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Encyclopedia > Decaffeinated

Decaffeination is the act of removing caffeine from coffee beans. Caffeine molecular structure Caffeine, also known as trimethylxanthine, coffeine, theine, mateine, guaranine, and methyltheobromine, is an alkaloid found naturally in such foods as coffee beans, tea, kola nuts, Yerba mate, guarana, and (in small amounts) cacao beans. ... Coffee beans and a cup of coffee Coffee as a drink, usually served hot, is prepared from the roasted seeds (beans) of the coffee plant. ...


All decaffeination processes are performed on green beans, but the methods vary somewhat. They generally start by steaming the beans. The beans are then rinsed in some solvent that contains as much of the chemical composition of coffee as possible without also containing the caffeine in a soluble form. The process is repeated anywhere from 8 to 12 times until it meets either the international standard of having removed 97% of the caffeine in the beans or the EU standard of having less than 0.10% caffeine by mass in the coffee at the end of the process. Coffee contains over 400 chemicals important to the taste and aroma of the final drink; this effectively means you can not find a chemical reaction that will remove only caffeine while leaving the other 400 chemicals at their original concentrations. A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ...


Coffea arabica normally contains about half the caffeine of coffea robusta, and a coffea arabica bean containing a tenth as much caffeine as a normal bean has been found by some Brazilian scientists. This may change how low caffeine coffee is produced in the future. But for now, one of several methods is employed. Binomial name Coffea arabica L. Coffea arabica is a species of coffee indigenous to Ethiopia. ...

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Roselius process

The first commercially successful decaffeination process was invented by Ludwig Roselius and Karl Wimmer in 1905. It involved steaming coffee beans with a brine (salt water) solution and then using benzene as a solvent to remove the caffeine. Coffee decaffeinated this way was sold as Cafe sanka in France and later as Sanka® in the US. Today benzene is considered so unsafe that in the 1990's the US military reformulated Napalm to reduce the benzene level. It's safe to assume this process is no longer employed to make Sanka®. Brine is water saturated or nearly saturated with salt. ... Benzene, C6H6, PhH, or benzol is a colorless and flammable liquid with a pleasant, sweet smell. ... Sanka was the worlds first brand of decaffeinated coffee. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has news related to this article: United States United States government Official website of the United States government - Gateway to governmental sites White House - Official site of the US President Senate. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... A napalm airstrike during the Vietnam War Napalm is a flammable, gasoline-based weapon invented in 1942. ...


Direct method

In the direct method the coffee beans are first steamed for 30 minutes and then repeatedly rinsed with either methyl chloride or ethyl acetate for about 10 hours. The solvent is then drained away and the beans steamed for an additional 10 hours to remove any residual solvent. In the direct method the caffeine reacts with the solvent to form a chemical that is not soluble in the solvent. Methyl chloride is considered a superior solvent since it can function at a lower temperature and react with fewer secondary chemicals, but ethyl acetate can be extracted from various fruits and vegetables and so allows the beans to be labeled as "Natural Decafs". Chloromethane or Methyl chloride is a chemical compound once widely used as a refrigerant. ... Ethyl acetate, also known as acetic acid ethyl ester, ethyl ethanoate, or acetic ester, is a clear, flammable liquid with a characteristic, not unpleasant smell like certain glues or nail polish removers. ...


Water method

In the water method (also called indirect method) beans are first soaked in hot water for several hours. Then the water is removed and either methyl chloride or ethyl acetate is used to remove the caffeine from the solution. The solution is then heated to evaporate the methyl chloride or ethyl acetate. Finally beans are soaked again in water after the caffeine is removed. The first few batches are tossed out and the water reused so that the water actually has a similar composition to the beans' liquids, except for the lack of caffeine.


CO2/O2 process

With the CO2 process, pre-steamed beans are soaked in a liquid bath of carbon dioxide at 73 to 300 atmospheres. After a thorough soaking, the pressure is reduced allowing the CO2 to evaporate, or the pressurized CO2 is run through either water or charcoal filters to remove the caffeine. The carbon dioxide is then used on another batch of beans. This same process can also be done with oxygen (O2). These liquids work better than water because they are kept in supercritical state near the transition from liquid to gas so that they have the high diffusion of gas and the high density of a liquid. Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents of animal and vegetable substances. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... This article is about nuclear technology. ...


Filtered water method

This is the same as the Water Method, except a charcoal filter is used instead of methyl chloride or ethyl acetate to remove the caffeine from the water. The charcoal is generally bathed in some carbohydrate, such as sucrose. This prevents the charcoal from absorbing many of the similar molecules in the water. Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents of animal and vegetable substances. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Sucrose is the common chemical name for table sugar. ...


Triglyceride process


  Results from FactBites:
 
Decaffeinated Coffee Beans (432 words)
Almost every process for decaffeination consists of soaking the beans in water to dissolve the caffeine, extracting the caffeine with either a solvent or activated carbon, and then re-soaking the coffee beans in the decaffeinated water to reabsorb the flavor compounds that were lost in the initial extraction.
The chemical composition of decaffeinated coffee (or decaf coffee) is altered, and therefore the flavor and aroma are changed.
The sparkling water decaffeination process is similar to the CO method, but instead of removing the caffeine with activated carbon filters, the caffeine is washed from the CO with sparkling water in a secondary tank, which is then recycled to extract more caffeine from the coffee.
Holy Mountain's Decaffeinated Tea (376 words)
Decaffeinated tea is found in all leaf grades and a great variety of flavors.
The ethyl acetate decaffeination process uses the Haco Method, which is similar to the one used for coffee.
The tea is 99.9 percent decaffeinated at the end of the process, and has an 8 percent maximum water content when leaving the factory.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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