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Encyclopedia > Declaration of war
President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor.

A declaration of war is a formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation, and one or more others. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (923x1162, 169 KB) Description President Franklin Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan, December 1941. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (923x1162, 169 KB) Description President Franklin Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan, December 1941. ... FDR redirects here. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS), Shigekazu Shimazaki (IJNAS) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 2 battleships, 2 heavy cruisers, 1 light cruiser, 8... Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Background

Declarations of war have been acceptable means and diplomatic measures since the Renaissance, when the first formal declarations of war were issued. Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ...


In public international law, a declaration of war entails the recognition between countries of a state of hostilities between these countries, and such declaration acted to regulate the conduct between the military engagements between the forces of the respective countries. The primary multilateral treaties governing such declarations are the Hague Conventions. International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of international law. ...


The League of Nations formed in 1919 in the wake of the First World War, and the General Treaty for the Renunciation of War of 1928 signed in Paris, demonstrated that world powers were seriously seeking a means to prevent the carnage of the world war. However, these powers were unable to stop the Second World War and, thus, the United Nations System was put in place after that war in an attempt to prevent international aggression through declarations of war. The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... The Kellogg-Briand Pact, also known as the Pact of Paris, is a treaty between the United States and other nations providing for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000,000 Civilian dead: 4,000,000 Total dead 12,000,000 World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict... While the United Nations is an international organization, the United Nations System is the whole network of international organizations, treaties and conventions that were created by the United Nations. ...


The UN and war

In an effort to force nations to resolve issues without warfare, framers of the United Nations Charter attempted to commit member nations to using warfare only under limited circumstances, especially for defensive purposes only. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The UN paradoxically became a war combatant itself after North Korea invaded South Korea on 25 June 1950 (see Korean War). The United Nations Security Council condemned the North Korean action by a 9-0 resolution (with the Soviet Union absent) and called upon its member nations to come to the aid of South Korea. The United States of America and 15 other nations formed a "UN force" to pursue this action. In a press conference on 29 June 1950, U.S. President Truman characterized these hostilities as not being a "war," but a "police action."[1] June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants United Nations: Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium Canada  Colombia Ethiopia  France Greece  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Australia  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist states: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea People’s Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee... The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is the organ of the United Nations charged with maintaining peace and security among nations. ... A joint press conference by U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair at the White House. ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884–December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ...


The United Nations has issued Security Council Resolutions that declared some wars to be legal actions under international law, most notably Resolution 678, authorizing war with Iraq in 1991. A United Nations Security Council Resolution is voted on by the fifteen members of the UN Security Council. ... UN Security Council Resolution 678 authorizes member states to use all necessary means to uphold and implement resolution 660 and all subsequent relevant resolutions (resolution 661, resolution 662, resolution 664, resolution 665, resolution 666, resolution 667, resolution 669, resolution 670, resolution 674 and resolution 667), and to restore international peace...


Undeclared wars

See also: War Powers Clause, War Powers Resolution, and War Powers Act

In most democratic nations, a Declaration of War customarily has to be passed by the legislature. In the United States there is no format required for declaration(s) of war. The term "Declaration of War" is not, in fact, mentioned by the United States Constitution. Instead the Constitution states, "Congress shall have the power to ... declare War, ..." without defining the form such declarations will take. Therefore, many have argued congressionally passed authorizations to use military force are "Declarations of War." That concept has never been tested in the U.S. court system. Some, such as Congressman Ron Paul, argue that an explicit Declaration of War is, in fact, a Constitutional requirement. [1] Sometimes referred to as the War Powers Clause, the United States Constitution, Article One, Section 8, Clause 1, vests in the Congress the exclusive power to declare war. ... The War Powers Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-148) limits the power of the President of the United States to wage war without the approval of Congress. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with War Powers Resolution. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ... Ronald Ernest “Ron” Paul (born 20 August 1935) is an American physician and politician from the U.S. state of Texas. ...


After the United Nations action in Korea, a number of democratic governments pursued usually limited warfare by characterizing them as something else, such as a "military action" or "armed response." This was most notably used by the United States in its more than decade-long involvement in Vietnam. Nations such as France, which had extensive colonies in which its military provided order, continued to intervene in their former colonies' affairs as police actions since they could no longer be deemed internal conflicts. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Not declaring war provides a way to circumvent constitutional safeguards against the executive declaring war, and also, in some cases, to avoid feeling bound by the established laws of war. Not using the word "war" is also seen as being more public relations-friendly. For these reasons, governments have generally ceased to issue declarations of war, instead describing their actions by euphemisms such as "police action" or "authorized use of force." The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Public relations (PR) is the business, organizational, philanthropic, or social function of managing communication between an organization and its audiences. ... A euphemism is an expression intended by the speaker to be less offensive, disturbing, or troubling to the listener than the word or phrase it replaces, or in the case of doublespeak to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... It has been suggested that Authorized use of force be merged into this article or section. ... A particular United States invention used to authorize their leader to conduct aggression against another state without there being an attack on the United States which would normally provoke a response in the form of a Declaration of War which would then engage legislative controls over that aggression. ...


Authorized use of force

Frequently used as an alternative to a declaration of war, authorized use of force is often used to avoid traditional barriers to the initiation of combat. Typically a full declaration must be ratified by various legislative bodies, but 'authorized use of force' may allow an elected head of state to directly initiate forceful action without further consultation. In addition, with declarations of war being increasingly regulated by international bodies, 'authorized use of force' can often be used to avoid some of the negative consequences of a declaration.


Authorized use of force is relatively common among democratic societies. The United States, for instance, has been directly involved in military activities in every decade of the latter half of the twentieth century yet has not declared war formally since World War II. For instance, in the case of the Vietnam war and the Iraq war, Congress authorized the use of force rather than putting forth a declaration of war. As noted above, there is a dispute over the constitutionality of this legislative procedure. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


Declarations of war during World War II

1937

July 7 
China declared war on Empire of Japan after 6 years of non-resistance policy against Japanese agression of Northern and Northeastern China since September 18, 1931.

July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... Anthem: Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ...

1939

September 3 
United Kingdom, France, Australia and New Zealand declared war on Germany.
September 6 
The Union of South Africa declared war on Germany.
September 10 
Canada declared war on Germany.

September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... This article is about the country on the southern tip of the African continent. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ...

1940

April 9 
Norway declared war on Germany.
May 10 
The Netherlands declared war on Germany.
June 10 
Italy declared war on France and United Kingdom.
June 11 
France declared war on Italy. United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa at war with Italy.
October 28
Italy declared war on Greece.
November 23 
Belgium declared war on Italy.

April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... At 6:00 in the morning (Amsterdam time) on May 10th 1940 the German envoy Count Zech von Burkensroda gave Dutch minister of foreign affairs Van Kleffens the following German declaration of war. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ...

1941

April 6 
Italy declared war on Yugoslavia.
April 24 
Bulgaria declared war on Greece and Yugoslavia.
June 22 
Germany, Italy, and Romania declared war on the Soviet Union.
June 25
Finland officially notes that a state of war existed with the Soviet Union (no parliamentary motion was passed).
June 27
Hungary declared war on the Soviet Union.
December 6
United Kingdom declared war on Finland and Romania.
December 7 
Japan declared war on the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa. United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand declare war on Finland, Hungary and Romania. Canada declared war on Finland, Hungary, Japan and Romania. Panama declared war on Japan. Yugoslavia at war with Japan.
December 8
United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Costa Rica, The Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, The Netherlands, New Zealand and Nicaragua declared war on Japan.
December 11 
Germany and Italy declared war on the United States. The United States and China declared war on Germany and Italy.
December 12
Bulgaria declared war on the United States and the United Kingdom. Romania declared war on the United States.
December 13 
Hungary declared war on the United States.

April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Template:Copy edit Template:Info box Country The Dominican Republic, (Spanish: República Dominicana, IPA ) is a country located on the eastern two-thirds of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, bordering Haiti. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

1942

January 10 
Japan declared war on The Netherlands
January 25 
United Kingdom, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa declared war on Thailand. Thailand declared war on the United States and the United Kingdom.
March 2 
Australia declared war on Thailand.

January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ...

1945

August 8 
The Soviet Union declared war on Japan.

August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ...

Current declarations

As of 2007, a few declarations of war remain in effect, though they are usually retained for lack of a peace treaty rather than reflecting an active state of hostilities. 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ...

North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia... Combatants United Nations: Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium Canada  Colombia Ethiopia  France Greece  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Australia  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist states: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea People’s Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee... Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000,000 Civilian dead: 4,000,000 Total dead 12,000,000 World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict... The Kuril Islands with the disputed islands highlighted The Kuril Island conflict is a dispute between Japan and Russia over sovereignty over the southernmost Kuril Islands. ... A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ...

See also

Geographic areas where armed conflict is ongoing. ... A declaration of war is a formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation, and one or more others. ... At 6:00 in the morning (Amsterdam time) on May 10th 1940 the German envoy Count Zech von Burkensroda gave Dutch minister of foreign affairs Van Kleffens the following German declaration of war. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.house.gov/paul/press/press2002/pr100402.htm

External links

  • Declarations of war during World War II

  Results from FactBites:
 
Declaration of war - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (832 words)
Declarations of war have been acceptable means and diplomatic measures since the Renaissance, when the first formal declarations of war were issued.
In public international law, a declaration of war entails the recognition between countries of a state of hostilities between these countries, and such declaration acted to regulate the conduct between the military engagements between the forces of the respective countries.
Frequently used as an alternative to a declaration of war, authorized use of force is often used to avoid traditional barriers to the initiation of combat.
Declaration of war by the United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1184 words)
A declaration of war by the United States is the statement of purpose traditionally requested by the President of the United States and granted by Congress to engage military force against another nation.
The Korean War was not a war authorized by the U.S. Congress.
The Barbary Coast War was clearly waged against a political entity not regarded as the legitimate government of its nation of operation; the Border War, quietly declared as it was, was waged against a single person, Pancho Villa.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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