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Encyclopedia > Dead or Alive (video game series)
Dead or Alive series
Screenshot from Dead or Alive 4
Developer(s) Tecmo
Publisher(s) Tecmo
Designer(s) Tomonobu Itagaki
Release date(s) Various
Genre(s) Versus fighting
Mode(s) Team Battle, One-On-One; Up to 4 players simultaneously for tag battles
Platform(s) Arcade game
Input 8-way Joystick, 4-way directional pad, 4-5 Buttons
Arcade cabinet Upright

Dead or Alive (DOA) (デッドオアアライブ) is a video game series produced by Tecmo that is comprised primarily of fighting games. The story and characters are the creation of Tomonobu Itagaki, and the game was developed by Tecmo's Team Ninja development team. A feature film, DOA: Dead or Alive, directed by Corey Yuen and starring Devon Aoki, Kevin Nash and Jaime Pressly is also scheduled for release on August 25, 2006. [1] Image File history File links Xbox360_deadoralive4_04. ... A video game developer is a software developer (a business or an individual) that creates computer or video games. ... Tecmo, Ltd. ... Video game publishers are companies that publish video games that they have either developed internally or have had developed by a video game developer. ... Tecmo, Ltd. ... A game designer is a person who designs games. ... Tomonobu Itagaki is a Japanese video game designer who heads Team Ninja, one of Tecmos development teams. ... This is a listing of computer and video game genres with brief descriptions and examples from each genre. ... Screenshot of Street Fighter II (1991, Capcom). ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... For other uses, see Joystick (disambiguation). ... A button (control) is a simple physical mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine. ... This arcade cabinet, containing Centipede, is an upright. ... Namcos Pac-Man was a hit, and became a cultural phenomenon. ... This is a list of video game franchises organised alphabetically by name. ... Tecmo, Ltd. ... Screenshot of Kung Fu Master (1984, Irem). ... Tomonobu Itagaki is a Japanese video game designer who heads Team Ninja, one of Tecmos development teams. ... Team Ninja is a video game developer and has been credited on the following games: Dead or Alive 2 Dead or Alive 2: Hardcore Dead or Alive 3 Dead or Alive Ultimate Dead or Alive Xtreme Beach Volleyball Ninja Gaiden Ninja Gaiden Ninja Gaiden Black Ninja Gaiden Hurricane Pack: Volume... A reel of film, which predates digital cinematography. ... Corey Yuen Kwai (元奎) is a Hong Kong actor, film director and producer. ... Devon Edwenna Aoki (born August 10, 1982) is an American supermodel and actress. ... Kevin Scott Nash (born July 9, 1959 in Detroit, Michigan) is an American professional wrestler and actor. ... Jaime Lynn Pressly (born July 30, 1977) is an American model and actress. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


Gameplay

The Dead or Alive series focuses on fast-paced gameplay in a three-dimensional playing field. In comparison to other fighters in its genre, such as Virtua Fighter, the series places emphasis on striking characters quickly and efficiently. Air juggling is a factor in the series, but is easier to execute and more favorable due to the countering system and character's recovery times, which disallows slow, technical movesets in most instances. Virtua Fighter is a 1993 fighting game developed by the Sega studio AM2, headed by Yu Suzuki. ...


DOA's most innovative additions to the genre is its countering system. Beginning from the original Dead or Alive, players could input a backwards directional input in cooperation with the respective guard button to defend against a characters attack whilst dealing significant damage to the victim's lifebar. Counter holds must be timed correctly with an attack, and also must be inputted correspondingly with the area of attack. For example, a character that successfully counters a low kick attack from another player must time the input as well as place a downward directional push on the joystick.


Like other modern fighting games that attempt to emulate the real life martial arts, DOA's input system is modeled on the controls to correspond to the actions being carried out by the avatar; a forward directive punch would most likely be executed with the punch input and the pressing of the directional pad in the appropriate direction.


The series controls also make the instances of speed and simplicity more congruent with the focus of timing and combos in mind, as the commands for basic attacks are widely considered more straightforward than most video games. There is only one button for punch, kick, throw and guard, with the player rarely having to combine more than two different input schemes together at the time.


In Dead or Alive 2, the series became innovative in its tag fighting system, allowing characters to switch back and forth for combo attacks and even attack simultaneously when timed correctly. The tag mode also implemented special throws unique to each pair of characters chosen, and allows the participation of a four player mode, something not common in the genre.


Inspiration and development

Helena and Lei Fang demonstrate the series ability to use combination throws with a partner in tag battle mode.
Helena and Lei Fang demonstrate the series ability to use combination throws with a partner in tag battle mode.

The DOA series is designed by programmer Tomonobu Itagaki, who is regarded by the game development community for his outspoken and stubborn nature in the development of the series. Before the release of the original Dead or Alive, Itagaki had recently become a programmer for the budding company Tecmo, which was in need of a brand of video games to establish a sufficient market. In this vein, Itagaki made a wager with the head of the company, assuring the president he would create a video game that would garner a competent fan base. Image File history File links DOA_tag_attack. ... Image File history File links DOA_tag_attack. ... Tecmo, Ltd. ...


Because of the wager, Itagaki named the series "Dead or Alive" to demonstrate the series fail or succeed status and proceeded to form a division in the company named "Team Ninja" (described by G4 as reclusive and secretive as ninjas themselves). Revealed in a December 2004 interview by Game Informer magazine, Itagaki's inspiration for the series derived from the Fatal Fury series in Japan and the Mortal Kombat series in America. In the development, he based DOA's fast gameplay and sexual appeal from the former, and the series' ability to knock opponents off landscapes from the latter: March 2006 issue of Game Informer. ... Fatal Fury (餓狼伝説 or Garou Densetsu in Japan) is a fighting game series developed by SNK for the Neo-Geo system. ... It has been suggested that Mortal Kombat tournament be merged into this article or section. ...


"I wanted to do something that would attract people's attention as I worked on the DOA game. Of course, DOA is known for its bouncing breasts. Well, I didn't come up with that idea originally. I actually got the idea from one of SNK's 2D fighting games Garou Densetsu. Of course, when I applied it to a 3D game, it was almost too much for people. SNK (now SNK Playmore) is a Japanese video game hardware and software company. ...


And of course, it hurts to fall off from high places in DOA, but the idea came from Mortal Kombat. In the case of Mortal Kombat, the 2D fighter, the character falls off and he simply dies. That ends the game. That's it. But we figured it would be more interesting to have the character continue to fight after the fall. And that's what we did"


On Itagaki's view on how he wished the series to contribute to the fighting genre, he replied, "To answer your latter question about how I want DOA to be remembered, I want people to remember DOA as a game that was very aggressive and combative. As to the first question - how it contributed to the fighting genre - I look at it as something similar to how sushi was released in this country and became mainstream. You know, like, some people like graphics, some people like animation, some like flashy character design and so forth. Through DOA, we want to reach out to those people and become somewhat of a mainstream game." [2] In Japanese cuisine, sushi (Japanese: ) is a food made of vinegared rice combined with various toppings or fillings. ...


Plot

Gen Fu vs. Kasumi in the Dead or Alive Ultimate remake of the original Sega Saturn game.
Gen Fu vs. Kasumi in the Dead or Alive Ultimate remake of the original Sega Saturn game.

The Dead or Alive series revolves around the various motives and goals of skilled martial artists and their participation in a fictional world-wide fighting tournament named the "Dead or Alive tournament", held by a massive corporation called DOATEC (Dead or Alive Tournament Committee) who runs the competition regularly for unknown motives. The tournament is held in arenas around the world, ranging from the North Pole to the Amazon rainforest. In the first Dead or Alive, characters were described in the story as attempting to enter the tournament for personal reasoning, such as Zack entering for profit and the runaway kunoichi Kasumi using the tournament as means to take revenge upon her traitorous uncle, Raidou. In the conclusion of this tournament, Kasumi kills Raidou but cannot return to her village despite her honorable motives due to ninja society's strict laws upon the departure of clan members. Image File history File links Gen_Fu_vs_Kasumi. ... Image File history File links Gen_Fu_vs_Kasumi. ... Dead or Alive Ultimate is a multiplayer fighting game for the Xbox. ... In the video game subculture, an enhanced remake (also called updated classics) is an updated version of a video or computer game that was originally developed for a less advanced system. ... The Sega Saturn (Japanese: セガサターン, Sega Saturn) is a 32-bit video game console, first released on November 22, 1994 in Japan, May 1995 in North America and July 8, 1995 in Europe. ... Helena is a video game character from the Dead or Alive video game series created by Team Ninja and published by Tecmo. ... Dead or Alive is a fighting game in the Dead or Alive series. ... Zack is a character from the Dead or Alive series. ... Kunoichi (くノ一) is ninja slang for woman. ... Kasumi is a character from the Dead or Alive video game franchise. ... Raidou is a character from the Dead or Alive video game franchise. ...


The following game, Dead or Alive 2 takes place after the original in an undisclosed timeframe, (though within the same year due to the characters' retention of their chronological ages from the original game) with the world's peace and stability threatened by a super creature known as the Gohyakumine Bankotsu-bo. It is also discovered in this tournament, that Kasumi's brother Hayate has recovered from injuries sustained from a previous fight with Raidou, but was recently captured and used as a test subject by DOATEC to carry out a bio weapon experiment codenamed Epsilon and then subsequently discarded. In this iteration, the opera singer Helena and mercenary Leon are introduced into the storyline and also enter the tournament in pursuit of their personal aspirations. Dead or Alive 2 is a fighting game in the Dead or Alive series. ... Tengu is a fictional character from the Dead or Alive video game series. ... Hayate (a. ... Helena is a video game character from the Dead or Alive video game series created by Team Ninja and published by Tecmo. ... Leon is a character from the Dead or Alive video game franchise. ...


The third game, Dead or Alive 3 takes place shortly after Ryu Hayabusa's defeat of the Gohyakumine Bankotsu-bo and features a similar premise. However, the main plot begins to revolve around the dealings of the DOATEC committee and it is revealed they perform experiments on various test subjects in an attempt to create the ultimate fighter. With the populous and fighters vastly unaware of DOATEC's wrongdoings, the company continues their experiments proceeding the Epsilon and Alpha stages, initiating the Omega project and transforming a ninja named Genra into a vicious being with no memories of his past life. DOATEC then proceeds to hold a third tournament, using the premise of the fighting arena as a test bed for Omega's abilities. This game concludes its story with the ninja known as Ayane destroying the Omega entity and the introduction of three more fighters, Hitomi, Brad Wong and Christie. The Dead or Alive Xtreme Beach Volleyball installment occurs immediately after the conclusion of the third tournament, where the Muay Thai kickboxer Zack tricks the female entrees of the tournament into staying at his island resort for a two week-long vacation. Dead or Alive 3 is a fighting game in the Dead or Alive series. ... Ryu Hayabusa is a fictional video game character who stars in the Ninja Gaiden series of video games, as well appearing in the Dead or Alive fighting game series, all developed by Team Ninja, a part of publisher Tecmo. ... Omega is a fictional character from the Dead or Alive video game series, acting as the final boss of Dead or Alive 3. ... Ayane is a character from the Dead or Alive video game series. ... Hitomi is a character from the Dead or Alive video game series created by Tomonobu Itagaki and developed by Team Ninja. ... Brad Wong is a fictional character in the Dead or Alive video game series. ... Christie is a character from the Dead or Alive video game series, with her first appearance being in the third game of the franchise. ... Dead or Alive Xtreme Beach Volleyball is a beach volleyball game by Tecmo released in 2003 for the Xbox gaming console. ... Zack is a character from the Dead or Alive series. ...


Dead or Alive 4 depicts the previous games' attempts of DOATEC to produce the ultimate bio-weapon and continue their operations. DOA 4 reveals the existence of a product of the Alpha project and a clone of Kasumi, who employs powerful energy and battle tactics. This iteration also establishes the knowledge of various fighters discovering the true nature of the organization and in the climax of the tournament set out to stop its evil deeds. Dead or Alive 4 (DOA4) is a fighting game developed by Tecmo and released on December 29, 2005 for the Xbox 360 video game console. ...


Games

Main series

Dead or Alive has spawned five canonical sequels, which have continued the storyline and four that focus on the fighting genre of gameplay. This number excludes the numerous updated editions, ports and remakes of each title. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

The cover of Dead or Alive for the Sega Saturn
The cover of Dead or Alive for the Sega Saturn

The original Dead or Alive was inspired by Virtua Fighter, as noted by Itagaki in an interview. In comparison to other 3D fighters such as Tekken which gained a substantial market base in Japan and North America, DOA introduced a countering system unique to the genre and an added emphasis on speed, as well as a rich graphics engine that lacked many jaggies and incorporated very smooth surfaces. The original DOA was first released for the Sega Saturn and arcades in 1996. In graphical comparison, the arcade version featured superior detail, using fully three-dimensional backgrounds and high quality music. When released for the Saturn, the game sacrificed quality in the character models and used pre-rendered images for background stages.[3] Additionally, in review of the game's moveset, it was discovered by players that the move lists included were not aligned properly with the game. [4] The American version was later released for the PlayStation in 1996, but introduced new characters, improved graphics, "remixed" stage designs and additional unlockable costumes for the player. This was also re-released in the arcades and named Dead or Alive ++ due to its upgraded content. [2] Image File history File links Deadoralivess. ... Image File history File links Deadoralivess. ... Tekken (鉄拳, lit. ... Jaggies are the informal name for aliasing artifacts in raster images, often caused by non-linear mixing effects producing high-frequency components and/or missing or poor antialiasing filtering prior to sampling. ... The Sega Saturn (Japanese: セガサターン, Sega Saturn) is a 32-bit video game console, first released on November 22, 1994 in Japan, May 1995 in North America and July 8, 1995 in Europe. ...


The second installment, Dead or Alive 2, was released in 2000, and like its predecessor improved upon the graphics engine using the NAOMI hardware [3], introducing CG cutscenes in line with the plot. The original "danger zone areas" in stages were replaced with fully intractable ones, allowing the player to juggle each other into walls, propel characters from landmarks for more damage (the first game to implement this feature was Samurai Shodown 64) and upon completing the game presented the player with (sometimes ambiguous) endings for each character using the game's standard engine. Samurai Shodown 64 (Japanese title: 侍魂 ~SAMURAI SPIRITS~) is a 3D fighting game produced by SNK for its Hyper Neo-Geo 64 system. ...


Dead or Alive 2 has spawned the most upgrades and remakes in the series to date, with two special additions released in the Millennium Edition and Limited Edition which both supplemented more content to the game and were considered for collector's value. A third remake was released in October of that year for the PlayStation 2, redubbed "Hardcore" and now providing improvements larger in scope than any previous franchise entry. It expanded the unlockable costumes, amended graphical problems prevalent in the Dreamcast versions, added new game modes and included English voice acting. In the series, Dead or Alive 2: Hardcore is the only installment with the ability to switch English voice acting to date, an element that was removed in later releases. PS2 redirects here. ... Sega Dreamcast The Sega Dreamcast (Japanese: ドリームキャスト; code-named Katana during development) was Segas last video game console. ...


In 2004, after the release of Dead or Alive 3, Team Ninja once again remade DOA2, this time for the Xbox system. In the planning stages, this new game was named Dead or Alive Online for its addition of online support. On January 14, it was renamed to Dead or Alive Ultimate and promised fresh content, additional characters and a upgraded version of the original Dead or Alive for the Sega Saturn. According to Tecmo, the name change was due to "..Ultimate would more accurately describe the feeling players feel upon experiences with the game". [5]


Dead or Alive 3 was released for the Xbox as one of the system’s launch titles for American gamers. As with previous facets of the series, it took advantage of the system's power to push the range of the graphics and stage sizes farther than DOA2. However, it lacked in unlockable content compared to Hardcore and controls were somewhat more lenient to allow players new to the series to adapt to gameplay. Dead or Alive 3 was one of the best-selling installments in the series; in 2002 Tecmo announced the game had reached sales of over one million copies. [6]

Cover of Dead or Alive 4'
Cover of Dead or Alive 4'

Dead or Alive 4 was released later in 2005 as a launch title for the Xbox 360 platform. It was placed on hold similar to Ultimate save for the decision was that of retailers. [7]Like Ultimate, it included Online support where players could interact in a similar fashion to an arcade setting, fighting opponents at win/loss intervals. However, like DOA3, the game featured a low amount of costumes and numerous characters throughout the series now had to be unlocked by the player. Image File history File links Doa4cover. ... Image File history File links Doa4cover. ...

Title Year Platforms
Dead or Alive
Dead or Alive ++
November 1996: (Model 2), July 1997: (Sega Saturn)
March 1998: (PlayStation), July 1998: (TPS-System)
Arcade, PlayStation, Saturn
Dead or Alive 2 November 1999: (Sega NAOMI), March 2000, March 2000 Sega Dreamcast
Dead or Alive 2 Millennium Edition (Sega NAOMI) January 2000 Sega Dreamcast
Dead or Alive 2 Limited Edition September 2000 Sega Dreamcast
Dead or Alive 2: Hardcore October 2000 PlayStation 2
Dead or Alive 3 November 2001 Xbox
Dead or Alive Xtreme Beach Volleyball January 2003 Xbox
Dead or Alive Ultimate October 2004 Xbox
Dead or Alive 4 December 2005 Xbox 360
Dead or Alive Xtreme 2 Fall 2006 Xbox 360
Dead or Alive: Code Chronos TBA Xbox 360

Dead or Alive is a fighting game in the Dead or Alive series. ... Dead or Alive is a fighting game in the Dead or Alive series. ... In the design of Java Web applications, there are generally used two design models called Model 1 and Model 2. ... The Sega Saturn (Japanese: セガサターン, Sega Saturn) is a 32-bit video game console, first released on November 22, 1994 in Japan, May 1995 in North America and July 8, 1995 in Europe. ... For other versions of PlayStation, please see PlayStation (disambiguation) The PlayStation (Japanese: プレイステーション) is a video game console of the 32/64-bit era, first produced by Sony Computer Entertainment in the mid-1990s. ... Dead or Alive 2 is a fighting game in the Dead or Alive series. ... The Sega NAOMI (New Arcade Operation Machine Idea) is a development of the Sega Dreamcast technology as a basis for an arcade system board. ... The Sega Dreamcast (Japanese: ドリームキャスト; code-named Blackbelt, Dural, and Katana during development) was Segas seventh & final video game console and the successor to the companys Sega Saturn. ... Dead or Alive 2 is a fighting game in the Dead or Alive series. ... Dead or Alive 2 is a fighting game in the Dead or Alive series. ... Dead or Alive 2 is a fighting game in the Dead or Alive series. ... PS2 redirects here. ... Dead or Alive 3 is a fighting game in the Dead or Alive series. ... The Microsoft Xbox is a sixth generation era video game console first released on November 15, 2001 in North America, then released on February 22, 2002 in Japan, and on March 14, 2002 in Europe. ... Dead or Alive Xtreme Beach Volleyball is a beach volleyball game by Tecmo released in 2003 for the Xbox gaming console. ... Dead or Alive Ultimate is a multiplayer fighting game for the Xbox. ... Dead or Alive 4 (DOA4) is a fighting game developed by Tecmo and released on December 29, 2005 for the Xbox 360 video game console. ... The Xbox 360 is the successor to Microsofts Xbox video game console, developed in co-operation with IBM, ATI, Samsung and SiS. Information on the console first came through viral marketing campaigns and it was officially unveiled on MTV on May 12, 2005, with detailed launch and game information... Dead or Alive: Xtreme 2 is a future release in-production game, sequel to Dead or Alive Xtreme Beach Volleyball developed by Team Ninja. ... TBA (To Be Announced, To Be Ascertained or To Be Advised), TBC (To Be Confirmed), TBD (To Be Determined/Decided) and TBR (To Be Released) -- almost always used in their abbreviated forms -- denote that a datum for which the abbreviation is a stand-in is yet to be announced/confirmed...

Side series

Dead or Alive Xtreme Beach Volleyball was released in 2003, shortly after DOA3 and is set immediately after the conclusion of the tournament in regards to the plot. The gameplay revolves around the women of the series playing various mini-games about the many locations of Zack Island, a reclusive private resort. This installment features no fighting engine, instead being a sim-like game that encourages the player to establish relationships with the AI of characters, and eventually make a two-person team to compete in volleyball competitions. "Zack dollars" earned from completing mini-games allows the player to purchase hundreds of different swimsuits, some of which range from regular to extremely provocative. According to Itagaki, who revealed the basis for the game in an interview with G4, he claims to have taken note of fan's wish for a beach ball mini-game in DOA2. A sequel for this game, merely called Dead or Alive Xtreme 2 is in production for the Xbox 360. Hondas intelligent humanoid robot AI redirects here. ...


A side-story game, named Dead or Alive: Code Chronos, is also in production for the Xbox 360, and was confirmed in the July 2006 edition of Play Magazine by Itagaki to "...not be a fighting game" and instead act as a prequel to the series proper, relaying the history of ninjas Ayane and Kasumi. Earlier reports had implied the character of Helena would be more heavily involved. [8]


Criticism

Tecmo is regularly criticised for its use of sex to sell the Dead or Alive series. This has convinced some gamers who feel that the games are focusing only on graphics and the female characters. The series' gameplay is also criticized by many players who feel that the fighting engine is too simple, lacking the depth of many other 3D fighting games. Images of pretty women often appear in ads even when they have no connection to the product being sold. ...


In another Game Informer interview, Toby Gard, the creator of Tomb Raider and its female protagonist Lara Croft noted his view on the sex appeal of Dead or Alive. In response to a query that supported Lara was a large part of introducing sex appeal into video games and how this impacted the gaming indrustry, Toby replied: "...I don't think its wrong or bad in any way, really, it just seems to be getting out of hand with the old Xtreme Beach ball scenarios. I think that's going a tad too far. That's not really empowering anyone." [9] Toby Gard is a former character designer (the original designer of Lara Croft) at Core Design, the company that developed the popular Tomb Raider video game series. ... Tomb Raider is a video game developed by Core Design and published by Eidos Interactive. ... Lara Croft as she appears in Tomb Raider: Legend Lara Croft (birthday February 14) is a British video game character, and the Amazonian heroine of the Tomb Raider series of video games, movies and comic books. ...


See also

// Main Characters Ayane (DOA1, DOA2, DOA3, DOAX, DOAU, DOA4) A kunoichi with murderous motives and purple hair. ... Virtua Fighter is a 1993 fighting game developed by the Sega studio AM2, headed by Yu Suzuki. ... Tekken (鉄拳, lit. ...

References

  1. ^ Aaron Boulding (2002). Dead or Alive goes Hollywood. IGN.
  2. ^ a b Catching up with Tecmo's Prince of Darkness: Classic GI interviews Tomonogu Itagaki. Game Informer magazine Issue December 2004 (2004).
  3. ^ a b IGN (2005). DOA analysis at Hardcore Gaming 101. IGN.
  4. ^ IGN staff (1998). Dead or Alive Defective?. IGN.
  5. ^ Tor Thorsen (2004). "Dead or Alive Online now Dead or Alive Ultimate". Gamespot.
  6. ^ Giancarlo Varanini (2002). Dead or Alive reaches 1 million. Gamespot.
  7. ^ Douglas C. Perry (2005). Dead Or Alive 4 Delayed?. IGN.
  8. ^ IGN staff (2001). Q & A With Dead Or Alive 3 Creator, Tomonobu Itagaki. IGN.
  9. ^ An Interview with Toby Gard. Game Informer (2004).

External links

  • DOA Central
  • DOATEC
  • DOATEC Gaiden Character Storylines
  • DOA Tenkoko Tenshi - Fansite

 
 

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