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Encyclopedia > Deciduous
Deciduous forest in autumn
Deciduous forest in autumn
Deciduous forest in winter
Deciduous forest in winter
Deciduous forest in spring
Deciduous forest in spring

Deciduous means "temporary" or "tending to fall off" (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off) and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally. In a more specific sense deciduous means the dropping of a part that is no longer needed, or falling away after its use is finished. In plants it is the result of natural processes, in other fields the word has similar meaning, including deciduous antlers in deer or deciduous teeth in some mammals including human children.[1] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,360 pixels, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,360 pixels, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2433x1441, 3192 KB) En: Oak (Quercus robur) forest shaped by grazing animals at Langå, Denmark - a very cold day with frosting mist in january. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2433x1441, 3192 KB) En: Oak (Quercus robur) forest shaped by grazing animals at Langå, Denmark - a very cold day with frosting mist in january. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,360 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,360 pixels, file size: 2. ... Look up deciduous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For the Poet Laureate of Milwaukee, see Antler (Poet). ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... ...

Contents

Botany

In botany and horticulture, deciduous plants, including trees, shrubs and herbaceous perennials, are those that lose all of their leaves for part of the year. This process is called abscission. In some cases, the leaf loss coincides with winter in temperate or polar climates, while others lose their leaves during the dry season in climates with seasonal variation in rainfall. The converse of deciduous is evergreen; plants that are intermediate may be called semi-deciduous. Some tree species like some Oaks have desiccated leaves that remain on the tree through winter, they are called marcescent leaves and they are dropped in the spring as new growth begins. Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... The word bush re-directs here; for alternate uses see Bush (disambiguation). ... Leaves are an Icelandic five-piece alternative rock band who came to prominence in 2002 with their debut album, Breathe, drawing comparisons to groups such as Coldplay and Doves. ... Abscission (from ab- away from, and scission cutting or severing) is the shedding of a body part. ... For other uses, see Winter (disambiguation). ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Solar radiation has a lower intensity in polar regions because it travels a longer distance through the atmosphere, and is spread across a larger surface area. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about precipitation. ... This article is about plant types. ... Semi-deciduous is a botanical term which refers to plants that lose their foliage. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Marcescence is the retention of dead plant organs that normally are shed. ...

Like many deciduous plants, Forsythia flowers during the leafless season
Like many deciduous plants, Forsythia flowers during the leafless season

Many deciduous plants flower during the period when they are leafless, as this increases the effectiveness of pollination. The absence of leaves improves wind transmission of pollen in the case of wind-pollinated plants, and increases the visibility of the flowers to insects in insect-pollinated plants. This strategy is not without risks, as the flowers can be damaged by frost, or in dry season areas, result in water stress on the plant. Nevertheless, by losing leaves in the cold winter days, plants can reduce water loss since most of the water would appear as ice, and there is much less branch and trunk breakage from glaze ice storms when leafless.[2] Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 5988 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 5988 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera...


Leaf drop or abscission involves complex physiological signals and changes within plants. The process of photosynthesis steadily degrades the supply of chlorophylls in foliage; plants normally replenish chlorophylls during the summer months. When days grow short and nights are cool, or when plants are drought stressed, deciduous trees decrease chlorophyll pigment production allowing other pigments present in the leaf to become apparent, resulting in fall color. These other pigments include carotenoids that are yellow, brown, and orange. Anthocyanin pigments produce reds and purple colors, though they are not always present in the leaves but are produced in the foliage in late summer when sugars are trapped in the leaves after the process of abscission begins. Parts of the world that have showy displays of bright fall colors are limited to locations where days become short and nights are cool. In other parts of the world the leaves of deciduous trees simply fall off without turning the bright colors produced from the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments. Abscission (from ab- away from, and scission cutting or severing) is the shedding of a body part. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant...


The beginning of leaf drop starts when an abscission layer is formed between the leaf petiole and the stem. This layer is formed in the spring during active new growth of the leaf, it consists of layers of cells that can separate from each other. The cells are sensitive to a plant hormone called auxin that is produced by the leaf and other parts of the plant. When the auxin coming from the leaf is produced at a rate consistent with that of the auxin from the body of the plant, the cells of the abscission layer remain connected; in the fall or when under stress the auxin flow from the leaf decreases or stops triggering cellular elongation within the abscission layer. The elongation of these cells break the connection between the different cell layers, allowing the leaf to break away from the plant, it also forms a layer that seals the break so the plant does not lose sap. A petiole (also called a pedicel) is the first abdominal segment of members of the Apocrita. ... Plant hormones (also known as plant growth regulators (PGRs) and phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate a plants growth. ... IAA appears to be the most active Auxin in plant growth. ...


A number of deciduous plants remove nitrogen and carbon from the foliage before they are shed and store them in the form of proteins in the vacuoles of parenchyma cells in the roots and the inner bark. In the spring these proteins are used as a nitrogen source during the growth of new leaves or flowers.[3] Parenchyma is a term used to describe a bulk of a substance. ...


Plants with deciduous foliage compared to plants with evergreen foliage, have both advantages and disadvantages in growth and competition for space. Since deciduous plants lose their leaves to conserve water or to better survive winter weather conditions, they must regrow new foliage when the next growing season is suitable, this uses more resources which evergreens do not need to expend.


Deciduous trees

Deciduous trees include Maple, Oak (but not all species), Elm, Aspen, and Birch, among others, as well as a number of coniferous genera, such as Larch and Metasequoia. Periods of leaf fall often coincide with seasons: winter in the case of cool-climate plants or the dry-season in the case of tropical plants.[4] For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ... For other uses, see Aspen (disambiguation). ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Larch (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu & Cheng Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn Redwood) is a fast growing tree in the conifer family Cupressaceae (Taxaceae or Taxodiaceae by others)native to the Sichuan-Hubei region of China. ...


Regions

Deciduous forests can be found in sections of: North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa (Madagascar). Forests with a majority of tree species that lose their foliage at the end of the typical growing season are called deciduous forests. These forests have distinctive ecosystems, understory growth, and soil dynamics.[5] North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Two distinctive types of deciduous forest are found growing around the world.


Temperate deciduous forest biomes are plant communities distributed in America, Asia and Europe. The have formed under climatic conditions which have great seasonable temperature variability with growth occurring during warm summers and leaf drop in fall and dormancy during cold winters. These seasonally distinctive communities have diverse life forms that are impacted greatly by the seasonality of their climate, mainly temperature and precipitation rates. These varying and regionally different ecological conditions produce distinctive forest plant communities in different regions. A temperate hardwood forest is a type of forest found in temperate zones around the globe. ...


Tropical and semi tropical deciduous forest biomes have developed in response not to seasonal temperature variations but to seasonal rainfall patterns. During prolonged dry periods the foliage is dropped to conserve water and prevent death from drought. Leaf drop is not seasonally dependent as it is in temperate climates, and can occur any time of year and varies by region of the world. Even within a small local area there can be variations, with different sides of the same mountain showing great variations in leaf drop, as well as areas that have low water tables or along streams and rivers.[6]


See also

This article is about plant types. ... Semi-deciduous is a botanical term which refers to plants that lose their foliage. ... Aerial photo of a portion of the Anjajavy Forest, inset by a swath of mangrove riparian forest. ... A temperate hardwood forest is a type of forest found in temperate zones around the globe. ...

References

  1. ^ Gause, John Taylor (1955). The complete word hunter, A Crowell reference book. New York: Crowell, p. 456. 
  2. ^ Lemon, P. C. (1961). "Forest ecology of ice storms". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 88 (21). 
  3. ^ Srivastava, Lalit M. (2002). Plant growth and development. Hormones and environment. Amsterdam: Academic Press, p. 476. ISBN 0-12-660570-X. 
  4. ^ Cundall, Peter (2005). Flora: The Gardener’s Bible: Over 20,000 Plants. Ultimo, NSW, Australia: ABC Publishing. ISBN 073331094X. 
  5. ^ Röhrig (ed.), Ernst; Bernhard Ulrich (ed.) (1991). Temperate deciduous forests, Ecosystems of the world, 7. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-88599-4. 
  6. ^ Bullock, Stephen H.; J. Arturo Solis-Magallanes (March 1990). "Phenology of Canopy Trees of a Tropical Deciduous Forest in Mexico". Biotropica 22 (1): pp. 22–35. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Temperate Deciduous Forest Animal Printouts - EnchantedLearning.com (606 words)
Temperate deciduous forests are forests in cool, rainy areas; they have trees that lose their leaves in Fall and regrow them in Spring.
Temperate deciduous forests are found in the middle latitudes around the globe and have four distinct seasons: Spring, Summer, Fall, and Winter.
The soil in the deciduous forests is quite fertile, since it is often enriched with falling leaves, twigs, logs, and dead organisms.
Deciduous Forest Biome (0 words)
Deciduous forests can be found in the eastern half of North America, and the middle of Europe.
The average annual temperature in a deciduous forest is 50° F. The average rainfall is 30 to 60 inches a year.
Most deciduous forests are found in Eastern North America somewhere around 35-48° N, and Europe and Asia around 45-60° N. There are some deciduous regions in the southern hemisphere but their plants and animals are different from those of the northern deciduous forests.
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