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Encyclopedia > Death cap
iDeath Cap
[[image:johhny 1.JPG|250px|]]
Conservation status
Secure
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Homobasidiomycetes
Subclass: Hymenomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Amanitaceae
Genus: Amanita
Species: A. phalloides
Binomial name
Amanita phalloides
(Vaill. ex Fr.) Secr.
Amanita phalloides
mycological characteristics:
i
 
gills on hymenium
 

cap is convex The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota The fungi (singular fungus) are a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. ... Classes Subdivision Teliomycotina    Urediniomycetes Subdivision Ustilaginomycotina    Ustilaginomycetes Subdivision Hymenomycotina    Homobasidiomycetes- mushrooms    Heterobasidiomycetes- jelly fungi The Division Basidiomycota is a large taxon within the Kingdom Fungi that includes those species that produce spores in a club-shaped structure called a basidium. ... former Orders Subclass Homobasidiomycetidae    Agaricales    Boletales    Cantharellales    Corticiales    Ganodermatales    Gomphales    Hericiales    Hydnales    Hymenochaetales    Polyporales (Aphyllophorales)    Poriales    Russulales    Schizophyllales    Stereales    Thelephorales Subclass Gasteromycetidae    Lycoperdales    Nidulariales    Phallales    Sclerodermatales    Tulostomatales The Class Homobasidiomycetes is a taxonomic division in the Subdivision Hymenomycotina of the Division Basidiomycota (in the Kingdom Fungi). ... Hymenomycete are a type of fungi. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name {{{binomial}}} Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} Genera Amanita Limacella Torrendia [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} Amanitaceae is a family of Fungi or Mushrooms. ... The genus Amanita contains about 600 species of agarics and contains some of the most toxic known mushrooms, found worldwide. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Sébastien Vaillant (May 26, 1669 - May 20, 1722) was a French botanist. ... Drawn image of Elias Magnus Fries Elias Magnus Fries (August 15, 1794 – February 8, 1878) was a Swedish botanist born at Femsjö in Smalandia. ... Image File history File links Gills_icon. ... Classes Homobasidiomycetes - mushrooms Heterobasidiomycetes - jelly fungi The Subdivision Hymenomycotina (Hymenomycetes) is one of three taxa of the fungal Division Basidiomycota (fungi bearing spores on basidia). ... Image File history File links Convex_cap_icon. ... The cap of a fungal fruiting body. ...

 

hymenium is free Image File history File links Free_gills_icon2. ... Classes Homobasidiomycetes - mushrooms Heterobasidiomycetes - jelly fungi The Subdivision Hymenomycotina (Hymenomycetes) is one of three taxa of the fungal Division Basidiomycota (fungi bearing spores on basidia). ...

 

stipe has a ring and volva Image File history File links Ring_and_volva_stipe_icon. ... Diagram of a basidiomycete stipe with a annulus and vulva In mycology a stipe refers to the stem or stalk-like feature supporting the cap of a mushroom. ...

 

spore print is white Image File history File links White_spore_print_icon. ... Making a spore print of the mushroom Volvariella volvacea shown in composite: (photo lower half) mushroom cap laid on white and dark paper; (photo upper half) cap removed after 24 hours showing pinkish-tan spore print. ...

 

ecology is mycorrhizal Image File history File links Mycorrhizal_ecology_icon. ... A mycorrhiza (typically seen in the plural form mycorrhizae meaning fungus roots) is a distinct type of root symbiosis in which individual hyphae extending from the mycelium of a fungus colonize the roots of a host plant. ...

 

edibility: deadly Image File history File links Hazard_T.svg Summary Description: The hazard symbol for toxic/highly toxic substances according to directive 67/548/EWG by the European Chemicals Bureau. ... These emerging mushrooms are too immature to safely identify as edible or toxic. ...


The Death Cap, Amanita phalloides, (known to many as deadly white cap) is one of numerous species of mushrooms in the genus Amanita, and has an infamous reputation for being one of the most toxic of all types of fungi. It is responsible for the majority of deaths from consumption[1]. Its dangerousness is heightened by its similarity to some widely eaten species. Its scientific name phalloides means penis-shaped. The relative sizes of the Cap (pileus) and Stalk (stipe) vary widely. ... The genus Amanita contains about 600 species of agarics and contains some of the most toxic known mushrooms, found worldwide. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ...


Widely distributed across somalia, the Death Cap has been accidentally introduced further afield into such countries as Australia and New Zealand.

Contents

Description

The Death Cap has a large and distinctive fungal fruiting body or basidiocarp, usually with a pileus (cap) from 5 to 15 cm (2-6 in) across, initially rounded and hemispherical but flattening with age. Easily peeled, the cap surface can be olive green or brown with a green to smooth yellow tinge, and is often paler after rain. There is a partial veil, white fine lamellae (gills), and a white 4 to 18 cm long and 1–3 cm-thick stipe (stalk) with an annulus (ring) and a swollen volva (base), which may be hidden by leaf litter. As the volva is a distinctive and diagnostic feature it is important to remove some debris to check for one.[2] Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota The fungi (singular fungus) are a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. ... Mushroom In fungi, the fruiting body (also known as sporocarp) is a multicellular structure on which spore-producing structures, such as basidia or asci, are borne. ... A pileus (Latin for cap) is a small, horizontal cloud that can appear above a cumulus or cumulonimbus cloud, giving the parent cloud a characteristic hoodlike appearance. ... Gill may refer to one of the following. ...


The Death Cap also has white gills and a white spore print. An entirely white form (Amanita phalloides var. alba) is also occasionally found.


Young specimens first emerge from the ground resembling a white egg, covered by a universal veil, which then breaks leaving the volva as a remnant.


Similarity to edible species

Asian immigrants in North America, Europe, and Australia have often mistaken the Death Cap for the edible paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) due to their similarity in appearance[3]. This is a leading cause of mushroom poisoning in the United States. Because of its resemblance to edible mushrooms, it is considered especially dangerous; the Finnish name kavalakärpässieni ("devious fly mushroom") is very apt. World map showing the location of Asia. ... White mushrooms being prepared for cooking. ... Binomial name Volvariella volvacea (Bulliard ex Fries) Singer Volvariella volvacea (also known as straw mushroom or paddy straw mushroom; syn. ... Binomial name Volvariella volvacea (Bulliard ex Fries) Singer Volvariella volvacea (also known as straw mushroom or paddy straw mushroom; syn. ... Binomial name Amanita muscaria (Linnaeus) Hook. ...


Distribution and habitat

It is found primarily and originally in Europe but now is also in North America, southeastern Australia[4][5], South America, Asia, and Africa, typically under oaks, nut trees, other hardwoods and some conifers (for example, pines), usually in autumn to early winter depending on the location. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood The term hardwood designates wood from angiosperm trees. ...


Initial records from North America were of the similar Amanita brunnescens[6], which was described in 1918, however A. phalloides was later confirmed in the U.S. in its own right. Other similar species are A. subjunquillea in eastern Asia and A. arocheae with a range extending from Andean Colombia to central Mexico (at least). All these fungi are mycorrhizal. World map showing the location of Asia. ... A mycorrhiza (typically seen in the plural form mycorrhizae meaning fungus roots) is a distinct type of root symbiosis in which individual hyphae extending from the mycelium of a fungus colonize the roots of a host plant. ...


Amanita phalloides appears to be spreading worldwide, and has been conveyed to new countries with conifers and hardwoods.


Toxicity

One survivor of Death Cap mushroom poisoning described them as "tasting wonderful." She collected the mushrooms in the wild, mistaking them for some gourmet variety she had recently purchased. [citation needed] In many cases of mushroom poisoning, irreparable damage occurs before the onset of symptoms.

Warning sign in Canberra, Australia
Warning sign in Canberra, Australia

As the common name suggests, it is highly poisonous, and is responsible for the majority of fatal mushroom poisonings worldwide. It contains two types of toxins spread throughout the mushroom thallus: phallotoxins (phalloidin, phalloin, phallisin, phallicidin) and amatoxins (amanitin, amanin, amanullin). The toxin most responsible for the deadly effects of the Death Cap is alpha-amanitin. The poison particularly affects the liver and kidneys; frequently the only treatment for Death Cap poisoning is liver transplant. It is estimated that 30 grams (half of a cap) of this mushroom is enough to kill a human. Poisoning can be treated by intravenous injection of silibinin dihydrogen disuccinate disodium. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 909 KB) Warning sign for Death Cap Mushrooms, Canberra, Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Death Cap ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 909 KB) Warning sign for Death Cap Mushrooms, Canberra, Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Death Cap ... Canberra (pronounced [1]) is the capital city of Australia and with a population of just over 325,000, is Australias largest inland city. ... These emerging mushrooms are too immature to safely identify as edible or toxic. ... Thallus is an undifferentiated vegetative tissue (without specialization of function) of some non-mobile organisms, which were previously known as the thallophytes. ... Phalloidin is a toxin from the death cap mushroom Amanita phalloides that binds actin, preventing its depolymerization and poisoning the cell. ... Amatoxins are a subgrup of toxins found in Amanita phalloides and also in Galerina and Lepiota mushroom species. ... Alpha-amanitin or α-amanitin is a cyclic nonribosomal peptide of eight amino acids. ... Alpha-amanitin or α-amanitin is a cyclic nonribosomal peptide of eight amino acids. ... The liver is an organ in some animals, including mammals (and therefore humans), birds, and reptiles. ... The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... An organ transplant is the transplantation of an organ (or part of one) from one body to another, for the purpose of replacing the recipients damaged or failing organ with a working one from the donor. ... Silibinin (INN) (silybin, Legalon®) is the major active constituent of silymarin, the mixture of flavonolignans extracted from plant Milk thistle (Silybum marianum). ...


Trivia


For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII and other Popes named Clement see Pope Clement. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Benjamin DR. (1995)Amatoxin syndrome. Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas -- a handbook for naturalists, mycologists and physicians. New York: W H Freeman and Company: 198-241
  2. ^ Jordan P & Wheeler S (2001). The Ultimate Mushroom Book. Hermes House.
  3. ^ Trim GM et. al.(1999).Poisoning by Amanita phalloides ("deathcap") mushrooms in the Australian Capital Territory. Medical Journal of Australia.171: 247-249
  4. ^ Reid DA. (1980) A monograph of the Australian species of Amanita Pers. ex Hook (Fungi). Australian Journal of Botany - Supplementary Series No. 8: 48
  5. ^ Cole FM. (1993) Amanita phalloides in Victoria. Medical Journal of Australia; 158: 849-850
  6. ^ Litten W (1975) The Most Poisonous Mushrooms. Scientific American 232(3)90-101

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Amanita phalloides

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
death cap - definition of death cap in Encyclopedia (352 words)
The Death Cap (Amanita phalloides) is one of numerous poisonous species of mushrooms in the genus Amanita.
This is a large and distinctive fungal fruiting body or basidiocarp, usually with a pileus (cap) from 5 to 15 cm across, smooth yellow to brown with a green tinge and a partial veil, white fine lamellae (gills), and a white 4 to 18 cm stipe (stalk) with an annulus and a swollen volva (base).
The toxin most responsible for the deadly effects of the Death Cap is alpha-amanitin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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