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Encyclopedia > Dead Sea scrolls

The Dead Sea scrolls consist of roughly 1000 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1979 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West Bank. The texts are of great religious and historical significance, as they include practically the only known surviving copies of Biblical documents made before 100 AD, and preserve evidence of considerable diversity of belief and practice within late Second Temple Judaism. This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... For other uses, see Cave (disambiguation). ... Qumran (Hebrew:חירבת קומראן Khirbet Qumran) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... Qumran (Hebrew:חירבת קומראן Khirbet Qumran) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... Pliny the Younger advances to consulship. ...

Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archaeological Museum, Amman
Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archaeological Museum, Amman
The caves in which the scrolls were found
The caves in which the scrolls were found

Contents

Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman. ... Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman. ...

Date and content

Further information: Tanakh at Qumran

According to carbon dating, textual analysis, and handwriting analysis the documents were written at various times between the middle of the 2nd century BC and the 1st century AD. The Tanakh is the Hebrew Bible and Qumran is an archaeological site near the Dead Sea. ... Radiocarbon dating is the use of the naturally occurring isotope of carbon-14 in radiometric dating to determine the age of organic materials, up to ca. ... Palaeography, literally old writing, (from the Greek words paleos = old and grapho = write) is the study of script. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ...

Part of a series on
The Bible
Biblical canon and books
Tanakh: Torah · Nevi'im · Ketuvim Old Testament · Hebrew Bible · New Testament · New Covenant · Deuterocanon · Antilegomena · Chapters and verses
Apocrypha: Jewish · OT · NT
Development and authorship
Jewish Canon · Old Testament canon · New Testament canon · Mosaic authorship · Pauline epistles · Johannine works
Translations and manuscripts
Septuagint · Samaritan Pentateuch · Dead Sea scrolls · Targums · Peshitta · Vetus Latina · Vulgate · Masoretic text · Gothic Bible · Luther Bible · English Bibles
Biblical studies
Dating the Bible · Biblical criticism · Historical criticism  · Textual criticism · Novum Testamentum Graece · NT textual categories · Documentary hypothesis · Synoptic problem · The Bible and history‎ · Biblical archaeology
Interpretation
Hermeneutics · Pesher · Midrash · Pardes · Allegorical · Literalism · Prophecy
Views
Inerrancy · Infallibility ·
Criticism · Islamic · Qur'anic · Gnostic · Judaism and Christianity · Law in Christianity
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The Great Isaiah Scroll has been carbon dated to a range of 335 BC-107 BC.[1] It is the second largest scroll found in Qumran, spanning 22 feet in length. The Isaiah scroll is also one of the most important of the scrolls found in Qumran, considering 18 copies of the scroll have been found in the caves. The Nash Papyrus from Egypt, containing a copy of the Ten Commandments, is the only other Hebrew document of comparable antiquity. Similar written materials have been recovered from nearby sites, including the fortress of Masada. While some of the scrolls were written on papyrus, a good portion were written on a brownish animal hide that appears to be gevil. The scrolls were written with feathers from a bird and the ink used was made from carbon black and white pigments. One scroll, appropriately named the Copper Scroll, consisted of thin copper sheets that were incised with text and then joined together.[2][3][4] This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1993x1300, 432 KB) A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Bible, in contrast to the protocanonical books which are contained in the Hebrew Bible. ... Antilegomena (from Greek , contradicted or disputed, literally spoken against[1]), an epithet used by the Church Fathers to denote those books of the New Testament which, although sometimes publicly read in the churches, were not for a considerable amount of time considered to be genuine, or received into the canon... The Bible comprises 24 books for Jews, 66 for Protestants, 73 for Catholics, and 78 for most Orthodox Christians. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... This article on Jewish apocrypha includes a survey of books written in the Jewish religious tradition either in the late pre-Christian era or in the early Christian era, but outside the Christian tradition. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... In the process of determining the Biblical canon, a large number of works were excluded from the New Testament. ... Authors of the Bible are listed by book of the Bible, comparing the writer according to Christian tradition with what current scholarship proposes. ... This article is about the selection of the books which make up the Tanakh. ... For the Jewish canon, see Development of the Jewish Bible canon. ... A folio from P46, an early 3rd century collection of Pauline epistles. ... Mosaic authorship is the traditional ascription to Moses of the authorship of the five books of the Torah or Pentateuch - Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus and Deuteronomy. ... A nineteenth century picture of Paul of Tarsus The Pauline epistles are the fourteen books in the New Testament traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus, thirteen of which are explicitly ascribed to Paul, and one, Hebrews, is anonymous. ... El Grecos rendition of John the Apostle shows the traditional author of the Johannine works as a young man. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... Fragments of the Dead Sea scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... A targum (plural: targumim) is an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) written or compiled in the Land of Israel or in Babylonia from the Second Temple period until the early Middle Ages (late first millennium). ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... Vetus Latina is a collective name given to the Biblical texts in Latin that were translated before St Jeromes Vulgate bible became the standard Bible for Latin-speaking Western Christians. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible (Tanakh). ... Luthers 1534 bible The Luther Bible is a German Bible translation by Martin Luther, first printed with both testaments in 1534. ... The efforts of translating the Bible from its original languages into over 2,000 others have spanned more than two millennia. ... Biblical studies is the academic study of the Judeo-Christian Bible and related texts. ... The Bible is a compilation of various texts or books of different age. ... This article is about the academic treatment of the bible as a historical document. ... Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Manuscript C, folio 436v, 11th century Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts and manuscripts. ... Novum Testamentum Graece is the name (in the Latin language) of the Greek language version of the New Testament. ... New Testament manuscripts are categorized into five groups. ... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ... The synoptic problem concerns the literary relationship between and among the first three canonical gospels (the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke), known as the synoptic gospels. ... The article concerns the historicity of the Bible. ... Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ... Pesher is a Hebrew word meaning interpretation in the sense of solution. It became known from one group of the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... The Pardes system is a method of systematic exegesis in Judaism. ... Allegorical interpretation in Biblical studies is the approach which assigns a higher-than-literal interpretation to contents of the Bible. ... Biblical literalism is the supposed adherence to the explicit and literal sense of the Bible. ... Bible prophecy is the concept held by various people that many Bible verses contain prophecies. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Biblical... Biblical infallibility is the theological term to describe the belief that the Bible is free from errors on issues of faith and practice. ... when thousands of people call a person as thief, he becomes thief. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Quran, the central religious text of Islam, contains references to over fifty people also found in the Bible, typically in the same or similar narratives. ... This article discusses the relationship between Gnosticism and the New Testament. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC Years: 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC 336 BC - 335 BC - 334 BC 333 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 112 BC 111 BC 110 BC 109 BC 108 BC - 107 BC - 106 BC 105 BC... The Nash Papyrus are a collection of four papyrus fragments acquired in Egypt by W. L. Nash and first described by Stanley A. Cook in 1903. ... For other uses, see Ten Commandments (disambiguation). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Combatants Jewish Sicarii Roman Empire Commanders Elazar ben Yair Lucius Flavius Silva Strength 960 15,000 Casualties 953 Unknown Masada (a romanisation of the Hebrew מצדה, Metzada, from מצודה, metzuda, fortress) is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on top of... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... Gevil (often transliterated gewil) is animal hide that has been prepared as a writing material in Jewish scribal documents, in particular a Sefer Torah (Torah scroll). ... Carbon black is a material, today usually produced by the incomplete combustion of petroleum products. ... The Copper Scroll is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls found at Khirbet Qumran, but differs significantly from the others. ...

Dead Sea Scroll fragments on display at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.
Dead Sea Scroll fragments on display at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.

About 80% to 85% of the Dead Sea Scrolls are written in one of three dialects of Hebrew: [5] Biblical Hebrew (also known as Classical Hebrew), "Dead Sea Scroll Hebrew" (on which see Hoffman 2004 or Qimron 1986), or proto-Tannaitic Hebrew, as in the Copper Scroll and the MMT (or 4QMMT)text.4 meaning Cave 4, and Q meaning Qumran, MMT is the abbreviation of the Hebrew words, Miqsat Ma'aseh ha-Torah. Biblical Hebrew dominates in the Biblical scrolls, and DSS Hebrew in scrolls which some scholars believe were composed at Qumran. Also some scrolls are written in Aramaic and a few in Koine Greek. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 1. ... The road sign The Shrine of the Book The Israel Museum (‎, Muzion Yisrael) in Jerusalem, was founded in 1965 as Israels national museum. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Categories: Language stubs | Judaism-related stubs | Canaanite languages | Hebrew language ... A fragment of 4QMMT 4QMMT ( or MMT), also known as the Halakhic Letter, is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls that were discovered at Qumran in Israel. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Koine redirects here. ...


Important texts include the Isaiah Scroll (discovered in 1947), a Commentary (Hebrew pesher פשר) on the Book of Habakkuk (1947), the so-called Manual of Discipline (Community Rule) (1QS/4QSa-j), which gives much information on the structure and theology of a sect, and the earliest version of the Damascus Document. The Copper Scroll (1952), which appears to list actual hidden caches of valuables including objects of gold and other metals (thought by some to represent Temple treasures hidden away before the Roman Destruction), as well as scrolls and weapons, has probably excited the greatest attention. This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Habakkuk or Havakuk (חֲבַקּוּק, Standard Hebrew Ḥavaqquq, Tiberian Hebrew Ḥăḇaqqûq) was a prophet in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Community Rule is the name given to one of the documents found in the caves at Qumran, and as such is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls The most complete manuscript was found in Cave 1, and is given the document reference name 1QS (which stands for : Cave 1... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Copper Scroll is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls found at Khirbet Qumran, but differs significantly from the others. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Copper Scroll is, by definition, completely singular. There is no scroll found in Qumran or any cave in the vicinity like The Copper Scroll. Most scrolls in the Qumran caves are either made out of animal hide or papyrus. Unlike it's Qumran counterparts, the Copper Scroll is made of just that: copper. The scroll's make up is 99 percent copper and only 1 percent tin. An unusual quality to find, which in turn shows the importance of this scroll. The scroll is not made up of one piece, but of two individual scrolls, part A and B. It is dated to right around the destruction of the Temple, somewhere around 70 A.D. The Copper Scroll is thought to be apart from the other scrolls found in cave 3. It was sitting apart from the rest of the scrolls, and is written in a different type of dialect. The dating of the scroll also supports this find. So, scholars think that it was placed by an independent party, having nothing to do with the Qumran sect. It was thought that before the Temple destruction, this list of special temple treasures, The Copper Scroll, was written and the treasure was hidden. After the revolts, the Treasure would then be moved back to the Temple of Jerusalem.


The reason the Copper Scroll is said to contain 64 different locations of the Temple Treasure, is due to numerous mentions of related subjects. The most prominant is the mention of one location, the Scroll describes the treasure as being located by the fountain next to the House of Hakkoz. The significance of this being, that Hakkoz was a priest at the temple of Jerusalem. After Hakkoz, the lineage of the family was corrupted. Meremoth,son of Uriah, son of Hakkoz, was then not entrusted to become a priest, due to this corruption. Instead, they gave him a meaningful job, not needing priestly duties. He was entrusted with the job of keeping track of the temple treasure. He was the Temple Treasurer. So, this helps the theory that the treasure map was indeed the map leading to the Temple treasure. Of course there are other theories, but this is the most plausible and most used theory to date.


The fragments span at least 800 texts that represent many diverse viewpoints, ranging from beliefs resembling those anciently attributed to the Essenes, to ideas which would appear to represent the tenets of other sects. About 30% are fragments from the Hebrew Bible, from all the books except the Book of Esther and the Book of Nehemiah (Abegg et al 2002). About 25% are traditional Israelite religious texts that are not in the canonical Hebrew Bible, such as the Book of 1 Enoch, the Book of Jubilees, and the Testament of Levi. Another 30% contain Biblical commentaries or other texts such as the Community Rule (1QS/4QSa-j, also known as "Discipline Scroll" or "Manual of Discipline"), The Rule of the Congregation, The Rule of the Blessing and the War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness (1QM, also known as the "War Scroll") related to the beliefs, regulations, and membership requirements of a Jewish sect, which some researchers continue to believe lived in the Qumran area. The rest of the fragments (about 15%) remain unidentified. The Essenes (sg. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... Megillah redirects here. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Book of Jubilees expands and reworks material found in Genesis to Exodus 15. ... The Testament of Levi is one of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, containing the advice of the Jewish Patriarch Levi to his sons while on his deathbed. ... The Community Rule is the name given to one of the documents found in the caves at Qumran, and as such is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls The most complete manuscript was found in Cave 1, and is given the document reference name 1QS (which stands for : Cave 1... One of the first seven Dead Sea Scrolls discovered at the Qumran site in 1946 contained the three sectarian texts: The Community Rule, The Rule of the Congregation, and The Rule of the Blessing. ... The Rule of the Blessing is a very fragmentary text once thought to be part of the Dead Sea Scrolls book known as the Community Rule. ... The War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness is a manual for military organization and strategy that was discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls. ...


Discovery

The scrolls were found in 11 caves, ranging in distance of 125m (Cave 4) to about 1000m (Cave 1) from the settlement at Qumran, located 1km off the northwest shore of the Dead Sea. None of them were found at the actual settlement. It is generally accepted that a Bedouin goat- or sheep-herder by the name of Mohammed Ahmed el-Hamed (nicknamed edh-Dhib, "the wolf") made the first discovery toward the beginning of 1947. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Qumran (Hebrew:חירבת קומראן Khirbet Qumran) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), is a desert-dwelling Arab nomadic pastoralist, found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev to the Arabian Desert. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the most commonly told story the shepherd threw a rock into a cave in an attempt to drive out a missing animal under his care. The shattering sound of pottery drew him into the cave, where he found several ancient jars containing scrolls wrapped in linen. A scroll is a roll of parchment, papyrus, or paper which has been written upon. ...


Dr. John C. Trever carried out a number of interviews with several men going by the name of Muhammed edh-Dhib, each relating a variation on this tale. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The scrolls were first brought to a Bethlehem antiquities dealer named Ibrahim 'Ijha, who returned them after being warned that they may have been stolen from a synagogue. The scrolls then fell into the hands of Khalil Eskander Shahin, "Kando", a cobbler and antiques dealer. By most accounts the Bedouin removed only three scrolls following their initial find, later revisiting the site to gather more, possibly encouraged by Kando. Alternatively, it is postulated that Kando engaged in his own illegal excavation: Kando himself possessed at least four scrolls.


Arrangements with the Bedouins left the scrolls in the hands of a third party until a sale of them could be negotiated. That third party, George Isha'ya, was a member of the Syrian Orthodox Church, who soon contacted St. Mark's Monastery in the hope of getting an appraisal of the nature of the texts. News of the find then reached Metropolitan Athanasius Yeshue Samuel, more often referred to as Mar Samuel. The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... Samuel of Nehardea or Samuel bar Abba (Hebrew: שמואל) was a Babylonian amora of the first generation; son of Abba bar Abba and head of the Yeshiva at Nehardea. ...


After examining the scrolls and suspecting their age, Mar Samuel expressed an interest in purchasing them. Four scrolls found their way into his hands: the now famous Isaiah Scroll (1QIsa), the Community Rule, the Habakkuk Peshar (Commentary), and the Genesis Apocryphon. More scrolls soon surfaced in the antiquities market, and Professor Eleazer Sukenik, an Israeli archaeologist and scholar at Hebrew University, found himself in possession of three: The War Scroll, Thanksgiving Hymns, and another more fragmented Isaiah scroll. The Community Rule is the name given to one of the documents found in the caves at Qumran, and as such is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls The most complete manuscript was found in Cave 1, and is given the document reference name 1QS (which stands for : Cave 1... Eleazar Lipa Sukenik (12 August 1889 Bialystok - 28 February 1953 Jerusalem) was an Israeli archeologist and professor of Hebrew University in Jerusalem. ... The War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness is a manual for military organization and strategy that was discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... The Thanksgiving Scroll or Hodayot was one of the first seven Dead Sea Scrolls discovered in 1947 by the Bedouin. ...


By the end of 1947, Sukenik received word of the scrolls in Mar Samuel's possession and attempted to purchase them. No deal was reached, and instead the scrolls found the attention of Dr. John C. Trever, of the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR). Dr. Trever compared the script in the scrolls to the Nash Papyrus, the oldest biblical manuscript at the time, finding similarities between the two. The American Schools of Oriental Research, (commonly abbreviated as ASOR) founded in 1900, supports and encourages the study of the peoples and cultures of the Near East, from the earliest times to the present. ... The Nash Papyrus are a collection of four papyrus fragments acquired in Egypt by W. L. Nash and first described by Stanley A. Cook in 1903. ...


Dr. Trever, a keen amateur photographer, met with Mar Samuel on February 21, 1948, when he photographed the scrolls. The quality of his photographs often exceeded that of the scrolls themselves over the years, as the texts quickly eroded once removed from their linen wraps. is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In March of that year, the 1948 Arab-Israeli War prompted the removal of the scrolls from the country for safekeeping. The scrolls were removed to Beirut. Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially...


In early September 1948, Mar Samuel brought Professor Ovid R. Sellers, the new Director of ASOR, some additional scroll fragments that he had acquired. By the end of 1948, nearly two years after the discovery of the scrolls, scholars had yet to locate the cave where the fragments had been found. With the unrest in the country, no large scale search could be undertaken. Sellers attempted to get the Syrians to help locate the cave, but they demanded more money than Sellers could offer. Cave 1 was finally discovered on January 28, 1949 by a United Nations observer. Ovid Rogers Sellers (born August 12, 1884, died 1975) was an internationally known Old Testament scholar and archaeologist who played a role in the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls. ...


After some time, the Dead Sea Scrolls went up for sale in a June 1, 1954 advertisement in the Wall Street Journal. The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ...

MISCELLANEOUS FOR SALE

THE FOUR DEAD SEA SCROLLS


Biblical manuscripts dating back to at least 200 B.C.
are for sale. This would be and ideal gift to an educational
or religious institution by an individual or group.
Box F 206 WALL STREET JOURNAL

On July 1, after some delicate negotiations, the scrolls, accompanied by the Metropolitan and two others, came to the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York. Purchased for 250,000 US dollars. Only some of which Mar Samuel actually got, due to a mix up in paperwork, The US government received most of the money due to taxes.


Cave 2

Bedouins discovered 30 fragments of other scrolls in Cave 2, including Jubilees & ben Sirach in the original Hebrew


Cave 3

One of the most curious scrolls is the Copper Scroll. Discovered in Cave 3, this scroll records a list of 64 underground hiding places throughout the land of Israel. According to the scroll, the deposits contain certain amounts of gold, silver, aromatics, and manuscripts. These are believed to be treasures from the Temple at Jerusalem that were hidden away for safekeeping. The Copper Scroll is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls found at Khirbet Qumran, but differs significantly from the others. ...


Cave 4

Since the late 1950s, about 40% of the Scrolls, mostly fragments from Cave 4, remained unpublished and were inaccessible.


Caves 5 and 6

Caves 5 and 6 were discovered shortly after cave 4. Caves 5 and 6 yielded a modest find.


Caves 7–10

Archaeologists discovered caves 7 through 10 in 1955, but did not find many fragments. Cave 7 contained seventeen Greek documents (including 7Q5) which would cause a controversy in the preceeding decades. Cave 8 only had five fragments and cave 9 held but one fragment. Cave 10 contained nothing but an ostracon. Fragment 5 from Cave 7 of the Qumran Community Among the Dead Sea scrolls, 7Q5 is the designation for a papyrus fragment discovered in Cave 7 of the Qumran community. ... An ostracon with Pericles name written on it (c. ...


Cave 11

The Temple Scroll, found in Cave 11, is the longest scroll. Its present total length is 26.7 feet (8.148 meters). The overall length of the original scroll must have been over 28 feet (8.75m) This scroll, sectarian by nature, has been regarded by the great Yigael Yaden as the Torah, as written by the Essenes. The only problem with that theory, is that it conflicts with the theory presented by Hartmann Steggemann, a very good friend of the above-named scholar. Steggemann believes that the Temple scroll (so-named because more than half of the scroll pertains to building of the Temple of Jerusalem) was not considered the Torah of the Essenes, but was regarded as "just another scroll", so to speak. This theory was based on numerous facts. One fact being that not once in Essene writings is the Temple Scroll mentioned nor refered to. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The Temple Scroll is one of the longest of the Dead Sea Scrolls. ...

Publication

Some of the documents were published in a prompt manner: all of the writing found in Cave 1 appeared in print between 1950 and 1956; the finds from 8 different caves were released in a single volume in 1963; and 1965 saw the publication of the Psalms Scroll from Cave 11. Translation of these materials quickly followed. Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


The exception to this speed that the documents from Cave 4, which represented 40% of the total material. The publication of these materials had been entrusted to an international team led by Father Roland de Vaux, a member of the Dominican Order in Jerusalem. This group published the first volume of the materials entrusted to them in 1968, but spent much of their energies defending their theories of the material instead of publishing it. Geza Vermes, who had been involved from the start in the editing and publication of these materials, blamed the delay—and eventual failure—on de Vaux's selection of a team unsuited to the quality of work he had planned, as well as relying "on his personal, quasi-patriarchal authority" to control the completion of the work. Father Roland Guérin de Vaux OP (17 December 1903 – 1971) was a French Dominican priest who led the Catholic team that initially worked on the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... “Dominicans” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Geza Vermes (born 22 June 1924) is a Jewish scholar and writer on religious history, particularly Jewish and Christian. ...


As a result, a large part of the finds from Cave 4 were not made public for many years. Access to the scrolls was governed by a "secrecy rule" that allowed only the original International Team or their designates to view the original materials. After de Vaux's death in 1971, his successors repeatedly refused to even allow the publication of photographs of these materials, preventing other scholars from making their own judgments. This rule was eventually broken: first by the publication in the fall of 1991 of 17 documents reconstructed from a concordance that had been made in 1988 and had come into the hands of scholars outside of the International Team; next, that same month, by the discovery and publication of a complete set of photographs of the Cave 4 materials at the Huntington Library in San Marino, California, that were not covered by the "secrecy rule". After some delays these photographs were published by Robert Eisenman and James Robinson (A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea Scrolls, two volumes, Washington, D.C., 1991). As a result, the "secrecy rule" was lifted. Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Photograph (disambiguation). ... The Huntington Library is an educational and research institution established by Henry Huntington in San Marino, California. ... Location of San Marino in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles Government  - Mayor Matthew Lin  - City Manager Matt Ballantyne  - City Clerk Carol Robb Area  - City  3. ... Dr. Robert H. Eisenman is a Professor of Middle East Religions and Archaeology and Director of the Institute for the Study of Judeo-Christian Origins at California State University, Long Beach; and Visiting Senior Member of Linacre College, Oxford University. ... James Dale Robinson is a writer of comic books and screenplays, notably of the comic book series Starman. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


Publication accelerated with the appointment of the respected Dutch-Israeli textual scholar Emanuel Tov as editor-in-chief in 1990. Publication of the Cave 4 documents soon commenced, with five volumes in print by 1995. As of 2007 two volumes remain to be completed, with the whole series, Discoveries in the Judean Desert, running to thirty nine volumes in total. Dr Emanuel Tov Emanuel Tov (born September 1941, Amsterdam) is a Dutch-Israeli Bible scholar and, since 1986, has been a Professor in the Department of the Bible at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For degenerative joint disease, see Osteoarthritis. ...


Significance

The significance of the scrolls relates an large part to field of textual criticism. Before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the oldest Hebrew manuscripts of the Bible were Masoretic texts dating to 9th century. The biblical manuscripts found among the Dead Sea Scrolls push that date back to the 2nd century BC. Before the discovery, the oldest Greek manuscripts such as Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus were the earliest extant versions of biblical manuscripts. Although a few of the biblical manuscripts found at Qumran differ significantly from the Masoretic text, most do not. The scrolls thus provide new variants and the ability to be more confident of those readings where the Dead Sea manuscripts agree with the Masoretic text or with the early Greek manuscripts. The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Page from Codex Vaticanus Graece 1209, B/03 The Codex Vaticanus (The Vatican, Bibl. ... A portion of the Codex Sinaiticus, containing Esther 2:3-8. ...


Further, the sectarian texts among the Dead Sea Scrolls, most of which were previously unknown, offer new light on one form of Judaism practiced during the Second Temple period. Sectarianism is an adherence to a particular sect or party or denomination, it also usually involves a rejection of those not a member of ones sect. ... A stone (2. ...


Frequency of books found

Books Ranked According to Number of Manuscripts found (top 16)[6]

Books No. found
Psalms 39
Deuteronomy 33
1 Enoch 25
Genesis 24
Isaiah 22
Jubilees 21
Exodus 18
Leviticus 17
Numbers 11
Minor Prophets 10
Daniel 8
Jeremiah 6
Ezekiel 6
Job 6
1 & 2 Samuel 4

Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi) (originally meaning songs sung to a harp, from psallein play on a stringed instrument, Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... The Book of Jubilees (ספר היובלים), sometimes called the Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... This article is about the Biblical figure called Daniel. ... For other uses, see Jeremiah (disambiguation). ... Ezekiel, , IPA: , God will strengthen, from , chazaq, [ xazaq ], literally to fasten upon, figuratively strong, and , el, [ el ], literally strength, figuratively Almighty. He is a prophet and priest in the Bible who prophesied for 22 years sometime in the 500s BCE while in the form of visions exiled in... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ...

Origins: Qumran-sectarian theory

The Qumran-sectarian theory holds that the scrolls were written by the Essenes, or perhaps by another sectarian group, residing at Khirbet Qumran. The Essenes (sg. ...


Qumran-Essene hypothesis

The prevalent view among scholars, almost universally held until the 1990s, is that the scrolls were written by a sect known as the Essenes who (according to this theory) lived at Khirbet Qumran. They hid the scrolls in the nearby caves during the Jewish Revolt in 66 AD before being massacred by Roman troops. This is known as the Qumran-Essene Hypothesis. A number of arguments are used to support this theory. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The Essenes (sg. ...

  1. There are striking similarities between the description of an initiation ceremony of new members in the Community Rule and Josephus' (a Jewish-Roman historian of the time) account of the Essene initiation ceremony.
  2. Josephus mentions the Essenes as sharing property among the members of the community and so does the Community Rule. (It should also be noted that there are differences between the scrolls and Josephus' account of the Essenes.)
  3. During the excavation of Khirbet Qumran two inkwells were found, giving weight to the theory that the scrolls were actually written there.
  4. Long tables were found that Roland de Vaux (one of the original editors of the Dead Sea Scrolls) interpreted as tables for a 'scriptorium'.
  5. Water cisterns were discovered which may have been used for ritual bathing. This would have been an important part of Jewish (and Essene) religious life.
  6. A description by Pliny the Elder (a geographer who was writing after the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD) of a group of Essenes living in a desert community close to the ruined town of Ein Gedi was seen by some scholars as evidence that Khirbet Qumran was in fact an Essene settlement.

Since the 1990s a variation of this theory has developed, stressing that the authors of the scrolls were "Essene-Like" or a splinter Essene group rather than simply Essenes as such. This modification of the Essene theory takes into account some significant differences between the world view expressed in some of the scrolls and the Essenes as described by the classical authors. A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Shulamit Fall at Nahal David Nahal Arugot An ibex at the Ein Gedi nature reserve Ein Gedi (עין גדי) is an oasis located on the east of the Dead Sea, close to Masada and the caves of Qumran. ...


Qumran-Sadducean theory

Another variation on the Qumran-sectarian theory, which has gained some popularity, is that the community was led by Zadokite priests (Sadducees). The most important document in support of this view is the "Miqsat Ma‘ase haTorah" (MMT, 4Q394-), which states one or two purity laws (such as the transfer of impurities) identical to those attributed in rabbinic writings to the Sadducees. This document also reproduces a festival calendar which follows Sadducee principles for the dating of certain festival days. However, the MMT contains other purity laws different from those attributed to the Sadducees, and the similarities in laws and calendar are not considered sufficient to support a definite conclusion. The sect of the Sadducees - possibly from Hebrew Tsdoki צדוקי [], whence Zadokites or other variants - was founded in the 2nd century BCE, possibly as a political party, and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century CE. The Hebrew name, Tsdoki, indicates their claim that they are the followers of the...


Florentino Martinez, in a 2000 article in Near Eastern Archaeology, dates composition of the Temple Scroll to the times of Hasmonean power consolidation, long before the existence of the Essenes, and states that this is only the date when this material was reduced to writing; the notions expressed must be older. This tends to undermine the idea of an Essene-Sadducee connection.


Other theological considerations count against the idea. Josephus tells us in his Jewish War and in his Antiquities of the Jews that the Sadducees and the Essenes held opposing views of predestination, with the Essenes believing in an immortal soul and attributing everything to divinely-determined fate, while the Sadducees denied both the existence of the soul and the role of fate altogether. The scroll authors' beliefs in the soul's survival beyond death and in the resurrection of the body, and their complex world of angels and demons engaged in a cosmic war, were contrary to the Sadducean belief that there is no resurrection, and that there are no such beings as angels or spirits. For the Sadducees, every person had the right to choose between good and evil, and the scope of humankind's existence was limited to this life. For the Essenes, God ruled and foreordained all events–including every person's ultimate choice to follow after good or after evil–and the significance of each human life would culminate in the soon-to-come Hereafter. It is difficult to imagine how such disparate beliefs might evolve into one another or even be reconciled. This tends to undermine the idea of a strong connection between the Essenes and Sadducees. A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... The Wars of the Jews (or the history of the destruction of Jerusalem) is a book written by the historian Josephus as a description of Jewish history up to the events of the Destruction of Jerusalem. ... Antiquities of the Jews (Antiquitates Judaicae in Latin) was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus about 93-94 (cf. ...


Origins: Jerusalem theory

Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...

Background

Some scholars posit that there is strong evidence against the Qumran-sectarian theory. Khirbet Qumran is a tiny settlement which could only house about 150 persons at any one time. Since several hundred different scribal "hands" have been identified in the material, with only about a dozen repetitions of handwriting found, the available population doesn't seem large enough to account for the diversity of handwriting. Advocates of the Qumran-sectarian theory respond that the Scrolls date over a period of centuries and therefore, over time, the settlement could have housed a large number of scribes.


Even according to those scholars who believe that there was scribal activity at Qumran, only a few of the biblical scrolls were actually made there, the majority having been copied before the Qumran period and subsequently having come into the hands of the claimed Qumran community (Abegg et al 2002). There is, however, no concrete physical evidence of scribal activity at Qumran, nor, a fortiori, that the claimed Qumran community altered the biblical texts to reflect their own theology (Golb, 1995; cf. Abegg et al 2002). It is thought that the claimed Qumran community would have viewed the Book of 1 Enoch and the Book of Jubilees as divinely inspired scripture (Abegg et al 2002). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Book of Jubilees expands and reworks material found in Genesis to Exodus 15. ...


Opponents of the Qumran-sectarian theory also note that the custom at the time was for scribes to write sitting cross-legged with a board on their lap, whereas the "writing" tables in the assumed scriptorium would not be suited to this purpose. Qumran-sectarian advocates respond that the existing scroll could sit on the table while the newly written scroll would reside on the scribe's lap.


Finally, Pliny's description isn't specific enough to be definitely tied to Khirbet Qumran. And Pliny describes the Essenes of the Dead Sea area as celibate, yet remains of women were found in the cemetery at Qumran.


Jerusalem libraries

In 1980 Norman Golb of the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute published the first of a series of studies critical of the Qumran-sectarian theory, and offering historical and textual evidence that the scrolls are the remains of various libraries in Jerusalem (perhaps including, but not limited to, the Temple library), hidden in the Judaean desert when the Romans were besieging Jerusalem in 68-70 AD In broad terms, this evidence includes (1) the Copper Scroll found in Cave 3, which contains a list of treasures that, according to Golb and others, could only have originated in Jerusalem; (2) the great variety of conflicting ideas found among the scrolls; and (3) the fact that, apart from the Copper Scroll, they contain no original historical documents such as correspondence or contracts, but are all scribal copies of literary texts -- indicating that they are remnants of libraries and were not written at the site where they were found. Golb's theory has been endorsed by a number of scholars, including the Israeli archaeologists Yizhar Hirschfeld (deceased), Yahman Jamaca, Yitzhak Magen and Yuval Peleg, Rachel Elior (chair of the Department of Jewish Thought at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, who emphasizes the connection between the Scrolls and the Temple) and others. Hirschfeld believes that Qumran was the country estate of a wealthy Jerusalemite. Magen and Peleg believe that the site was a pottery factory and had nothing to do with any sect. Golb believes that it was a military fortress, part of a concentric series of such bastions protecting Jerusalem. Thus, it can be said that current scrolls scholarship includes a school that challenges the traditional Qumran-sectarian theory which supports a growing movement towards the view that the site was secular in nature and had no organic connection with the parchment fragments found in the caves (see below). The scrolls are increasingly held, by this group of scholars who have emerged since 1990, to have come from a major center of Jewish intellectual culture such as only Jerusalem is known to have been during the intertestamentary period. According to this theory, the scrolls are in fact more important than they were previously thought to be, because of the light they cast on Jewish thought in Jerusalem at that time. Norman Golb (1928- )is the Ludwig Rosenberger Professor in Jewish History and Civilizationat the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... The Oriental Institute (OI) is the University of Chicagos archeology museum and research center for ancient Near Eastern studies. ... The Copper Scroll is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls found at Khirbet Qumran, but differs significantly from the others. ... The Copper Scroll is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls found at Khirbet Qumran, but differs significantly from the others. ...


In a series of editorials and articles, historian Norman Golb criticized the San Diego Natural History Museum's 2007 exhibit of the Scrolls, suggesting that the museum is inappropriately taking sides in a bitter and widening academic dispute by presenting a slanted interpretation of the Scrolls and of the archaeology of Qumran. This ongoing dispute is only the latest sign of the "polarization" of Scrolls studies between defenders and opponents of the traditional theory of Scroll origins, a controversy that has gathered steam during the past decade. Norman Golb (1928- )is the Ludwig Rosenberger Professor in Jewish History and Civilizationat the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. ... The San Diego Natural History Museum was founded in 1874 as the San Diego Society of Natural History. ...


Temple library

In 1963, Karl Heinrich Rengstorf of the University of Münster put forth the theory that the Dead Sea scrolls originated at the library of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. This theory was rejected by most scholars during the 1960s, who maintained that the scrolls were written at Qumran rather than transported from another location (a position then thought to be supported by de Vaux's identification of a room within the ruins of Qumran as a probable scriptorium -- an identification that has since been disputed by various archaeologists). Rengstorf's theory is also rejected by Norman Golb, who argues that it is rendered unlikely by the great multiplicity of conflicting religious ideas found among the scrolls. It has in large measure been revived, however, by Rachel Elior, who heads the department of Jewish Thought at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... The University of Münster (German Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, WWU) is a public university located in the city of Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Qumran (Hebrew:חירבת קומראן Khirbet Qumran) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... A Scriptorium was a room or building, usually within a Christian monastery where, during medieval times, manuscripts were written. ... Norman Golb (1928- )is the Ludwig Rosenberger Professor in Jewish History and Civilizationat the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. ... Rachel Elior is an Israeli professor of at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel. ...


Origins: Other theories

Christian connections

Spanish Jesuit José O'Callaghan has argued that one fragment (7Q5) is a New Testament text from the Gospel of Mark, chapter 6, verses 52–53. In recent years this controversial assertion has been taken up again by German scholar Carsten Peter Thiede. A successful identification of this fragment as a passage from Mark would make it the earliest extant New Testament document, dating somewhere between 30 AD and 60 AD. Opponents consider that the fragment is tiny and requires so much reconstruction (the only complete word in Greek is "και" = "and") that it could have come from a text other than Mark. Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Father Jose OCallaghan, SJ, a papyrologist, along with Carsten Peter Thiede, have proposed that lettering on a postage stamp-sized papyrus fragment found in a cave at Qumran, 7Q5, represents a fragment from the Gospel of Mark. ... Fragment 5 from Cave 7 of the Qumran Community Among the Dead Sea scrolls, 7Q5 is the designation for a papyrus fragment discovered in Cave 7 of the Qumran community. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... Prof. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Robert Eisenman advanced the theory that some scrolls actually describe the early Christian community, characterized as more fundamentalist and rigid than the one portrayed by the New Testament. Eisenman also attempted to relate the career of James the Just and the Apostle Paul / Saul of Tarsus to some of these documents. Dr. Robert H. Eisenman is a Professor of Middle East Religions and Archaeology and Director of the Institute for the Study of Judeo-Christian Origins at California State University, Long Beach; and Visiting Senior Member of Linacre College, Oxford University. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew YaÊ¿aqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ...


Conspiracy and other theories

Because they are frequently described as important to the history of the Bible, the scrolls are surrounded by a wide range of conspiracy theories. There is also writing about the Nephilim related to the Book of Enoch. Theories with more support among scholars include Qumran as a military fortress or a winter resort; see above (Abegg et al 2002). This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... A conspiracy theory is a theory that defies common historical or current understanding of events, under the claim that those events are the result of manipulations by two or more individuals or various secretive powers or conspiracies. ... For other uses, see Nephilim (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Digital Copies of the Dead Sea Scrolls

High resolution images of all discovered material are not available online for public examination. However they can be purchased in inexpensive multi-volumes (on disc media or in book form) or viewed in certain university libraries.


According to Computer Weekly (16th Nov 2007), a team from King's College London is to lead a project to digitise the scrolls. (Actually titled ComputerWeekly on the magazine). ... For other uses, see Kings College. ...


The text of nearly all of the non-biblical scrolls has been recorded and tagged for morphology by Dr. Martin Abegg, Jr., the Ben Zion Wacholder Professor of Dead Sea Scroll Studies at Trinity Western University in Langley, BC, Canada. It is available on handheld devices through Olive Tree Bible Software - BibleReader, on Macs through Accordance, and on Windows through Logos Bible Software and BibleWorks. Trinity Western University (TWU) is a private, Christian liberal arts university located in Langley, British Columbia, Canada. ... Olive Tree Bible Software is a software company that produces software for biblical analysis and Bible study. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources. ... Logos Bible Software is a company that produces software for biblical analysis. ...


See also

4Q107 ( or 4QCanta) is a fragment of the Song of Songs in Hebrew found in Cave 4 at Qumran in Israel and which comprises part of the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... 4Q108 (or 4QCantc) is a fragment containing portions of the Song of Songs in Hebrew. ... 4Q175 4Q175 (or 4QTest), also known as The Testimonia, is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls and was found in Cave 4 at Qumran in Israel. ... A fragment of 4QMMT 4QMMT ( or MMT), also known as the Halakhic Letter, is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls that were discovered at Qumran in Israel. ... Apocryphon (secret writing), plural apocrypha, was a Greek term for a genre of Jewish and Early Christian writings that were meant to impart secret teachings or gnosis that could not be publicly taught. ... John Marco Allegro (17 February 1923 - 17 February 1988) was a controversial archaeologist and Dead Sea Scrolls scholar. ... Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Community Rule is the name given to one of the documents found in the caves at Qumran, and as such is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls The most complete manuscript was found in Cave 1, and is given the document reference name 1QS (which stands for : Cave 1... The Copper Scroll is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls found at Khirbet Qumran, but differs significantly from the others. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Dr Elisha Qimron Dr Elisha Qimron is a leading academic in the study of ancient Hebrew, in which he took his PhD in 1976 at the Hebrew University, writing his dissertation on The Hebrew of the Scrolls. ... Dr Emanuel Tov Emanuel Tov (born September 1941, Amsterdam) is a Dutch-Israeli Bible scholar and, since 1986, has been a Professor in the Department of the Bible at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. ... Prof. ... The Essenes (sg. ... Geza Vermes (born 22 June 1924) is a Jewish scholar and writer on religious history, particularly Jewish and Christian. ... John Marco Allegro (born in London 17 February 1923; died 17 February 1988, his 65th birthday) was a freethinker who challenged orthodox views of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Bible and the history of religion, with books that attracted popular attention and scholarly derision. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Józef Tadeusz Milik (March 24, 1922 - January 6, 2006) was a Polish Catholic priest and Biblical scholar who worked in Jerusalem in the 1950s on deciphering the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... Frank Moore Cross, Jr. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible (Tanakh). ... Norman Golb (1928- )is the Ludwig Rosenberger Professor in Jewish History and Civilizationat the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. ... Dr. Robert H. Eisenman is a Professor of Middle East Religions and Archaeology and Director of the Institute for the Study of Judeo-Christian Origins at California State University, Long Beach; and Visiting Senior Member of Linacre College, Oxford University. ... Father Roland Guérin de Vaux OP (17 December 1903 – 1971) was a French Dominican priest who led the Catholic team that initially worked on the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Exterior view of the Shrine of the Book Entrance to the Shrine of the Book The Shrine of the Book is built to symbolized the scroll of the War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness - The shrine is built as a white dome symbolizing the Sons... The Tanakh is the Hebrew Bible and Qumran is an archaeological site near the Dead Sea. ... The Teacher of Righteousness is a figure found in some of the Dead sea scrolls at Qumran, most prominently in the Damascus Document (CD). ... The Thanksgiving Scroll or Hodayot was one of the first seven Dead Sea Scrolls discovered in 1947 by the Bedouin. ... The Book of Mysteries (or The Book of Secrets) is a wisdom text found in fragmentary form among the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... The Rule of the Blessing is a very fragmentary text once thought to be part of the Dead Sea Scrolls book known as the Community Rule. ... One of the first seven Dead Sea Scrolls discovered at the Qumran site in 1946 contained the three sectarian texts: The Community Rule, The Rule of the Congregation, and The Rule of the Blessing. ... The Temple Scroll is one of the longest of the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... The War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness is a manual for military organization and strategy that was discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... The War Rule is a name used for various Dead Sea Scrolls. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.allaboutarchaeology.org/dead-sea-scrolls-2.htm
  2. ^ John M. Allegro (1960). The Treasure of the Copper Scroll. Garden City, NY, Doubleday. 
  3. ^ Hershel Shanks, ed. (1992). Understanding the Dead Sea Scrolls. New York, Random House. ISBN 0-679-41448-7. 
  4. ^ Robert Feather (2003). The Mystery of the Copper Scroll of Qumran. Bear & Company. ISBN 1-59143-014-3. 
  5. ^ The Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Retrieved 8/7/2006.
  6. ^ Theodor H. Gaster (1976). The Dead Sea Scriptures. Peter Smith Pub Inc. ISBN 0-8446-6702-1. 

John Marco Allegro is a controversial archaeologist and Dead Sea Scrolls scholar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that The Crime Club be merged into this article or section. ... Hershel Shanks (born March 8, 1930, Sharon, Pennsylvania) is the founder of the Bible Archaeology Society and the editor of the Biblical Archaeology Review and has written and edited works on the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... // Random House is a publishing house based in New York City. ... Inner Traditions - Bear & Company (or just Inner Traditions) is a book publisher founded in 1975 and based in Rochester, Vermont in the United States. ... Theodor Herzl Gaster (1906 - 1992) was an American Biblical scholar known for work on comparative religion, mythology and the history of religions. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Edward M. Cook, Solving the Mysteries of the Dead Sea Scrolls: New Light on the Bible, Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994
  • Frank Moore Cross, The Ancient Library of Qumran, 3rd ed., Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995. ISBN 0-8006-2807-1
  • Norman Golb, Who Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls? The Search for the Secret of Qumran, New York: Scribner, 1995
  • Yizhar Hirschfeld, Qumran in Context: Reassessing the Archaeological Evidence, Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 2004.
  • Yizhak Magen and Yuwal Peleg, "Back to Qumran: Ten years of Excavations and Research, 1993-2004," in The Site of the Dead Sea Scrolls: Archaeological Interpretations and Debates (Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 57), Brill, 2006 (pp. 55-116).
  • Elisha Qimron, The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Harvard Semitic Studies, 1986. (This is a serious discussion of the Hebrew language of the scrolls.)
  • Barbara Thiering, Jesus and the Riddle of the Dead Sea Scrolls (ISBN 0-06-067782-1), New York: Harper Collins, 1992
  • Geza Vermes, The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English, London: Penguin, 1998. ISBN 0-14-024501-4 (good translation, but complete only in the sense that he includes translations of complete texts, but neglects fragmentary scrolls and more especially does not include biblical texts.)
  • C. Khabbaz, "Les manuscrits de la mer Morte et le secret de leurs auteurs",Beirut, 2006. (Ce livre identifie les auteurs des fameux manuscrits de la mer Morte et dévoile leur secret).

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Other sources

  • Martin Abegg, Jr, Peter Flint, and Eugene Ulrich, The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible Translated for the First Time into English, (1999) HarperSanFrancisco paperback 2002, ISBN 0-06-060064-0, (contains the biblical portion of the scrolls)
  • Dead Sea Scrolls Study Vol 1: 1Q1-4Q273, Vol. 2: 4Q274-11Q31, (compact disc), Logos Research Systems, Inc., ASIN B0002DQY7S (contains the non-biblical portion of the scrolls with Hebrew and Aramaic transcriptions in parallel with English translations)
  • A. Powell Davies, The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls. (Signet, 1956.)
  • Rachel Elior, The Three Temples: On the Emergence of Jewish Mysticism in Late Antiquity, Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, 2004 (paperback edition 2005).
  • Craig A. Evans and James A. Sanders, ed. "Paul and the scriptures of Israel, (1993) Sheffield: JSOT Press
  • Joseph A. Fitzmyer, Responses to 101 Questions on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Paulist Press 1992, ISBN 0-8091-3348-2
  • Theodore Heline, Dead Sea Scrolls, New Age Bible & Philosophy Center, 1957, Reprint edition March 1987, ISBN 0-933963-16-5
  • Yitzhak Magen & Yuval Peleg, "The Qumran Excavations 1993-2004: Preliminary Report," JSP 6 (Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority, 2007)Download
  • Johann Maier, The Temple Scroll, [German edition was 1978], (Sheffield:JSOT Press [Supplement 34], 1985).
  • Florentino Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English, (Translated from Spanish into English by Wilfred G. E. Watson) (Leiden: E.J.Brill, 1994).
  • James A. Sanders, ed. "Dead Sea scrolls: The Psalms scroll of Qumrân Cave 11 (11QPsa)", (1965) Oxford, Clarendon Press.
  • Lawrence H. Schiffman, Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls: their True Meaning for Judaism and Christianity, Anchor Bible Reference Library (Doubleday) 1995, ISBN 0-385-48121-7, (Schiffman has suggested two plausible theories of origin and identity - a Sadducean splinter group, or perhaps an Essene group with Sadducean roots.)
  • Hershel Shanks, The Mystery and Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Vintage Press 1999, ISBN 0-679-78089-0 (recommended introduction to their discovery and history of their scholarship)
  • Hershel Shanks, editor, Understanding the Dead Sea Scrolls: A Reader From the Biblical Archaeology Review, Vintage Press reprint 1993, ISBN 0-679-74445-2
  • Carsten Peter Thiede, The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Jewish Origins of Christianity, PALGRAVE 2000, ISBN 0-312-29361-5
  • Michael Wise, Martin Abegg, Jr, and Edward Cook, The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Translation, (1996), HarperSanFrancisco paperback 1999, ISBN 0-06-069201-4, (contains the non-biblical portion of the scrolls)
  • Samuel Ifor Enoch 'The Jesus of Faith and the Dead Sea Scrolls' 1968 Presbyterian Church of Wales

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Dead Sea Scrolls (3803 words)
Scrolls from the Dead Sea: The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Scholarship (Library of Congress) --Images of 12 scroll fragments and other artifacts that formed the core of the 1993-94 traveling exhibit at the Library of Congress, NY Public Library, and the Vatican.
Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Hebrew U) -- Images of 4 scrolls from Cave 1, bibliography of recent scholarship and papers from annual international symposia on scroll research in relation to interpretation of the Bible, apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, the Damascus document; Jewish history, liturgy, wisdom; rabbinic literature and early Christianity.
Dead Sea Scrolls and Qumran (Mitchell A. Hoselton) -- resources include an inventory of manuscripts from Qumran, a timeline of discoveries and profiles of persons who have been connected to the scroll saga, a bibliography and glossary.
The Dead Sea Scrolls (1503 words)
These similarities as well as parallels between the literary style of certain scrolls and that of the New Testament have led some scholars to claim that Jesus and John the Baptist were either part of or strongly influenced by a sect at the Dead Sea.
Dead Sea Scrolls: Control and Publication of the Scrolls - Control and Publication of the Scrolls Most of the originals of the scrolls are at the Rockefeller...
Dead Sea Scrolls: Scrolls of the Qumran Caves - Scrolls of the Qumran Caves Three types of documents have been found in the caves near Qumran:...
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