Tanganyika 1962–64 Tanganyika is the name of an East African territory lying between the largest of the African great lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika, after which it was named. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070... Cameroons was a British Mandate territory in Nigeria and Cameroon. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj General Jacques Massu General Maurice Challe Bachaga Said Boualam... The Independent State of Samoa (conventional long form) or Samoa (conventional short form) is a country comprising a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... Capital Aden Language(s) Arabic Government Socialist republic President Sam Hazlewood al-Attas Prime Minister Yasin Said Numan Historical era Cold War  - Independence November 30, 1967  - UN membership December 14, 1967  - Constitution October 31, 1978  - Reunification May 22, 1990 Area  - 1990 332,970 km² Population  - 1990 est. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... The Saharawi (or Sahrawi) Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) is the long-form English translation of the government of Western Sahara. ... The Panama Canal Zone (Spanish: ), was a 553 square mile (1,432 km²) territory inside of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area generally extending 5 miles (8. ... The New Hebrides are an island group in the South Pacific that now form the nation of Vanuatu. ... Antigua and Barbuda is an island nation located in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... National motto: ? Official language English? Capital Saipan Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 78 (United States) 1,779 km² Negligible Population  - Total  - Density 132,929 (1980) N/Akm² GDP  - Total  - GDP/head N/A Currency US Dollar Time zone UTC: ? Independence UN trusteeship administered by the US Internet TLD none? Calling code... A 1902 nautical chart of Subic Bay Subic Bay is a bay on the west coast of the island of Luzon in Zambales, Philippines, about 100 kilometers northwest of Manila Bay. ... Clark Air Base, 1975. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... National motto: ? Official language English? Capital Saipan Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 78 (United States) 1,779 km² Negligible Population  - Total  - Density 132,929 (1980) N/Akm² GDP  - Total  - GDP/head N/A Currency US Dollar Time zone UTC: ? Independence UN trusteeship administered by the US Internet TLD none? Calling code... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ...

References

  1. ^ Jacques Foccart, counsellor to Charles de Gaulle, Georges Pompidou and Jacques Chirac for African matters, recognized it in 1995 to Jeune Afrique review. See also Foccart parle, interviews with Philippe Gaillard, Fayard - Jeune Afrique (French) and also "The man who ran Francafrique - French politician Jacques Foccart's role in France's colonization of Africa under the leadership of Charles de Gaulle - Obituary" in The National Interest, Fall 1997
  2. ^ See ISN Zurich Institute hosted by ETH Zurich University
  3. ^ See Mehdi Ben Barka for further information. France has declassified some of the files, but Ben Barka's family has stated that these have shed no new light on the affair, and that further efforts must be done.

Jacques Foccart (1914–1997) was French President Charles de Gaulles and then Georges Pompidous spindoctor for African policy, who founded in 1959 the Gaullist organization Service dAction Civique (SAC) with Charles Pasqua, which specialized in shady operations. ... Please post proper article, this page was tampered with, thank you. ... Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 1911 – 2 April 1974) was President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... Jeune Afrique is a newsweekly published in Paris, founded by Béchir Ben Yahmed in Tunis on the October 17th 1960. ... Jeune Afrique is a newsweekly published in Paris, founded by Béchir Ben Yahmed in Tunis on the October 17th 1960. ... The National Interest is a prominent quarterly international affairs journal, founded in 1985 by Irving Kristol and currently published by the Nixon Center. ... The ETH Zurich, often called Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, is a science and technology university in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. ... Mehdi Ben Barka (1920 in Rabat – disappeared 1965 in Paris) was a Moroccan politician. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

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