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Encyclopedia > Death penalty
Criminal procedure
Criminal trials and convictions
Rights of the accused
Right to a fair trial  · Speedy trial
Jury trial  · Presumption of innocence
Exclusionary rule (U.S.)
Self-incrimination  · Double jeopardy
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Acquittal  · Conviction
Not proven (Scot.)  · Directed verdict
Sentencing
Mandatory  · Suspended  · Custodial
Dangerous offender (Can.)
Capital punishment  · Execution warrant
Cruel and unusual punishment
Post-conviction events
Parole  · Probation
Tariff (UK)  · Life licence (UK)
Miscarriage of justice
Exoneration  · Pardon
Related areas of law
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Criminal law  · Evidence
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Portals: Law  · Criminal justice

Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. Historically, the execution of criminals and political opponents was used by nearly all societies - both to punish crime and to suppress political dissent. Among democratic countries around the world, most European (all of the European Union) Latin American and many Pacific Area states (including Australia, New Zealand and Timor Leste) have abolished capital punishment while the United States, Guatemala, and most of the Caribbean as well as some democracies in Asia and Africa retain it. Among nondemocratic countries, the use of the death penalty is common but not universal. Image File history File links Scale_of_justice. ... Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated the criminal law. ... Headline text The rights of the accused is a class of rights in that apply to a person in the time period between when they are formally accused of a crime and when they are either convicted or acquitted. ... The Right to a fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the rule of law. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the 1980s television show, see Trial by Jury (TV). ... Presumption of innocence is a legal right that the accused enjoys in criminal trials in many modern nations. ... In United States constitutional law, the exclusionary rule is a legal principle holding that evidence collected or analyzed in violation of the U.S. Constitution is inadmissible for a criminal prosecution in a court of law (that is, it cannot be used in a criminal trial). ... Self-incrimination is the act of accusing oneself of a crime for which a person can then be prosecuted. ... Double jeopardy (also called autrefois acquit meaning already acquitted) is a procedural defense (and, in many countries such as the United States, Canada, and India, a constitutional right) that forbids a defendant from being tried a second time for the same crime. ... In law, a verdict indicates the judgment of a case before a court of law. ... In criminal law, an acquittal is the legal result of a verdict of not guilty, or some similar end of the proceeding that terminates it with prejudice without a verdict of guilty being entered against the accused. ... Not proven is a verdict available to a court in Scotland. ... In U.S. law, a directed verdict is an order from the judge presiding over a jury trial that one side or the other wins. ... In law, a sentence forms the final act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. ... A mandatory sentence is a judicial decision setting the punishment to be inflicted on a person convicted of a crime where judicial discretion is limited by law. ... A suspended sentence is a legal construct. ... A custodial sentence is a judicial sentence, imposing a punishment (and hence the resulting punishment itself) consisting of mandatory custody of the convict, either in prison (incarceration) or in some other closed therapeutic and/or (re)educational institution, such as a reformatory, (maximum security) psychiatry or drug detoxication (especially cold... In the Canadian legal system, the dangerous offender designation allows the courts to impose an indefinite sentence on a convicted person, regardless of whether the crime carries a life sentence or not. ... An execution warrant is a warrant which authorizes the execution or capital punishment of an individual. ... The statement that the government shall not inflict cruel and unusual punishment for crimes is found in the English Bill of Rights signed in 1689 by William of Orange and Queen Mary II who were then the joint rulers of England following the Glorious Revolution of 1688. ... Parole can have different meanings depending on the context. ... Probation is the suspension of a prison or jail sentence - the criminal who is on probation has been convicted of a crime, but instead of serving prison time, has been found by the Court to be amenable to probation and will be returned to the community for a period in... Under British criminal law, a tariff is the minimum period that a person serving an indefinite prison sentence must serve before that person becomes eligible for parole. ... Life licence is a term used in the British criminal justice system for the conditions under which a prisoner sentenced to life in jail may be released. ... A miscarriage of justice is primarily the conviction and punishment of a person for a crime that they did not commit. ... Exoneration occurs when a person who has been convicted of a crime is later proved to have been innocent of that crime. ... A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. ... The law of evidence governs the use of testimony (e. ... Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the process that courts will follow when hearing cases of a civil nature (a civil action, as opposed to a criminal action). ... Criminal redirects here for other uses of crime and criminal, see crime (disambiguation). ... Individual rights Free speech, free press Soap box, Speakers corner (Hyde Park), blog (weblog) prior restraint, censorship, self-censorship, censor Right to assembly Gay rights, Stonewall Feminism, ERA, equal pay, Title IX Famous political dissenters Gandhi Steve Biko Nelson Mandela Martin Luther King, Jr. ... This article is about the continent. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, commonly known as East Timor, is an island nation in Southeast Asia, consisting of the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecussi-Ambeno, a political exclave of East Timor situated on the western side of... World map depicting Caribbean : West Indies redirects here. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ...


In most places that practise capital punishment today, the death penalty is reserved as a punishment for premeditated murder, espionage, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries with a Muslim majority, sexual crimes, including adultery and sodomy, carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as apostasy from Islam, the formal renunciation of one's religion. In many retentionist countries drug trafficking is also a capital offense. In China human trafficking and serious cases of corruption are also punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offenses such as cowardice, desertion, insubordination, and mutiny. [1] Espionage is the practice of obtaining information about an organization or a society that is considered secret or confidential (spying) without the permission of the holder of the information. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation). ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... Adultery is generally defined as consensual sexual intercourse by a married person with someone other than his or her lawful spouse. ... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, a defection or revolt from a military commander, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Retentionist countries are countries that retain the death penalty for ordinary crimes. ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... For other uses, see Human trafficking (disambiguation) A poster from the Canadian Department of Justice Trafficking in human beings is the commercial trade (smuggling) of human beings, who are subjected to involuntary acts such as begging, sexual exploitation (eg. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The concept of insubordination is most often associated with military organizations, as military organizations have a chain of command and lawful orders given by a superior officer, whose orders are expected to be carried out by the person to whom the order is given. ... Mutiny is the crime of conspiring to disobey an order that a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) is legally obliged to obey. ...


Capital punishment is a contentious issue. Supporters of capital punishment argue that it deters crime, prevents recidivism, and is an appropriate punishment for the crime of murder. Opponents of capital punishment argue that it does not deter criminals more than life imprisonment, violates human rights, leads to executions of some who are wrongfully convicted, and discriminates against minorities and the poor. Deterrence is the method manipulating a persons action by negative motivational influences. ... Recidivism is the act of a person repeating an undesirable behavior after they have either experienced negative consequences of that behavior, or have been treated or trained to extinguish that behavior. ... Deterrence is the method manipulating a persons action by negative motivational influences. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Wrongful execution or is a miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by capital punishment, the death penalty. ...

Contents

The death penalty worldwide

Global distribution of death penalty

Reports from NGOs opposed to the death penalty tend to publicise the view that abolition is a global trend. In 1977, 16 countries were abolitionist, while the figure was 122 for the end of 2005. In more detail, 88 countries have abolished capital punishment for all offences, 11 for all offences except under special circumstances, and 30 others have not used it for at least 10 years. However, Sri Lanka recently declared an end to its moratorium on the death penalty. A total of 68 countries retain it. Among retentionist countries, seven use capital punishment on juveniles (under 18). The People's Republic of China performed more than 3400 executions in 2004, amounting to more than 90% of executions worldwide. In China, some inmates are executed by firing squad, but it has been decided that all executions will be by lethal injections in the future. These lethal injections are often performed via mobile execution van. Iran performed 159 executions in 2004.[1]. The United States performed 60 executions in 2005. Texas conducts more executions than any of the other U.S. states that still permit capital punishment, with 370 executions between 1976 and 2006. Singapore has the highest execution rate per capita, with 70 hangings for a population of about 4 million. NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In law, a moratorium (from Latin morari, to delay) is a legal authorization postponing for a specified time the payment of debts or obligations. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... A U.S. state is any one of the 50 states which have membership of the federation known as the United States of America (USA or U.S.). The separate state governments and the U.S. federal government share sovereignty. ...

Use of the death penalty around the world (as of 2005/06). ██ Abolished for all offenses (88) ██ Abolished for all offenses except under special circumstances (11) ██ Retains, though not used for at least 10 years (30) ██ Retains death penalty (68)* *Note that, while laws vary between U.S. states, it is considered retentionist as the federal death penalty is still in active use.
Use of the death penalty around the world (as of 2005/06).
██ Abolished for all offenses (88) ██ Abolished for all offenses except under special circumstances (11) ██ Retains, though not used for at least 10 years (30) ██ Retains death penalty (68)* *Note that, while laws vary between U.S. states, it is considered retentionist as the federal death penalty is still in active use.

In demographic terms, many retentionist countries have large populations and high population growth. When the relative demographic proportion between retentionist and abolitionist countries is taken into account, this may indicate an underlying trend of increase in retentionist population, which is seemingly shifted in favor of the number of abolitionist countries when new countries switch to being abolitionist. However, the use of the death penalty is becoming increasingly restrained in retentionist countries, which is often masked by the population growth because it may nonetheless increase the number of executions being carried out. Countries such as Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and the U.S. are the only fully developed and democratic nations that have the death penalty. The death penalty was overwhelmingly practiced in poor, undemocratic, and authoritarian states, which often employed the death penalty as a tool of political oppression. During the 1980s, the democratization of Latin America (with its long history of progressive and Roman Catholic tradition) swelled the rank of abolitionist countries. This was soon followed by the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe, which then aspired to emulate neighbouring Western Europe. In these countries, the public support for the death penalty varies but is decreasing.[citation needed] The European Union and the Council of Europe both strictly require member states not to practice the death penalty. [2] The only European country to do so is Belarus - this is one of the reasons why Belarus is excluded from the Council of Europe. On the other hand, democratisation and rapid industrialisation in Asia have been increasing the number of retentionist countries that are democratic and/or developed. In these countries, the death penalty enjoys strong public support, and the matter receives little attention from the government or the media. This trend has been followed by partial democratisation in some African and Middle Eastern countries where the support for the death penalty is low. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1350x625, 106 KB) Alternate version with Belarus fixed and individual US states coloured. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1350x625, 106 KB) Alternate version with Belarus fixed and individual US states coloured. ... At one time the death penalty was used in almost every part of the globe; but over the last few decades many countries have abolished it. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Minor parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries â€¢ Politics Portal • • A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities referred to... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe variably defined. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg European Flag: used by the Council of Europe and by the European Union The Council of Europe (French: Conseil de lEurope , German: Europarat /ˌɔɪ.ˈro. ...


Public opinion

Support for the death penalty varies widely. Both in abolitionist and retentionist democracies, the government's stance often has wide public support and receives little attention by politicians or the media. In some abolitionist countries, the majority of the public supports or has supported the death penalty. Abolition was often adopted due to political change, such as when countries shifted from authoritarianism to democracy, or when it became an entry condition for the European Union. The United States is a notable exception: some states have had bans on capital punishment for decades (the earliest is Michigan, where it was abolished in 1846), while others actively use it today. The death penalty there remains a contentious issue which is hotly debated. Elsewhere, however, it is rare for the death penalty to be abolished due to an active public discussion of its merits. Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ...


In abolitionist countries, debate is sometimes revived by particularly brutal murders, though few countries have brought it back after abolition. However a spike in serious, violent crimes, such as murders or terrorist attacks, have prompted some countries (such as Sri Lanka and Jamaica) to effectively end the moratorium on the death penalty. In retentionist countries, the debate is sometimes revived when miscarriage of justice occurs, though this tends to cause legislative efforts to improve the judicial process rather than to abolish the death penalty.


A Gallup International poll from 2000 found that "Worldwide support was expressed in favour of the death penalty, with just more than half (52%) indicating that they were in favour of this form of punishment." A break down of the numbers of support versus opposition: Worldwide 52%/39%, North America 66%/27%, Asia 63%/21%, Central and Eastern Europe 60%/29%, Africa 54%/43%, Latin America 37%/55%, Western Europe 34%/60%. A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ...


In the U.S., surveys have long shown a majority in favor of capital punishment. An ABC News survey in July 2006 found 65 percent in favor of capital punishment, consistent with other polling since 2000.[3] About half the American public says the death penalty isn't imposed frequently enough and 60 percent believe it is applied fairly, according to a Gallup poll in May 2006.[2] Yet surveys also show the public is more divided when asked to choose between the death penalty and life without parole, or when dealing with juvenile offenders.[3][4] Roughly six in 10 tell Gallup they don't believe capital punishment deters murder and majorities believe at least one innocent person has been executed in the past five years.[5] [6] This article is about the American news organization. ... A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ... Deterrence is the method manipulating a persons action by negative motivational influences. ...


International organizations

A number of regional conventions prohibit the death penalty, most notably, the Sixth Protocol (abolition in time of peace) and the Thirteenth Protocol (abolition in all circumstances) to the European Convention on Human Rights. However, most existing international treaties categorically exempt death penalty from prohibition in case of serious crime, most notably, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, while some provide optional protocols to abolish it. The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, also known as the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe[1] in 1950 to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ... The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976. ...


Several international organizations have made the abolition of the death penalty a requirement of membership, most notably the European Union (EU) and the Council of Europe. The EU and the Council of Europe are willing to accept a moratorium as an interim measure. Thus, while Russia is a member of the Council of Europe, and practices the death penalty in law, it has not made use of it since becoming a member of the Council. Other states, while having abolished de jure the death penalty in time of peace and de facto in all circumstances, have not ratified Protocol no.13 yet and therefore have no international obligation to refrain from using the death penalty in time of war or imminent threat of war (Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, France, Italy, Latvia, Moldova, Poland and Spain). The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg European Flag: used by the Council of Europe and by the European Union The Council of Europe (French: Conseil de lEurope , German: Europarat /ˌɔɪ.ˈro. ... In law, a moratorium (from Latin morari, to delay) is a legal authorization postponing for a specified time the payment of debts or obligations. ...


Turkey has recently, as a move towards EU membership, undergone a reform of its legal system. Previously there was a de facto moratorium on death penalty in Turkey as the last execution took place in 1984. The death penalty was removed from peacetime law in August 2002, and in May 2004 Turkey amended its constitution in order to remove capital punishment in all circumstances. It ratified Protocol no. 13 to the European Convention on Human Rights in February 2006. As a result, Europe is a continent free of the death penalty in practice (all states but Russia, which has entered a moratorium, having ratified the Sixth Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights), with the sole exception of Belarus, which is not a member of the Council of Europe. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has been lobbying for Council of Europe observer states who practice the death penalty, namely the U.S. and Japan, to abolish it or lose their observer status. In South Asia, Nepal is the only country to have abolished death penalty completely for all crimes.


Among non-governmental organisations, Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch are noted for their opposition to capital punishment. Amnesty International symbol Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Juvenile capital punishment

The death penalty for juvenile offenders (criminals aged under 18 years at the time of their crime) has become increasingly rare. The only countries still officially supporting the practice are Bangladesh, Iran, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Yemen[citation needed]. Countries that have executed juvenile offenders since 1990 include China, D.R. Congo, Iran, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the U.S. and Yemen. Amnesty International has recorded 47 verified executions, in several countries, of both juveniles and adults who had been convicted of committing their offenses as juveniles [4]. China does not allow for the execution of those under 18; nevertheless, child executions have reportedly taken place [5]. The United States Supreme Court abolished capital punishment for offenders under the age of 16 in Thompson v. Oklahoma (1988), and for all juveniles in Roper v. Simmons (2005). Since 1642, an estimated 364 juvenile offenders were executed by the states and federal government of the US[6]. In 2002, the United States Supreme Court outlawed the execution of individuals with mental retardation.[7] American high school students Adolescence (Latin adolescentia, from adolescere, to grow up) is the period of psychological and social transition between childhood and adulthood (gender-specific, manhood or womanhood). ... Motto: Justice – Paix – Travail  (French) Justice – Peace – Work Anthem: Debout Congolais Capital (and largest city) Kinshasa French Government Transitional  - President Joseph Kabila Independence    - from Belgium June 30, 1960  Area  - Total 2,344,858 km² (12th) 905,351 sq mi   - Water (%) 3. ... United States is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ... Amnesty International symbol Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not... Thompson v. ... Holding The Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments forbid imposition of the death penalty on offenders who were under the age of 18 when their crimes were committed. ... Mental retardation (also called mental handicap[1]) is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (milestones) during childhood, and a significantly below-normal global intellectual capacity as an adult. ...


The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which forbids capital punishment for juveniles, has been signed and ratified by all countries except for the USA and Somalia [8]. The UN Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights maintains that the death penalty for juveniles has become contrary to customary international law. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is an international convention setting out the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of children. ... Ratification includes the process of adopting an international treaty by the legislature, a constitution, or another nationally binding document (such as an amendment to a constitution) by the agreement of multiple sub-national entities. ... Customary international law Unwritten law applied to the behaviour of nations. ...


The death penalty in specific countries

See also: Use of capital punishment worldwide

Belarus · Canada · People's Republic of China · Denmark · Europe · France · India · Japan · The Netherlands · New Zealand ·Pakistan· Philippines · Russia · Singapore · Sweden · Taiwan · United Kingdom · United States At one time capital punishment was used in almost every part of the globe; but over the last few decades many countries have abolished it. ... The only countries in Europe that havent abolished the death penalty yet is Albania, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Russia. ... Capital punishment (Doodstraf in Dutch) in the Netherlands was first abolished in 1870, though only in criminal law, by the Dutch justice minister Van Lilaar. ...


History

The use of formal execution extends at least to the beginning of recorded history. Most historical records as well as various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of the communal justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing generally included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning, banishment and execution. However, within a small community, crimes were rare and murder was almost always a crime of passion. Moreover, most would hesitate to inflict death on a member of the community. For this reason, execution and even banishment were extremely rare. Usually, compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ... EXILE is a 6-member Japanese pop music band. ...


However, these are not effective responses to crimes committed by outsiders. Consequently, even small crimes including theft committed by outsiders were considered to be an assault on the community and were severely punished. The methods varied from beating and enslavement to executions. However, the response to crime committed by neighbouring tribes or communities included formal apology, compensation or blood feuds. A feud is a long-running argument or fight between parties—often groups of people, especially families or clans. ...


A blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organized religion. It may result from crime, land disputes or a code of honour. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies (as well as potential allies) that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished."[9] However, it is often difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. A feud is a long-running argument or fight between parties—often groups of people, especially families or clans. ... A feud is a long-running argument or fight between parties—often groups of people, especially families or clans. ... A code of honour is an unwritten rule in a society, often influenced by culture, religion, and popculture. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ...


Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements often done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material (e.g. cattle, slave) compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution. The person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the system was based on tribes, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Viking things.[10] Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts (e.g. trial by combat). One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel. Blood money is money paid as a fine to the next of kin of somebody who was killed intentionally. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne explorers, traders, and warriors of the Norsemen who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. ... A judicial duel portrayed in a facsimile from the Cérémonies des Gages des Batailles, a manuscript of the fifteenth century in the National Library of Paris. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


In certain parts of the world, nations in the form of ancient republics, monarchies or tribal oligarchies emerged. These nations were often united by common linguistic, religious or family ties. Moreover, expansion of these nations often occurred by conquest of neighbouring tribes or nations. Consequently, various classes of royalty, nobility, various commoners and slave emerged. Accordingly, the systems of tribal arbitration were submerged into a more unified system of justice which formalised the relation between the different "classes" rather than "tribes". The earliest and most famous example is Code of Hammurabi which set the different punishment and compensation according to the different class/group of victims and perpetrators. The Pentateuch (Old Testament) lays down the death penalty for murder, kidnapping, magic, violation of the Sabbath, blasphemy, and a wide range of sexual crimes, although evidence suggests that actual executions were rare.[11] A further example comes from Ancient Greece, where the Athenian legal system was first written down by Draco in about 621 BC: the death penalty was applied for a particularly wide range of crimes. The word draconian derives from Draco's laws. Similarly, in medieval and early modern Europe, before the development of modern prison systems, the death penalty was also used as a generalized form of punishment. For example, in 1700s Britain, there were 222 crimes which were punishable by death, including crimes such as cutting down a tree or stealing an animal.[12] An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi (also known as the Codex Hammurabi and Hammurabis Code), created ca. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... Magic/magick and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical or paranormal means. ... This artyicle concerns the Sabbath in Christianity. ... Look up blasphemy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Ancient Greek world, circa 550 BC Ancient Greece does not exsist Ancient Greece is also the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... Look up Draconian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Draconian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Despite its wide use, calls for reform were not unknown. The 12th Century Sephardic legal scholar, Moses Maimonides, wrote, "It is better and more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent man to death." He argued that executing an accused criminal on anything less than absolute certainty would lead to a slippery slope of decreasing burdens of proof, until we would be convicting merely "according to the judge's caprice." His concern was maintaining popular respect for law, and he saw errors of commission as much more threatening than errors of omission. In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...


The last several centuries have seen the emergence of modern nation-states. Almost fundamental to the concept of nation state is the idea of citizenship. This caused justice to be increasingly associated with equality and universality, which in Europe saw an emergence of the concept of natural rights. Another important aspect is that emergence of standing police forces and permanent penitential institutions. The death penalty become an increasingly unnecessary deterrent in prevention of minor crimes such as theft. As well, in countries like Britain, law enforcement officials became alarmed when juries tended to acquit non-violent felons rather than risk a conviction that could result in execution. The 20th century was one of the bloodiest of the human history. Massive killing occurred as the resolution of war between nation-states. A large part of execution was summary execution of enemy combatants. Also, modern military organisations employed capital punishment as a means of maintaining military discipline. In the past, cowardice, absence without leave, desertion, insubordination, looting, shirking under enemy fire and disobeying orders were often crimes punishable by death. The method of execution since firearms came into common use has almost invariably been firing squad. Moreover, various authoritarian states—for example those with fascist or communist governments, or dictatorships—employed the death penalty as a potent means of political oppression. Partly as a response to such excessive punishment, civil organizations have started to place increasing emphasis on the concept of human rights and abolition of the death penalty. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Deterrence is the method manipulating a persons action by negative motivational influences. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The concept of insubordination is most often associated with military organizations, as military organizations have a chain of command and lawful orders given by a superior officer, whose orders are expected to be carried out by the person to whom the order is given. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lunt, to rob), sacking, or plundering is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war [1], natural disaster [2], rioting [3], or terrorist attack... Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, especially in times of war. ...


Movements towards "humane" execution

Dr. Guillotin
Dr. Guillotin

In early New England, public executions were a very solemn and sorrowful occasion, sometimes attended by large crowds, who also listened to a Gospel message [13] and remarks by local preachers and politicians. The Connecticut Courant records one such public execution on December 1, 1803, saying, "The assembly conducted through the whole in a very orderly and solemn manner, so much so, as to occasion an observing gentleman acquainted with other countries as well as this, to say that such an assembly, so decent and solemn, could not be collected anywhere but in New England."[14] Portrait of Dr. Guillotine This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... Portrait of Dr. Guillotine This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... The states marked in red show New England. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Trends in most of the world have long been to move to less painful, or more "humane", executions. France developed the guillotine for this reason in the final years of the 18th century while Britain banned drawing and quartering in the early 19th century. Hanging by turning the victim off a ladder or by dangling him from the back of a moving cart, which causes death by suffocation, was replaced by "hanging" where the subject is dropped a longer distance to dislocate the neck and sever the spinal cord. In the U.S., electrocution and the gas chamber, which were introduced as more humane alternatives to hanging, have been almost entirely superseded by lethal injection, which in turn has been criticized as being too painful. Nevertheless, some countries still employ slow hanging methods, beheading by sword and even stoning, although the latter is rarely employed. The Maiden, an older Scottish design. ... Seventeenth century print of the execution, by hanging, drawing and quartering, of the members of the Gunpowder plot. ... Suicide by hanging. ... Electric chair at the Kentucky State Penitentiary The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being executed is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. ... // The gas chamber once used at San Quentin State Prison in California for the purpose of capital punishment. ... Lethal injection involves injecting a person with fatal doses of drugs to cause death. ... Stoning or lapidation is a form of capital punishment in which the criminal is put to death by having stones thrown at him or her. ...

See also: Cruel and unusual punishment

The statement that the government shall not inflict cruel and unusual punishment for crimes is found in the English Bill of Rights signed in 1689 by William of Orange and Queen Mary II who were then the joint rulers of England following the Glorious Revolution of 1688. ...

Abolitionism in different countries

Marquis of Beccaria
Marquis of Beccaria

Although the death penalty was briefly banned in China between 747 and 759, modern opposition to the death penalty stems from the book of the Italian Cesare Beccaria Dei Delitti e Delle Pene ("On Crimes and Punishments"), published in 1764. In this book, Beccaria aimed to demonstrate not only the injustice, but even the futility from the point of view of social welfare, of torture and the death penalty. Influenced by the book, Grand Duke Leopold II of Habsburg, famous enlightened monarch and future Emperor of Austria, abolished the death penalty in the then-independent Granducato di Toscana (Tuscany), the first permanent abolition in modern times. On 30 November 1786, after having de facto blocked capital executions (the last was in 1769), Leopold promulgated the reform of the penal code that abolished the death penalty and ordered the destruction of all the instruments for capital execution in his land. In 2000 Tuscany's regional authorities instituted an annual holiday on 30 November to commemorate the event. The event is also commemorated on this day by 300 cities around the world celebrating the Cities for Life Day. Image File history File links Beccaria. ... Image File history File links Beccaria. ... Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria (or the Marchese de Beccaria-Bonesana) (March 11, 1738 - November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician. ... Social policy is the study of the welfare state, and the range of responses to social need. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (Vienna, May 5, 1747 – Vienna, March 1, 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand-duke of Tuscany. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... A flowered corn field in Tuscany. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Criminal Code. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... On the Cities for Life Day, November 30, 300 cities around the world commemorate the first abolition of the death penalty by a European state, decreed by the elightened monarch, Peter Leopold Joseph of Habsburg-Lorraine in 1786 for his Grand Duchy of Tuscany. ...


In 1849, the Roman Republic became the first country to ban the capital punishment in its constitution. Venezuela abolished the death penalty in 1863 and Portugal did so in 1867. The last execution in Portugal had taken place in 1846. Military flag of the Roman Republic. ...


In the United States, the state of Michigan was the first state to ban the death penalty, on March 1, 1847. The 160-year ban on capital punishment has never been repealed, and as such the state is considered to be the first democracy in recorded history to have eliminated capital punishment. Currently, 12 states of the U.S. and the District of Columbia ban capital punishment. Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... ...


Capital punishment debate

Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is often the subject of controversy. ...

Religious views

Execution by hanging in Kuwait. Doctors examine the bodies to confirm death.
Execution by hanging in Kuwait. Doctors examine the bodies to confirm death.

Most major world religions take ambiguous, hypocritical, and even self contradictory positions on the morality of capital punishment. ... Image File history File links Hanginkuwait. ... Image File history File links Hanginkuwait. ...

Judaism

The official teachings of Judaism approve the death penalty in principle but the standard of proof required for application of death penalty is extremely stringent, and in practice, it has been abolished by various Talmudic decisions, making the situations in which a death sentence could be passed effectively impossible and hypothetical. "Forty years before the destruction of the Temple" in 70 CE, i. e., in 30 CE, the Sanhedrin effectively abolished capital punishment, making it a hypothetical upper limit on the severity of punishment, fitting in finality for God alone to use, not fallible people. Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ...


Christianity

Although some interpret that John 8:7 of the Bible condemns the death penalty, Christian positions, as on many social issues, vary.


The Roman Catholic Church traditionally supported capital punishment as per the theology of Thomas Aquinas (who accepted the death penalty as a necessary deterrent and prevention method, but not as the means of vengeance), but under the pontificate of Pope John Paul II, this position was reversed. His encyclical Evangelium Vitae denounced abortion, capital punishment, and euthanasia as murder (see Consistent Life Ethic). The Roman Catholic Church holds that the death penalty is no longer necessary if it can be replaced by incarceration.[15] The Catechism of the Catholic Church says "If bloodless means are sufficient to defend human lives against an aggressor and to protect public order and the safety of persons, public authority must limit itself to such means, because they better correspond to the concrete conditions of the common good and are more in conformity to the dignity of the human person". The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see Terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the true Church founded by Jesus of Nazareth and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Deterrence is the method manipulating a persons action by negative motivational influences. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), (Italian: Giovanni Paolo II), born   (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005) reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from October... Evangelium Vitæ (Latin: The Gospel of Life) is the name of the encyclical written by Pope John Paul II which expresses the official position of the Catholic Church regarding the value and inviolability of human life. ... The Consistent Life Ethic is a philosophical, ethical, religious, and political philosophy with the basic premise that all human life is sacred, and that this calls for a coherent social policy which seeks to protect the rights of the weakest and most vulnerable in our society, the unborn, the infirm... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference...


The Lambeth Conference of Anglican and Episcopalian bishops condemned the death penalty in 1988. In Protestantism, both Martin Luther and John Calvin followed the traditional reasoning in favor of capital punishment, and the Augsburg Confession explicitly defends it; the Mennonites and Friends, among other, smaller groups, opposed it. Some Protestant groups have cited Genesis 9:5-6, Romans 13:3-4, and Leviticus 20:1-27 as the basis for permitting the death penalty [7][8]. Both proponents and opponents derive their own stance from the Bible itself. Until recently, however, the retentionist position was held by all but a relatively few groups. The Lambeth Conferences was the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran reformation. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... The Religious Society of Friends (commonly known as Quakers) began in England in the 17th century by people who were dissatisfied with the existing denominations and sects of Christianity. ...


The United Methodist Church, along with other Methodist churches, also condemns capital punishment, saying that it cannot accept retribution or social vengeance as a reason for taking human life.[16] The Church also holds that the death penalty falls unfairly and unequally upon marginalized persons including the poor, the uneducated, ethnic and religious minorities, and persons with mental and emotional illnesses.[17] The General Conference of the United Methodist Church calls for its bishops to uphold opposition to capital punishment and for governments to enact an immediate moratorium on carrying out the death penalty sentence. This article is about the current denomination in the United States. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The General Conference of The United Methodist Church is the denominations top legislative body for all matters affecting the United Methodist connection. ... Diocesan College, or Bishops as it is commonly known, is a private school situated in the leafy suburb of Rondebosch in Cape Town, South Africa, at the foot of Table Mountain. ...


The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (colloquially known as Mormons) hold a neutral position on the death penalty. This is the current Mormon collaboration of the month! Please help improve it to meet the Featured Article standard. ... The term Mormon is a colloquial name, most-often used to refer to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ...


Islam

The death penalty is allowed for infidels only, for Muslims they must go through a trial and death penalty must not be done by a fellow Muslim.


Hinduism

The ancient Hindu scriptures do not have much mention on the death penalty. The Hindu epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata mention individuals put to death (in duels) as a matter of Dharma and to protect society at large. The Ramayana was written by the saint Valmiki who was a robber-murderer before he became a saint, stories of reformed murderers abound in Hinduism (and Buddhism). Hindus believe that the effects of misdeeds in current lives manifest in future lives. See Reincarnation and Karma. The (Devanāgarī: ) is an ancient Sanskrit epic attributed to the poet Valmiki and is an important part of the Hindu canon (smṛti). ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ), is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... Hinduism (Sanskrit: , , also known as , ) is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... According to Hinduism, every living being is an eternally existing spirit (the soul or the self). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Capital punishment in arts and media

Executions of the Third of May by Goya.
Executions of the Third of May by Goya.

As a capital punishment forms a more important thematic element. Many of these works are abolitionist in nature, but sometimes capital punishment is used as a metaphor for some other theme, such as sacrifice or mortality. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1551, 206 KB) Description: Title: de: Erschießung der Aufständischen am 3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1551, 206 KB) Description: Title: de: Erschießung der Aufständischen am 3. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ...


The Gospels describe the execution of Jesus Christ at length, and these accounts form the central story of the Christian faith. Depictions of the crucifixion are abundant in Christian artistry. For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Valerius Maximus' story of Damon and Pythias was long a famous example of fidelity. Damon was sentenced to death (the reader does not learn why) and his friend Pythias offered to take his place. In Greek mythology, the legend of Damon and Pythias (or Phintias) symbolizes trust and loyalty in a true friendship. ...


Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities ends in a climactic execution, and the image of a man going to the guillotine has become synonymous with the novel. Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (February 7, 1812 – June 9, 1870), pen-name “Boz”, was an English novelist of the Victorian era. ... A Tale of Two PENISS (1859) is a historical novel by Charles Dickens; it is moreover a moral novel strongly concerned with themes of guilt, shame, redemption and patriotism. ...


Victor Hugo's The Last Day of a Condemned Man (Le Dernier Jour d'un condamné) describes the thoughts of a condemned man just before his execution; also notable is its preface, in which Hugo argues at length against capital punishment. Victor-Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman and human rights campaigner, recognized as the most influential Realist writer of the 19th century. ...


Anaïs Nin's anthology Little Birds included an erotic depiction of a public execution. Anaïs Nin in the mid-1970s. ... Back Cover Copy One of contemporary literatures most important writers. ...


William Burroughs' novel Naked Lunch also included erotic and surreal depictions of capital punishment. In the obscenity trial against Burroughs, the defense claimed successfully that the novel was a form of anti-death-penalty argument, and therefore had redeeming political value. William S. Burroughs. ... Naked Lunch is a novel by William S. Burroughs. ...


In The Chamber by John Grisham, a young lawyer tries to save his Klansman grandfather from being executed. The novel is noted for presentation of anti-death penalty materials. The Chamber (1994) is a legal/suspense novel by noted American author John Grisham. ... John Ray Grisham Jr. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ...


Capital punishment has been the basis of many motion pictures including Dead Man Walking based on the book by Sister Helen Prejean, The Green Mile, and The Life of David Gale. Dead Man Walking is a work of non-fiction by Sister Helen Prejean, a Roman Catholic nun and one of the Sisters of Saint Joseph of Medaille. ... Sister Helen Prejean Sister Helen Prejean (b. ... The Green Mile is a 1999 movie, directed by Frank Darabont, based on the Stephen King novel The Green Mile. ... The Life of David Gale is a 2003 motion picture that tells the fictional story of a philosophy professor, David Gale, who was dedicated to the abolition of the death penalty and who was sentenced to death for the rape and murder of a colleague and fellow abolitionist. ...


In "Justice", a first-season episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, 15 year old Wesley Crusher inadvertently breaks a trivial law and consequently faces a death sentence. Justice is a first season episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, first broadcast November 9, 1987. ... The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... Wesley Eugene Crusher is a character on the science fiction television series Star Trek: The Next Generation. ...


The Suffering for the Xbox and PS2 deals heavily with injection, electrocution, and gas tanks. This article needs cleanup. ...

See also: List of movies about capital punishment

See List of protest songs for a list of protest songs about capital punishment. This page is a list of films about and/or containing capital punishment. ... For information about protest songs in general, see Protest song. ...


Methods of execution

Further information: List of methods of capital punishment

Electric chair as used for electrocutions. ...

External links

Resources opposing capital punishment

Resources favoring capital punishment

Charles Chuck Lane is a journalist who is currently a staff writer for the Washington Post. ... ...

Religious views on the death penalty

Notes

  1. ^ Shot at Dawn, campaign for pardons for British and Commonwealth soldiers executed in World War I. Shot at Dawn Pardons Campaign. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  2. ^ http://www.eurunion.org/legislat/deathpenalty/EurHRConvProt13Decl.htm
  3. ^ ABC News poll, "Capital Punishment, 30 Years On: Support, but Ambivalence as Well" (PDF, July 1, 2006)
  4. ^ http://web.amnesty.org/pages/deathpenalty-children-stats-eng
  5. ^ http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGACT500152004
  6. ^ Rob Gallagher, Table of juvenile executions in British America/United States, 1642-1959.
  7. ^ Supreme Court bars executing mentally retarded CNN.com Law Center. June 25, 2002.
  8. ^ UNICEF, Convention of the Rights of the Child - FAQ: "The Convention on the Rights of the Child is the most widely and rapidly ratified human rights treaty in history. Only two countries, Somalia and the United States, have not ratified this celebrated agreement. Somalia is currently unable to proceed to ratification as it has no recognized government. By signing the Convention, the United States has signalled its intention to ratify. but has yet to do so."
  9. ^ Translated from Waldmann, op.cit., p.147.
  10. ^ Lindow, op.cit. (primarily discusses Icelandic things).
  11. ^ Schabas, William. The Abolition of the Death Penalty in International Law. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81491-X.
  12. ^ Almost invariably, however, sentences of death for property crimes were commuted to transportation to a penal colony or to a place where the felon was worked as an indentured servant/Michigan State University and Death Penalty Information Center
  13. ^ Article from the Connecticut Courant (December 1, 1803)
  14. ^ http://calebadams.org/index.htm The Execution of Caleb Adams]
  15. ^ The Roman Catholic Church actually states that capital punishment should be avoided unless it is the only way to defend society from the offender in question, and that with today's penal system such a situation requiring an execution is either rare or non-existent, Papal encyclical, Evangelium Vitae
  16. ^ The United Methodist Church: Capital Punishment
  17. ^ The United Methodist Church: Official church statements on capital punishment

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Death Penalty Information Center (1530 words)
In an editorial that followed a four-part news series reviewing death penalty-eligible murder cases in Georgia between 1995 and 2004, the Atlanta Journal Constitution called on the state to abandon capital punishment because death sentences are often unfairly influenced by geography, a prosecutor's personal politics, or the victim's race.
The study, conducted by a 10-member panel of Ohio attorneys appointed by the ABA, found that the state's death penalty is prone to racial and geographic imbalances and that it meets only four of the 93 ABA recommendations to ensure a fair capital punishment system.
Death Penalty in Flux - Where the death penalty is on hold and an examination of recent legislation.
Capital punishment; the death penalty (260 words)
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