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Encyclopedia > Death
A dead soldier in Petersburg, Virginia 1865 during the American Civil War
A dead soldier in Petersburg, Virginia 1865 during the American Civil War

Death is the cessation of the biological functions that define living organisms. It refers both to a specific event and, particularly in humans, to a condition the true nature of which it has for millennia been a central concern of the world's religious traditions to penetrate.[1] Numerous factors can cause death: predation, disease, habitat destruction, senescence, conflict, malnutrition, for example, or mere accidents resulting in terminal physical injury. Principal cause of death in people in developed countries is disease precipitated by aging. The chief concern of medicine has been to postpone and avert death. Precise medical definition of death, however, becomes more problematical, paradoxically, as scientific knowledge and technology advance. Look up death, deceased in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dead is a lifeless state of an organism, see Death. ... Deceased is a former death metal band from Virginia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1050x777, 120 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1050x777, 120 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Vanitas, by Pieter Claesz This article is about the fine art genre. ... Ex Voto (1662) by Philippe de Champaigne Philippe de Champaigne (26 May 1602 - 12 August 1674) was a Baroque era painter of the French school. ... This article is about life in general. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 629 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2600 × 2478 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 629 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2600 × 2478 pixel, file size: 2. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Major world religions have been distinguished from minor religions using a variety of methods, though any such division naturally reflects a particular bias, since many adherent of a religion are likely to consider their own faith major. Two methods are mentioned in this article, number of adherents and the definitions... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with another habitat-type. ... In biology, senescence is the combination of processes of deterioration which follow the period of development of an organism. ... -1... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... A railing accidentally collapses at a college football game, spilling fans onto the sidelines An accident is something going wrong unexpectedly. ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...

Contents

Biology

Fate of dead organisms

In animals, small movements of the limbs (for example twitching legs or wings) known as a postmortem spasm can sometimes be observed following death. Pallor mortis is a postmortem paleness which accompanies death due to a lack of capillary circulation throughout the body. Algor mortis describes the predictable decline in body temperature until ambient temperature is reached. Within a few hours of death rigor mortis is observed with a chemical change in the muscles, causing the limbs of the corpse to become stiff (Latin rigor) and difficult to move or manipulate. Assuming mild temperatures, full rigor occurs at about 12 hours, eventually subsiding to relaxation at about 36 hours; however, decomposition is not always a slow process. Fire, for example, is the primary mode of decomposition in most grassland ecosystems.[2] Sometimes, after an organism has died, small movements of the limbs (a twitch of a finger or even a whole leg moving) can be observed. ... Pallor mortis: A postmortem paleness which happens almost instantaneously because of a lack of capillary circulation throughout the body. ... Blood flows from the heart to arteries, which narrow into arterioles, and then narrow further still into capillaries. ... Algor mortis (Latin: algor—coolness; mortis—death) is the reduction in body temperature following death. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sign of death. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Muscle, see Muscle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Body (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wildfire (disambiguation). ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ...


Some organisms have hard parts such as shells or bones which may fossilize before decomposition can occur. Fossils are the mineralized or otherwise preserved remains or traces (such as footprints) of animals, plants, and other organisms. Fossils vary in size from microscopic, such as single cells, to gigantic, such as dinosaurs. A fossil normally preserves only a small portion of the deceased organism, usually that portion that was partially mineralized during life, such as the bones and teeth of vertebrates, or the chitinous exoskeletons of invertebrates. Preservation of soft tissues, such as in mummification, is extremely rare in the fossil record. Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... A microscope (Greek: (micron) = small + (skopein) = to look at) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... Thelenota ananas, a sea cucumber (phylum: Echinodermata) An invertebrate is an animal lacking a vertebral column. ... In medicine, the term soft tissue refers to tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body. ... For other uses, see Mummy (disambiguation). ...


Competition, natural selection and extinction

Death is an important part of the process of natural selection. Organisms that are less adapted to their current environment than others are more likely to die having produced fewer offspring, reducing their contribution to the gene pool of succeeding generations. Weaker genes are thus eventually bred out of a population, leading to processes such as speciation and extinction. It should be noted however that reproduction plays an equally important role in determining survival, for example an organism that dies young but leaves many offspring will have a much greater Darwinian fitness than a long-lived organism which leaves only one. Trees in this Bangladesh forest are in competition for light. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... Biological reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ...


Extinctions

The Dodo, shown here in illustration, is an often-cited example of modern extinction.
The Dodo, shown here in illustration, is an often-cited[3] example of modern extinction.

Extinction is the cessation of existence of a species or group of taxa, reducing biodiversity. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of that species (although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point). Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa, where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" (typically in the fossil record) after a period of apparent absence. Image File history File links ExtinctDodoBird. ... Image File history File links ExtinctDodoBird. ... For other uses, see Dodo (disambiguation). ... The Dodo, a bird of Mauritius, became extinct during the mid-late seventeenth century after humans destroyed the forests where the birds made their homes and introduced animals that ate their eggs. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ... In biology, the range of an species is the geographical area within which that species can be found. ... In biology, a lazarus taxon (plural taxa) is a taxon that disappears from one or more periods of the fossil record, only to appear again later. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ...


Through evolutional theory, new species arise through the process of speciation — where new varieties of organisms arise and thrive when they are able to find and exploit an ecological niche — and species become extinct when they are no longer able to survive in changing conditions or against superior competition. A typical species becomes extinct within 10 million years of its first appearance,[4] although some species, called living fossils, survive virtually unchanged for hundreds of millions of years. Only one in a thousand species that have existed remain today.[4][5] Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. A shorthand definition is that a niche is how an organism makes a living. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Ants begin the decomposition of a dead snake.
Ants begin the decomposition of a dead snake.

After death an organism's remains become part of the biogeochemical cycle. Animals may be consumed by a predator or scavenger. Organic material may then be further decomposed by detritivores, organisms which recycle detritus, returning it to the environment for reuse in the food chain. Examples include earthworms, woodlice and dung beetles. Microorganisms also play a vital role, raising the temperature of the decomposing material as they break it down into simpler molecules. Not all material need be decomposed fully however; for example coal is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems. Download high resolution version (1280x960, 696 KB)Meat ants cleaning out a dead snake Taken by User:Fir0002 File links The following pages link to this file: Ant Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 696 KB)Meat ants cleaning out a dead snake Taken by User:Fir0002 File links The following pages link to this file: Ant Categories: GFDL images ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... In ecology, a biogeochemical cycle is a circuit where a nutrient moves back and forth between both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. ... Necrophagy is the act of feeding on corpses or carrion. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... For a person who scavenges, see Waste picker. ... Organic material or organic matter is informally used to denote a material that originated as a living organism; most such materials contain carbon and are capable of decay. ... A dung beetle rolling a ball of dung Detritivores (also known as saprophages, detrivores or detritus feeders) are organisms that recycle detritus (decomposing organic material), returning it into the food chain. ... Detritus may refer to: In geology, detritus is the name for loose fragments of rock that have been worn away by erosion. ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... For the LPG album, see The Earthworm (album). ... Infraorders and Families Not necessarily a complete list Infraorders: Ligiamorpha Tylomorpha Families: Dubioniscidae Irmaosidae Pseudarmadillidae Scleropactidae Armadillidium vulgare A woodlouse, also known as a pill bug (genus Armadillidium only), armadillo bug, sow bug, slater, ball bug, or roley-poley, is a terrestrial crustacean with a rigid, segmented, calcareous exoskeleton and... Genera not a complete list Agestrata Augosoma Canthon Chrysina Chalcosoma Chelorrhina Cheirolasia Cheirotonus Cotinis Dynastes Eudicella Goliathus Megsoma Onthophagus Pachnoda Phanaeus Plusiotis Ranzania Rhomborrhina Stephanorrhina Xylotrupes The scarab is a type of beetle noted for rolling dung into spherical balls and pushing it, as well as its habit of laying... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Evolution of aging

Main article: Evolution of aging

Enquiry into the evolution of aging aims to explain why almost all living things weaken and die with age (a notable exception being hydra, which may be biologically immortal). The evolutionary origin of senescence remains one of the fundamental puzzles of biology. Why do almost all living things weaken and die with age? There is not yet agreement in the academic community on a single answer. ... Species Hydra americana Hydra attenuata (or Hydra vulgaris) Hydra canadensis Hydra carnea Hydra cauliculata Hydra circumcincta Hydra hymanae Hydra littoralis Hydra magnipapillata Hydra minima Hydra oligactis Hydra oregona Hydra pseudoligactis Hydra rutgerensis Hydra utahensis Hydra viridis Hydra viridissima Hydra is a genus of simple, fresh-water animals possessing radial symmetry. ... Biological immortality can be defined as the absence of a sustained increase in rate of mortality as a function of chronological age. ... In biology, senescence is the combination of processes of deterioration which follow the period of development of an organism. ...


In medicine

Definition

Historically, attempts to define the exact moment of death have been problematic. Death was once defined as the cessation of heartbeat (cardiac arrest) and of breathing, but the development of CPR and prompt defibrillation have rendered that definition inadequate because breathing and heartbeat can sometimes be restarted. This is now called "clinical death". Events which were causally linked to death in the past no longer kill in all circumstances; without a functioning heart or lungs, life can sometimes be sustained with a combination of life support devices, organ transplants and artificial pacemakers. The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Breathing transports oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. ... CPR redirects here. ... Typical view of defibrillation in progress, with the operator at the head, but clear of contact with the patient Defibrillation is the definitive treatment for the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. ... Clinical death occurs when a patients heartbeat and breathing have stopped. ... Causality or causation denotes the relationship between one event (called cause) and another event (called effect) which is the consequence (result) of the first. ... For other uses of life support, see Life support (disambiguation) Life support, in the medical field, refers to a set of therapies for preserving a patients life when essential body systems are not functioning sufficiently to sustain life unaided. ... An organ transplant is the transplantation of an organ (or part of one) from one body to another, for the purpose of replacing the recipients damaged or failing organ with a working one from the donor. ... A pacemaker, scale in centimeters A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the hearts natural pacemaker) is a medical device which uses electrical impulses, delivered by electrodes contacting the heart muscles, to regulate the beating of the heart. ...


Today, where a definition of the moment of death is required, doctors and coroners usually turn to "brain death" or "biological death": People are considered dead when the electrical activity in their brain ceases (cf. persistent vegetative state). It is presumed that a stoppage of electrical activity indicates the end of consciousness. However, suspension of consciousness must be permanent, and not transient, as occurs during certain sleep stages, and especially a coma. In the case of sleep, EEGs can easily tell the difference. Identifying the moment of death is important in cases of transplantation, as an organ for transplant must be harvested as quickly as possible after the death of the body. Brain death is defined as a complete and irreversible cessation of brain activity. ... A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a condition of patients with severe brain damage in whom coma has progressed to a state of wakefulness without detectable awareness. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... The sleep stages 1 through 4 are collectively referred to as NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep. ... For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ... EEG redirects here. ... Transplant redirects here. ...


The possession of brain activities, or ability to resume brain activity, is a necessary condition to legal personhood in the United States. "It appears that once brain death has been determined … no criminal or civil liability will result from disconnecting the life-support devices." (Dority v. Superior Court of San Bernardino County, 193 Cal.Rptr. 288, 291 (1983)) This article discusses only the formal meanings of necessary and sufficient causal meanings see causation. ... San Bernardino County is the largest county in the contiguous United States by area, containing more land than each of nine states. ...


Those people maintaining that only the neo-cortex of the brain is necessary for consciousness sometimes argue that only electrical activity there should be considered when defining death. Eventually it is possible that the criterion for death will be the permanent and irreversible loss of cognitive function, as evidenced by the death of the cerebral cortex. All hope of recovering human thought and personality is then gone given current and foreseeable medical technology. However, at present, in most places the more conservative definition of death — irreversible cessation of electrical activity in the whole brain, as opposed to just in the neo-cortex — has been adopted (for example the Uniform Determination Of Death Act in the United States). In 2005, the case of Terri Schiavo brought the question of brain death and artificial sustenance to the front of American politics. In the anatomy of animals, the neopallium or neocortex is a part of the telencephalon in the brain. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Cortex. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... The Uniform Definition of Death Act was a law proposed by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws to define the legal meaning of death. ... Theresa Terri Marie Schindler Schiavo (December 3, 1963 – March 31, 2005), from St. ... Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of the United States is head of state, head of government, and of a de facto two-party legislative and electoral system. ...


Even by whole-brain criteria, the determination of brain death can be complicated. EEGs can detect spurious electrical impulses, while certain drugs, hypoglycemia, hypoxia, or hypothermia can suppress or even stop brain activity on a temporary basis. Because of this, hospitals have protocols for determining brain death involving EEGs at widely separated intervals under defined conditions. Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... Hypothermia is a condition in which an organisms temperature drops below that Required fOr normal metabolism and Bodily functionS. In warm-blooded animals, core [[body Temperature]] is maintained nEar a constant leVel through biologic [[homEostasis]]. But wheN the body iS exposed to cold Its internal mechanismS may be unable...


Misdiagnosed death

There are many anecdotal references to people being declared dead by physicians and then 'coming back to life', sometimes days later in their own coffin, or when embalming procedures are just about to begin. Owing to significant scientific advancements in the Victorian era, some people in Britain became obsessively worried about living after being declared dead.[6] Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


A first responder is not authorized to pronounce a patient dead. Some EMT training manuals specifically state that a person is not to be assumed dead unless there are clear and obvious indications that death has occurred.[7] These indications include mortal decapitation, rigor mortis (rigidity of the body), livor mortis (blood pooling in the part of the body at lowest elevation), decomposition, incineration, or other bodily damage that is clearly inconsistent with life. If there is any possibility of life and in the absence of a do not resuscitate (DNR) order, emergency workers are instructed to begin resuscitation and not end it until a patient has been brought to a hospital to be examined by a physician. This frequently leads to situation of a patient being pronounced dead on arrival (DOA). However, some states allow paramedics to pronounce death. This is usually based on specific criteria. Aside from the above mentioned, conditions include advanced measures including CPR, intubation, IV access, and administering medicines without regaining a pulse for at least 20 minutes. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Star of Life, a global symbol for medical service EMTs loading an injured skier into an ambulance An Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) is an emergency responder trained to provide emergency medical services to the critically ill and injured. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... This article is about the sign of death. ... Livor mortis or postmortem lividity, one of the signs of death, is a settling of the blood in the lower (dependent) portion of the body, causing a purplish red discoloration of the skin: when the heart is no longer agitating the blood, heavy red blood cells sink through the serum... A Do Not Resuscitate, or DNR order is a written order from a doctor that resuscitation should not be attempted if a person suffers cardiac or respiratory arrest. ... Emergency services are public services that deal with emergencies and other aspects of Public Safety. ... Dead on arrival or DOA is a notation that a patient was brought to a hospital and immediately pronounced dead by a physician. ... Typical view of the defibrillator operator. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...


In cases of electric shock, CPR for an hour or longer can allow stunned nerves to recover, allowing an apparently dead person to survive. People found unconscious under icy water may survive if their faces are kept continuously cold until they arrive at an emergency room.[7] This "diving response", in which metabolic activity and oxygen requirements are minimal, is something humans share with cetaceans called the mammalian diving reflex.[7] Sign warning of possible electric shock hazard An electric shock can occur upon contact of a humans body with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient current flow through the muscles or hair. ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... The face is the front part of the head and includes the hair, forehead, eyebrow, eyes, nose, ears, cheeks, mouth, lips, philtrum, teeth, skin, and chin. ... The emergency department (ED), sometimes termed the emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW), accident & emergency (A&E) department or casualty department is a hospital or primary care department that provides initial treatment to patients with a broad spectrum of illnesses and injuries, some of which may be life-threatening and... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Submerging the face into water causes the mammalian diving reflex, which is found in all mammals (including humans, although it is less pronounced), but especially in marine mammals (as, for example, whales and seals. ...


As medical technologies advance, ideas about when death occurs may have to be re-evaluated in light of the ability to restore a person to vitality after longer periods of apparent death (as happened when CPR and defibrillation showed that cessation of heartbeat is inadequate as a decisive indicator of death). The lack of electrical brain activity may not be enough to consider someone scientifically dead. Therefore, the concept of information theoretical death has been suggested as a better means of defining when true death actually occurs, though the concept has few practical applications outside of the field of cryonics. For other meanings of CPR, see CPR (disambiguation). ... Information-theoretic death is the destruction of the human brain, and information within it, to such an extent that recovery of the original mind and person that occupied the brain is theoretically impossible. ... Not to be confused with cryogenics. ...


There have been some scientific attempts to bring dead organisms back to life, but with limited success.[8] In science fiction scenarios where such technology is readily available, real death is distinguished from reversible death. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... A scenario (from the Italian, that which is pinned to the scenery) is a brief description of an event or a series of events. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Legalities of death

See also: Legal death Legal death is a legal pronouncement by a qualified person that further medical care is not appropriate, and that a patient should be considered dead under the law. ...


By law, a person is dead if a Statement of Death, which is similar to a Birth Certificate, is approved by a licensed medical practitioner. Various legal consequences follow death, including the stripping of personhood from the deceased civilian. In colloquial English, person is often synonymous with human. ...


Causes of human death

See also: List of causes of death by rate

Death can be caused by disease, suffocation/asphyxiation or prolonged lack of oxygen to the brain, or physical trauma as a result of an accident ("unintentional circumstance"), homicide ("intentional act by someone else"), or suicide ("intentional act against one's self").[9] The leading cause of death in developing countries is infectious disease. The leading causes of death in developed countries are atherosclerosis (heart disease and stroke), cancer, and other diseases related to obesity and aging. These conditions cause loss of homeostasis, leading to cardiac arrest, causing loss of oxygen and nutrient supply, causing irreversible deterioration of the brain and other tissues. With improved medical capability, dying has become a condition to be managed. Home deaths, once normal, are now rare in the developed world. It has been suggested that Big killer be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Suffocation can mean two things: Suffocation, or Asphyxia, is a medical condition where the body is depraved of oxygen. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... A railing accidentally collapses at a college football game, spilling fans onto the sidelines An accident is something going wrong unexpectedly. ... Homicide (Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut, kill) refers to the act of killing another human being. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ... Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Respite care is the temporary residential care for a patient with the intention of providing a break for the primary care givers. ...


In developing nations, inferior sanitary conditions and lack of access to modern medical technology makes death from infectious diseases more common than in developed countries. One such disease is tuberculosis, a bacterial disease which killed 1.7 million people in 2004.[10] Malaria causes about 400–900 million cases of fever and approximately one to three million deaths annually.[11] AIDS death toll in Africa may reach 90-100 million by 2025.[12][13] A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... Medical technology refers to the diagnostic or therapeutic application of science and technology to improve the management of health conditions. ... In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


According to Jean Ziegler, who was the United Nations Special reporter on the Right to Food from 2000 to March 2008; mortality due to malnutrition accounted for 58% of the total mortality rate in 2006. Ziegler says worldwide approximately 62 millions people died from all causes and of those deaths more than 36 millions died of hunger or diseases due to deficiencies in micronutrients."[14] Jean Ziegler Jean Ziegler (born April 19, 1934) is the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food and a senior professor of sociology at the University of Geneva and the Sorbonne, Paris. ... UN redirects here. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... Micronutrients are essential nutrients only needed by the human body in small quantities for it to fuction normally. ...


Tobacco smoking killed 100 million people worldwide in the 20th century and could kill 1 billion people around the world in the 21st century, the WHO Report warned.[15][16] Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Many leading developed world causes of death can be postponed by diet and physical activity, but the accelerating incidence of disease with age still imposes limits on human longevity. The evolutionary cause of aging is, at best, only just beginning to be understood. It has been suggested that direct intervention in the aging process may now be the most effective intervention against major causes of death.[17] In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... Physical fitness is an attribute required for service in virtually all military forces. ... Longevity is a term that generally refers to long life or great duration of life.[1] Reflections on longevity have usually gone beyond acknowledging the basic shortness of human life and have included thinking about methods to extend life. ... Why do almost all living things weaken and die with age? There is not yet agreement in the academic community on a single answer. ...


Signs

The signs of death, strongly indicating that a person is no longer alive, are:

  • Pallor mortis, paleness which happens almost instantaneously (in the 15–120 minutes after the death)
  • Algor mortis, the reduction in body temperature following death. This is generally a steady decline until matching ambient temperature
  • Rigor mortis, the limbs of the corpse become stiff (Latin rigor) and difficult to move or manipulate
  • Livor mortis, a settling of the blood in the lower (dependent) portion of the body
  • Decomposition, the reduction into simpler forms of matter

Pallor mortis: A postmortem paleness which happens almost instantaneously because of a lack of capillary circulation throughout the body. ... Algor mortis (Latin: algor—coolness; mortis—death) is the reduction in body temperature following death. ... This article is about the sign of death. ... Livor mortis or postmortem lividity, one of the signs of death, is a settling of the blood in the lower (dependent) portion of the body, causing a purplish red discoloration of the skin: when the heart is no longer agitating the blood, heavy red blood cells sink through the serum... For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ...

Autopsy

Main article: Autopsy

An autopsy, also known as a postmortem examination or an obduction, is a medical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a human corpse to determine the cause and manner of a person's death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present. It is usually performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2536x1902, 440 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mauritshuis Autopsy Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp Wikipedia:Recent additions 42 Rembrandt Nicolaes Tulp Talk:Anatomy Lesson... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2536x1902, 440 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mauritshuis Autopsy Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp Wikipedia:Recent additions 42 Rembrandt Nicolaes Tulp Talk:Anatomy Lesson... The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp is a 1632 oil painting by Rembrandt housed in the Mauritshuis museum in The Hague, the Netherlands. ... This article is about the Dutch artist. ... This article is about the medical procedure. ... A medical procedure is a course of action intended to achieve a result in the care of patients, used by medical or paramedical personnel. ... To examine somebody or something is to inspect it closely, hence an examination is a detailed inspection or analysis of an object or person. ... This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see Body (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medical term. ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ...


Autopsies are either performed for legal or medical purposes. A forensic autopsy is carried out when the cause of death may be a criminal matter, while a clinical or academic autopsy is performed to find the medical cause of death and is used in cases of unknown or uncertain death, or for research purposes. Autopsies can be further classified into cases where external examination suffices, and those where the body is dissected and an internal examination is conducted. Permission from next of kin may be required for internal autopsy in some cases. Once an internal autopsy is complete the body is reconstituted by sewing it back together. Autopsy is important in a medical environment and may shed light on mistakes and help improve practices. Next of kin is the term used to describe a persons closest living blood relative or relatives. ...


A necropsy is a postmortem examination performed on a non-human animal, such as a pet.


Life extension

Main article: Life extension

Life extension refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan, especially in humans, by slowing down or reversing the processes of aging. Average lifespan is determined by vulnerability to accidents and age or lifestyle-related afflictions such as cancer or cardiovascular disease. Extension of average lifespan can be achieved by good diet, exercise and avoidance of hazards such as smoking. Maximum lifespan is determined by the rate of aging for a species inherent in its genes. Currently, the only widely recognized method of extending maximum lifespan is calorie restriction. Theoretically, extension of maximum lifespan can be achieved by reducing the rate of aging damage, by periodic replacement of damaged tissues, or by molecular repair or rejuvenation of deteriorated cells and tissues. Life extension refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan, especially in humans, by slowing down or reversing the processes of aging. ... Life extension refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan, especially in humans, by slowing down or reversing the processes of aging. ... Maximum life span is a measure of the maximum number of years a member of a group can be expected to survive. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... In biology, senescence is the combination of processes of deterioration which follow the period of development of an organism. ... A railing accidentally collapses at a college football game, spilling fans onto the sidelines An accident is something going wrong unexpectedly. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Maximum life span is a measure of the maximum number of years a member of a group can be expected to survive. ... The effects of ageing on a human face Elderly woman Ageing or aging is the process of systems deterioration with time. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... See also Negative calorie diet, very low calorie diet CRON redirects here. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... Nanobiotechnology is the branch of nanotechnology with biological and biochemical applications or uses. ... Rejuvenation is the procedure of reversing the aging process, thus regaining youth. ...


Researchers of life extension are a subclass of biogerontologists known as "biomedical gerontologists". They try to understand the nature of aging and they develop treatments to reverse aging processes or to at least slow them down, for the improvement of health and the maintenance of youthful vigor at every stage of life. Those who take advantage of life extension findings and seek to apply them upon themselves are called "life extensionists" or "longevists". The primary life extension strategy currently is to apply available anti-aging methods in the hope of living long enough to benefit from a complete cure to aging once it is developed, which given the rapidly advancing state of biogenetic and general medical technology, could conceivably occur within the lifetimes of people living today. Gerontology (from Greek: γερο, gero, old age; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Gerontology (from Greek: γερο, gero, old age; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ...


Many biomedical gerontologists and life extensionists believe that future breakthroughs in tissue rejuvenation with stem cells, organs replacement (with artificial organs or xenotransplantations) and molecular repair will eliminate all aging and disease as well as allow for complete rejuvenation to a youthful condition. Whether such breakthroughs can occur within the next few decades is impossible to predict. Some life extensionists arrange to be cryonically preserved upon legal death so that they can await the time when future medicine can eliminate disease, rejuvenate them to a lasting youthful condition and repair damage caused by the cryonics process. A life extensionist is a person who applies methods and technologies of life extension (LE) to retarding his own aging and to prolonging his own life. ... Rejuvenation is the procedure of reversing the aging process, thus regaining youth. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells with fluorescent marker. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... (xeno- from the Greek meaning foreign) is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another such as from pigs to humans (see Medical grafting). ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... Not to be confused with cryogenics. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Rejuvenation is the procedure of reversing the aging process, thus regaining youth. ... Not to be confused with cryogenics. ...


Death in culture

Main article: Death in culture
"All is Vanity" by C. Allan Gilbert
"All is Vanity" by C. Allan Gilbert

Death is the center of many traditions and organizations, and is a feature of every culture around the world. Much of this revolves around the care of the dead, as well as the afterlife and the disposal of bodies upon the onset of death. The disposal of human corpses does, in general, begin with the last offices before significant time has passed, and ritualistic ceremonies often occur, most commonly interment or cremation. This is not a unified practice, however, as in Tibet for instance the body is given a sky burial and left on a mountain top. Mummification or embalming is also prevalent in some cultures, to retard the rate of decay. All Is Vanity by C. Allan Gilbert, suggesting an intertwinement between life and death. ... All is Vanity, by C. Allan Gilbert, 1873-1929 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years or less. ... All is Vanity, by C. Allan Gilbert, 1873-1929 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years or less. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... Disposal of human corpses is the practice and process of dealing with the remains of a deceased human being. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Sky burial is a ritual practice common in Tibet that involves placing the body of the deceased in a high ground (mountain) and expose it ritually, especially to birds of prey. ... Look up mummification in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ...


Such rituals are accompanied by grief and mourning in almost all cases, and this is not limited to human loss, but extends to the loss of an animal. Legal aspects of death are also part of many cultures, particularly the settlement of the deceased estate and the issues of inheritance and in some countries, inheritance taxation. It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... Margaret of Spain, Empress of Austria, in Mourning, 1666; note the children and servants in mourning dress behind her. ... An artists rendition of the Rainbow Bridge, a mythical place where beloved pets wait in health and happiness for their owners to arrive, after they die. ... At common law, an estate is the totality of the legal rights, interests, entitlements and obligations attaching to property. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Capital punishment is also a divisive aspect of death in culture. In most places that practice capital punishment today, the death penalty is reserved as punishment for premeditated murder, espionage, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries, sexual crimes, such as adultery and sodomy, carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as apostasy, the formal renunciation of one's religion. In many retentionist countries, drug trafficking is also a capital offense. In China human trafficking and serious cases of corruption are also punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offenses such as cowardice, desertion, insubordination, and mutiny.[18] Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ... For other uses, see Apostasy (disambiguation). ... At one time capital punishment was used in almost every part of the globe, but over the last few decades many countries have abolished it. ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... For other uses, see Human trafficking (disambiguation). ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... Coward redirects here. ... For other uses of Desertion, see Abandonment. ... Insubordination is the act of a subordinate deliberately disobeying a lawful order. ... Mutiny AKA. Matt Daye Is A conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change or overthrow an existing authority. ...


Death in warfare and in suicide attack also have cultural links, and the ideas of dulce et decorum est pro patria mori, mutiny punishable by death, grieving relatives of dead soldiers and death notification are embedded in many cultures. Recently in the western world, with the increase in terrorism following the September 11 attacks, but also further back in time with suicide bombers and terrorism in Northern Ireland, kamikaze missions in World War II and suicide missions in a host of other conflicts in history, death for a cause by way of suicide attack, and martyrdom have had significant cultural impacts. A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori is a line from the Roman lyrical poet Horaces Odes (iii 2. ... Mutiny AKA. Matt Daye Is A conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change or overthrow an existing authority. ... A death notification is a letter delivered to the family of a solider or public service member who has died on duty. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... This article is about the constituent country. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near Kyūshū on May 11, 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ...


Suicide in general, and particularly euthanasia are also points of cultural debate. Both acts are understood very differently in contrasting cultures. In Japan, for example, ending a life with honor by hari kari is considered a desirable death, whereas in many western cultures the idea of euthanasia is looked upon with mixed feelings. Death is also personified in many cultures, with such creations as the Grim Reaper, Azrael, Father Time. Such cultural ideas are part of a global fascination with death. For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A Western depiction of Death as a skeleton carrying a scythe. ... Death, personified is an anthropomorphic figure or a fictional character who has existed in mythology and popular culture since the earliest days of storytelling. ... This article is about the angel of death. ... This article is about the personification of time. ... E. H. Langlois The fascination with death extends back as far as history tells. ...


Abortion is the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy. This is partially legalised in many Western countries if the mother requests it, and a doctor prescribes it, often taking into account the physical and mental state of the mother-to-be, and the age of the foetus. In countries where abortion is legal, it is understood that the rights of the mother outweigh the rights of the unborn child. Some ethicists and religious groups argue that this is wrong and that the child has a right to life. In countries where abortion is illegal, many "back-alley" (unsafe abortions) may still occur with great risk to the health of the mother. Foetus can refer to: a fetus, an embryo in later stages of development Foetus, a band fronted by industrial music pioneer J.G. Thirlwell. ... The term right to life is a political term used in controversies over various issues that involve the taking of a life (or what is perceived to be a life). ... Issues of discussion Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of maternal mortality and morbidity in the world, especially in developing countries (95% of unsafe abortions take place in developing countries). ...


See also

The English suffix -cide denotes an act related to killing. ... St. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (/̩æ.pəpˈto. ... Pride of the spirit is one of the five temptations of the dying man, according to Ars moriendi. ... The Tibetan word Bardo means literally intermediate state - also translated as transitional state or in-between state. In Sanskrit the concept has the name antarabhāva. ... The Bardo Thodol, Liberation through Hearing in the Intermediate State, sometimes incorrectly called the Tibetan Book of the Dead, is a funerary text that describes the experiences of the consciousness after death during the interval known as bardo between death and rebirth. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Cadaveric spasm, also known as instantaneous rigor, cataleptic rigidity, or instantaneous rigidity, is a rare form of muscular stiffening which occurs at the moment of death, persists into the period of rigor mortis[1] and can be mistaken for rigor mortis. ... For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ... The Dance of Death (1493) by Michael Wolgemut, from the Liber chronicarum by Hartmann Schedel. ... Death, Desire and Loss in Western Culture is a book written by Jonathan Dollimore, published in 1998. ... Jonathan Dollimore (b. ... A death erection or terminal erection[1] is a post-mortem erection, technically a priapism, observed in the corpses of human males who have been executed, particularly by hanging. ... This article is about the musical genre. ... A Western depiction of Death as a skeleton carrying a scythe. ... A death rattle is a gurgling or rattle-like noise produced by the accumulation of excessive respiratory secretions in the throat. ... For information about the Record company see Death Row Records For information about the computer game see Deathrow (game) Death Row is a term that refers to the section of a prison that houses individuals awaiting execution. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... A deathbed conversion is the adoption of a particular religious faith immediately before dying. ... This article is about the Mexican holiday. ... In the law of evidence, a dying declaration is testimony that would normally be barred as hearsay but may nonetheless be admitted as evidence in certain kinds of cases because it constituted the last words of a dying person. ... A euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener;[1] or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... Fatal Hilarity is death as a result of laughter. ... For other uses, see Ghost Dance (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Karōshi ) (pronounced ), which can be translated quite literally from Japanese as death from overwork, is occupational sudden death. ... The Anointing of the Sick is one of the sacraments of the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and some Protestant churches. ... Legal death is a legal pronouncement by a qualified person that further medical care is not appropriate, and that a patient should be considered dead under the law. ... It has been suggested that Big killer be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the vocation of a mortician and the death metal band; for the World Wrestling Entertainment superstar, see The Undertaker. ... NDE redirects here. ... Post mortem interval (PMI) is the time that has elapsed since a person has died. ... It has been suggested that Quantum suicide be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the theological concept. ... Reperfusion injury refers to damage to tissue caused when blood supply returns to the tissue after a period of ischemia. ... This article is about Jewish event. ... Projected timeline of the Suns life In astronomy, stellar evolution is the process by which a star undergoes a sequence of radical changes during its lifetime. ... The Kübler-Ross model describes, in five discrete stages, the process by which people deal with grief and tragedy, especially when diagnosed with a terminal illness. ... Thanatology is the scientific study of death. ... For other uses, see Undead (disambiguation). ... A modern depiction of Yamarajas Court, by Dominique Amendola Tibetan Dharmapala at the Field Museum in Chicago 19th century kagamibuta netsuke depicting Enma This article is about the deity Yama. ... This article is about the living dead. ...

References

  1. ^ The Hour of Our Death, Philippe Ariès, 1981
  2. ^ DeBano, L.F., D.G. Neary, P.F. Ffolliot (1998) Fire’s Effects on Ecosystems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, New York, USA.
  3. ^ Diamond, Jared (1999). "Up to the Starting Line", Guns, Germs, and Steel. W. W. Norton, 43-44. ISBN 0-393-31755-2. 
  4. ^ a b Newman, Mark. "A Mathematical Model for Mass Extinction". Cornell University. May 20, 1994. URL accessed July 30, 2006.
  5. ^ Raup, David M. Extinction: Bad Genes or Bad Luck? W.W. Norton and Company. New York. 1991. pp.3-6 ISBN 978-0393309270
  6. ^ As reflected from at least one article of literature by authors like Edgar Allan Poe, where subjects were buried alive.
  7. ^ a b c Limmer, D. et al. (2006). Emergency care (AHA update, Ed. 10e). Prentice Hall.
  8. ^ Blood Swapping Reanimates Dead Dogs
  9. ^ WHO: 1.6 million die in violence annually
  10. ^ World Health Organization (WHO). Tuberculosis Fact sheet N°104 - Global and regional incidence. March 2006, Retrieved on 6 October 2006.
  11. ^ USAID’s Malaria Programs
  12. ^ Aids could kill 90 million Africans, says UN
  13. ^ AIDS Toll May Reach 100 Million in Africa, Washington Post
  14. ^ Jean Ziegler, L'Empire de la honte, Fayard, 2007 ISBN 978-2-253-12115-2 p.130.
  15. ^ Tobacco Could Kill One Billion By 2100, WHO Report Warns
  16. ^ Tobacco could kill more than 1 billion this century: WHO
  17. ^ SJ Olshanksy et al (2006). "Longevity dividend: What should we be doing to prepare for the unprecedented aging of humanity?". The Scientist 20: 28–36. Scientist (The), Philadelphia. Retrieved on 2007-03-31. 
  18. ^ Shot at Dawn, campaign for pardons for British and Commonwealth soldiers executed in World War I. Shot at Dawn Pardons Campaign. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at UCLA. In 1998 it won a Pulitzer Prize and the Aventis Prize for Best Science Book. ... W. W. Norton & Company is an American book publishing company that has remained independent since its founding. ... Cornell redirects here. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Pearson can mean Pearson PLC the media conglomerate. ... WHO redirects here. ... ... Jean Ziegler Jean Ziegler (born April 19, 1934) is the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food and a senior professor of sociology at the University of Geneva and the Sorbonne, Paris. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Additional references

  • Pounder, Derrick J. (2005-12-15). POSTMORTEM CHANGES AND TIME OF DEATH. University of Dundee. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
  • Vass AA (2001) Microbiology Today 28: 190-192 at: [1]
  • Piepenbrink H (1985) J Archaeolog Sci 13: 417-430
  • Piepenbrink H (1989) Applied Geochem 4: 273-280
  • Child AM (1995) J Archaeolog Sci 22: 165-174
  • Hedges REM & Millard AR (1995) J Archaeolog Sci 22: 155-164
  • Cook, C (2006). Death in Ancient China: The Tale of One Man's Journey. Brill Publishers. ISBN 9004153128. 
  • Maloney, George, A., S.J. (1980) The Everlasting Now: Meditations on the mysteries of life and death as they touch us in our daily lives. ISBN 0877932018

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Founded in 1683 in Leiden, the Netherlands, Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is an international academic publisher and is listed on Euronext, Amsterdam. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up Death in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... The National Safety Council of the US is a not-for-profit safety organization that was chartered by the US government in 1913. ... This article is about the medical procedure. ... Brain death is defined as a complete and irreversible cessation of brain activity. ... Clinical death occurs when a patients heartbeat and breathing have stopped. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a condition of patients with severe brain damage in whom coma has progressed to a state of wakefulness without detectable awareness. ... This article is about incurable disease. ... It has been suggested that Big killer be merged into this article or section. ... This is an index of lists of people who died, by cause of death, in alphabetical order of cause. ... // The following is a list of notable deaths in 2007. ... The Fountain of Eternal Life in Cleveland, Ohio Immortality (or eternal life) is the concept of living in physical or spiritual form for an infinite length of time, or in a state of timelessness. ... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... Legal death is a legal pronouncement by a qualified person that further medical care is not appropriate, and that a patient should be considered dead under the law. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Maternal health. ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... Margaret of Spain, Empress of Austria, in Mourning, 1666; note the children and servants in mourning dress behind her. ... An ecological funeral, also known as promession, is a method for allowing the body of the deceased to decompose in an environmentally-friendly way. ... Resomation is a process for the lawful disposal of human remains, which is claimed by its practitioners to be highly ecologically favourable. ... Look up séance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Christian theology, the intermediate state refers to a persons existence between their death and resurrection. ... Judgment Day redirects here. ... Not to be confused with cryogenics. ... An out-of-body experience (OBE or sometimes OOBE), is an experience that typically involves a sensation of floating outside of ones body and, in some cases, perceiving ones physical body from a place outside ones body (autoscopy). ... NDE redirects here. ... The Lazarus Phenomenon is the unexpected return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after resuscitation has been abandoned. ... Near-Death studies is a school of psychology and psychiatry that studies the phenomenology and after-effects of a Near-death experience, also called NDE. The phenomenology of a NDE usually includes physiological, psychological and transcendental factors that come together to form an overall pattern when numerous NDE reports are... Reincarnation research is a field of inquiry that records and analyzes memories that subjects claim to have of past lives. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of intentionally ending ones own life. ... E. H. Langlois The fascination with death extends back as far as history tells. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ... -1... A Western depiction of Death as a skeleton carrying a scythe. ...


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