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Encyclopedia > Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Dead Sea - A view across the sea from the Israeli side
A view across the sea from the Israeli side
Coordinates 31°20′N 35°30′ECoordinates: 31°20′N 35°30′E
Lake type endorheic
hypersaline
Primary inflows Jordan River
Primary outflows evaporation
Catchment area 40,650 km² (15,700 sq mi)
Basin countries Jordan
Israel
West Bank
Max. length 67 km (42 mi)
Max. width 18 km (11 mi)
Surface area 810 km² (310 sq mi)
North Basin
Average depth 120 m (394 ft)[1]
Max. depth 330 m (1,083 ft)
Water volume 147 km³ (35 cu mi)
Shore length1 135 km (84 mi)
Surface elevation -420 m (-1,378 ft)[2]
References [1][2]
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

The Dead Sea (Arabic: البَحْر المَيّت‎, al-Baḥrᵘ l-Mayyitᵘ, "Dead Sea";Hebrew: יָם הַ‏‏מֶ‏ּ‏לַ‏ח‎, Yām Ha-Melaḥ, "Sea of Salt") is a salt lake between Israel and the West Bank to the west, and Jordan to the east. It is 420 metres (1,378 ft) below sea level,[2] and its shores are the lowest point on the surface of the Earth on dry land. The Dead Sea is 330 m (1,083 ft) deep, the deepest hypersaline lake in the world. It is also the world's second saltiest body of water, after Lake Asal in Djibouti, with 30 percent salinity. It is 8.6 times saltier than the ocean.[3] Experts say that it is nine times saltier than the Mediterranean Sea (31.5% salt versus 3.5% for the Mediterranean). The Dead Sea is 67 kilometres (42 mi) long and 18 kilometres (11 mi) wide at its widest point. It lies in the Jordan Rift Valley, and its main tributary is the Jordan River. Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin—also called a terminal or closed basin—is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water, either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia. ... In hydrology, the discharge of a river is the volume of water transported by it in a certain amount of time. ... Vaporization redirects here. ... Drainage basin. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Drainage basin. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... A cubic kilometre (symbol km³) is an SI derived unit of volume. ... A cubic mile is an Imperial unit/U.S. customary unit (non-SI non-metric) of volume, used in the United States. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... For a lake containing a high concentration of salt, see salt lake (geography). ... Lulworth Cove in Dorset, England (Great Britain) A fjord (Lysefjorden) in Norway River Gambia flowing through Niokolokoba National Park Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia A tide pool on Gabriola Island, British Columbia showing ochre sea stars A body of water is any significant accumulation of water such as an ocean, a... Lake Assal seen from space Lake Karum in the Ethiopian portion of the northern Afar Depression is also sometimes called Lake Assal. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... Look up tributary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia. ...


The Dead Sea has attracted visitors from around the Mediterranean basin for thousands of years. Biblically, it was a place of refuge for King David. It was one of the world's first health resorts (for Herod the Great), and it has been the supplier of a wide variety of products, from balms for Egyptian mummification to potash for fertilizers. The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Herod the Great. ... For other uses, see Mummy (disambiguation). ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3). ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...


In Arabic the Dead Sea is calledal-Bahr al-Mayyit [4]  ("the Dead Sea"), or less commonly baḥrᵘ lūṭᵃ (بحر لوط, "the Sea of Lot"). Another historic name in Arabic was the "Sea of Zoʼar", after a nearby town. In Hebrew, the Dead Sea is Yām ha-Melaḥ , meaning "sea of salt," or Yām ha-Māvet (ים המות, "sea of death"). In antiquity it was sometimes referred to as Yām ha-Mizraḥî (ים המזרחי, "the Eastern sea") or Yām ha-‘Ărāvâ (ים הערבה, "Sea of the Arabah"). The Greeks called it Lake Asphaltites (Attic Greek ἡ Θάλαττα ἀσφαλτῖτης, hē Thálatta asphaltĩtēs, "the Asphaltite[5] sea. Arabic redirects here. ... Image File history File links ArDeadSea. ... According to the Bible and the Quran, Lot (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: لوط, ; Hidden, covered[1]) was the nephew of the patriarch, Abraham or Abram. ... Image File history File links He-Dead_Sea. ... This article is about the body of water. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Cloudbreak over Wadi Araba, Jordan. ... Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ...

Contents

Natural history

Satellite photograph showing the location of the Dead Sea
Satellite photograph showing the location of the Dead Sea

The Dead Sea is an endorheic lake located in the Jordan Rift Valley, a geographic feature formed by the Dead Sea Transform (DST). This left lateral-moving transform fault lies along the tectonic plate boundary between the African Plate and the Arabian Plate. It runs between the East Anatolian Fault zone in Turkey and the northern end of the Red Sea Rift offshore of the southern tip of Sinai. There are two contending theories about the origin of the low elevation of the Dead Sea. The older theory is that it lies in a true rift zone, an extension of the Red Sea Rift, or even of the Great Rift Valley of eastern Africa. A more recent theory is that the Dead Sea basin is a consequence of a "step-over" discontinuity along the Dead Sea Transform, creating extension of the crust with consequent subsidence. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1162x1920, 645 KB) The Dead Sea and the w:Sea of Galilee. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1162x1920, 645 KB) The Dead Sea and the w:Sea of Galilee. ... The shores of Lake Hart, an endorheic desert lake in South Australia In geography, an endorheic basin is a watershed from which there is no outflow of water (either on the surface as rivers, or underground by flow or diffusion through rock or permeable material). ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... A transform fault is a geological fault that is a special case of strike-slip faulting which terminates abruptly, at both ends, at a major transverse geological feature. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...  The African plate, shown in pinkish-orange The African Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of Africa and extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... The Arabian plate is shown in bright yellow on this map The Arabian Plate is a continental tectonic plate covering the Arabian peninsula and extending northward to Turkey. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ...


Around three million years ago what is now the valley of the Jordan River, Dead Sea, and Wadi Arabah was repeatedly inundated by waters from the Mediterranean Sea. The waters formed in a narrow, crooked bay which was connected to the sea through what is now the Jezreel Valley. The floods of the valley came and went depending on long scale climatic change. The lake that occupied the Dead Sea Rift, named "Lake Sodom", deposited beds of salt, eventually coming to be 3 km (2 miles) thick. This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia. ... Cloudbreak over Wadi Araba, Jordan. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Jezreel Valley and Mount Tabor, Israel Jezreel Valley The Jezreel Valley ; ‎, Emek Yizrael, also known as the Plain of Esdraelon (Esdraelon is the Koine Greek rendering of Jezreel[1]), and as the Zirin Valley (Arabic: , Sahel Zirin), and as the Meadow of Amrs son (مرج بن عامر, Marj Ibn Amer), is... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... For other uses, see Sodom and Gomorrah (disambiguation). ...


According to geological theory, approximately two million years ago the land between the Rift Valley and the Mediterranean Sea rose to such an extent that the ocean could no longer flood the area. Thus, the long bay became a lake. This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ...


The first such prehistoric lake is named "Lake Gomorrah." Lake Gomorrah was a freshwater or brackish lake that extended at least 80 km (50 miles) south of the current southern end of the Dead Sea and 100 km (60 mi) north, well above the present Hula Depression. As the climate turned more arid, Lake Gomorrah shrank and became saltier. The large, saltwater predecessor of the Dead Sea is called "Lake Lisan." The Hula Valley (Hebrew: emek hahula) is an agricultural region in northern Israel with abundant fresh water. ...

Near Ein Gedi, salt builds up along the shores of the Dead Sea.
Near Ein Gedi, salt builds up along the shores of the Dead Sea.

In prehistoric times great amounts of sediment collected on the floor of Lake Gomorrah. The sediment was heavier than the salt deposits and squeezed the salt deposits upwards into what are now the Lisan Peninsula and Mount Sodom (on the southwest side of the lake). Geologists explain the effect in terms of a bucket of mud into which a large flat stone is placed, forcing the mud to creep up the sides of the pail. When the floor of the Dead Sea dropped further due to tectonic forces the salt mounts of Lisan and Mount Sodom stayed in place as high cliffs. (see salt domes) Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... The Lisan Peninsula is a large spit of land which now separates the North and the South basins of the Dead Sea. ... Jabal Usdum or Mountain of Sodom or Mount Sodom is a hill in the southwestern part of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... A salt dome is formed when a thick bed of evaporite minerals (mainly salt, or halite) found at depth intrudes vertically into surrounding rock strata, forming a diapir. ...


From 70,000 to 12,000 years ago the lake level was 100 m (328 ft) to 250 m (820 ft) higher than its current level. This lake, called "Lake Lisan", fluctuated dramatically, rising to its highest level around 26,000 years ago, indicating very wet climate in the Near East. Sometime around 10,000 years ago the lake level dropped dramatically, probably to levels even lower than today. During the last several thousand years the lake has fluctuated approximately 400 m (1,310 ft) with some significant drops and rises. Current theories as to the cause of this dramatic drop in levels rule out volcanic activity, therefore it may have been a seismic event. Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ...


The Jordan River is the only major water source flowing into the Dead Sea. There are no outlet streams.


The northern part of the Dead Sea receives scarcely 100 mm (4 in) of rain a year. The southern section barely 50 mm (2 in). The Dead Sea zone's aridity is due to the rainshadow effect of the Judean Hills. The highlands east of the Dead Sea receive more rainfall than the Dead Sea itself. A Rainshadow is an area which is unusally dry due to nearby geographic features. ... The Judean Mountains are the mountain range on which Jerusalem, the capital city of Israel is located. ...


The mountains of the western side, the Judean Hills, rise less steeply from the Dead Sea than do the mountains of the eastern side. The mountains of the eastern side are also much higher. Along the southwestern side of the lake is a 210 m (700 ft) tall halite formation called "Mount Sodom". For Halite Bittorrent client , see Halite Client. ... Jabal Usdum or Mountain of Sodom or Mount Sodom is a hill in the southwestern part of the Dead Sea in Israel. ...


Climatic features and therapies

Many people believe that the mud of the Dead Sea has special healing and cosmetic uses.
Many people believe that the mud of the Dead Sea has special healing and cosmetic uses.

The Dead Sea's climate offers year-round sunny skies and dry air with low pollution. It has less than 100 millimetres (3.94 in) mean annual rainfall and a summer average temperature between 32 and 39 °C (90-102°F). Winter average temperatures range between 20 and 23 °C (68-74°F). The region has weakened ultraviolet radiation, particularly the UVB (erythrogenic rays), and an atmosphere characterized by a high oxygen content due to the high barometric pressure. The shore is the lowest dry place in the world.[6] Proximity to the sea affects temperatures nearby because of the moderating effect a large body of water has on climate. During the winter months, sea temperatures tend to be higher than land temperatures, and vice versa during the summer months. This is the outcome of slow penetration of the sun's rays into the sea, which is a huge mass that takes a long time to warm up.


The region's climate and the unique conditions created by its low elevation have made it a popular center for several types of therapies:

For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... The term humidity is usually taken in daily language to refer to relative humidity. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ... Light therapy or phototherapy consists of exposure to specific wavelengths of light using lasers, LEDs, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light, for a prescribed amount of time. ... Sol redirects here. ... The ancient treatment of thalassotherapy involves bathing in a warm, mineral-rich pool with stimulating hydrotherapy jets to help relieve arthritis and other aches and pains. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...

Chemistry and health effects

A tourist (on the Jordanian side) demonstrates the unusual buoyancy caused by high salinity.
A tourist (on the Jordanian side) demonstrates the unusual buoyancy caused by high salinity.

Until the winter of 1978-1979, the Dead Sea was composed of two stratified layers of water that differed in temperature, density, age, and salinity. The topmost 35 metres (115 ft) or so of the Dead Sea had a salinity that ranged between 300 and 400 parts per thousand and a temperature that swung between 19 °C (66 °F) and 37 °C (98 °F). Underneath a zone of transition, the lowest level of the Dead Sea had waters of a consistent 22 °C (72 °F) temperature and complete saturation of sodium chloride (NaCl).[citations needed] Since the water near the bottom is saturated, the salt precipitates out of solution onto the sea floor. Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2266 KB) Pcb21| Pete 13:38, 14 May 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages link to this file: Dead Sea User:Pcb21 Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 2266 KB) Pcb21| Pete 13:38, 14 May 2005 (UTC) File links The following pages link to this file: Dead Sea User:Pcb21 Categories: GFDL images ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... In chemistry, saturation has four different meanings: In physical chemistry, saturation is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance and additional amounts of that substance will appear as a precipitate. ...


Beginning in the 1960s water inflow to the Dead Sea from the Jordan River was reduced as a result of large-scale irrigation and generally low rainfall. By 1975 the upper water layer of the Dead Sea was actually saltier than the lower layer. The upper layer nevertheless remained suspended above the lower layer because its waters were warmer and thus less dense. When the upper layer finally cooled down so that its density was greater than the lower layer the waters of the Dead Sea mixed. For the first time in centuries the lake was a homogeneous body of water. Since then stratification has begun to redevelop.[7] Water stratification occurs when water of high and low salinity (halocline), as well as cold and warm water (thermocline), forms layers that act as barriers to water mixing. ...

A rough Dead Sea, with salt deposits on cliffs.
A rough Dead Sea, with salt deposits on cliffs.

The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water. The exact composition of the Dead Sea water varies with season, depth, temperature and so on. The concentration of ionic species (in g/kg) of Dead Sea surface water in the early 1980s was found to be: Cl (181.4), Br (4.2), SO42− (0.4), HCO3 (0.2), Ca2+ (14.1), Na+ (32.5), K+ (6.2) and Mg2+ (35.2). The total salinity was 276 g/kg.[8] These results show that w/w% composition of the salt, as anhydrous chlorides, was calcium chloride (CaCl2) 14.4%, potassium chloride (KCl) 4.4%, magnesium chloride (MgCl2) 50.8% and sodium chloride (common salt, NaCl) 30.4%. In comparison, the salt in the water of most oceans and seas is approximately 97% sodium chloride. The concentration of sulfate, SO42−, ions is very low, and the bromide ion, Br concentration is the highest of all waters on Earth. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 900 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) M Disdero 25/02/2007 Refreshing view of a rough Dead Sea Template:Coor title dms Syntax problem, since coordinates are accurate, make... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 900 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) M Disdero 25/02/2007 Refreshing view of a rough Dead Sea Template:Coor title dms Syntax problem, since coordinates are accurate, make... R-phrases S-phrases , , Related Compounds Other anions calcium fluoride calcium bromide calcium iodide Other cations magnesium chloride strontium chloride Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. ... Magnesium chloride is composed of magnesium and chlorine and is a typical ionic halide, being highly polar and soluble in water. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... Ocean (Okeanos, a Greek god of sea and water; Greek ωκεανός) covers almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth. ... This article is about the body of water. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... A bromide is a phrase, or person who uses phrases, which have been used and repeated so many times as to become either insincere in their meaning, or seem like an attempt at trying to explain the obvious. ...


Comparison between the chemical composition of the Dead Sea to other lakes and oceans show that the salt concentration in the Dead Sea is 31.5% (the salinity fluctuates somewhat). The unusually high concentration of salt results in a similarly high density of up to 1.24 kg/L, depending on temperature and salinity. Anyone can easily float in the Dead Sea because of natural buoyancy. In this aspect, the Dead Sea is similar to the Great Salt Lake in Utah, in the United States. The chemical composition of a substance refers to the elements of which the substance is composed. ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ... Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Utah, is the largest salt lake in the Western Hemisphere,[1] the fourth-largest terminal lake in the world,[2] and the 33rd largest lake on Earth. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


One of the most unusual properties of the Dead Sea is its discharge of asphalt. From deep seeps, the Dead Sea constantly spits up small pebbles of the black substance. After earthquakes, chunks as large as houses have been found. The term asphalt is often used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ...


The Dead Sea area has become a major center for health research and treatment for several reasons. The mineral content of the waters, the very low content of pollens and other allergens in the atmosphere, the reduced ultraviolet component of solar radiation, and the higher atmospheric pressure at this great depth each have specific health effects. For example, persons suffering reduced respiratory function from diseases such as cystic fibrosis seem to benefit from the increased atmospheric pressure.[9] This article is about the concept. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ... Air redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... This article is about the medical term. ...


Sufferers of the skin disorder psoriasis also benefit from the ability to sunbathe for long periods in the area due to its position below sea level and subsequent result that many of the sun's harmful UV rays are reduced. Furthermore, Dead Sea salt has been found to be beneficial to psoriasis patients.[10]


Flora and fauna

Dead Sea in the morning, seen from Masada
Dead Sea in the morning, seen from Masada

The sea is called "dead" because its high salinity prevents macroscopic aquatic organisms from living in it, such as fish or water plants, though minuscule quantities of bacteria and microbial fungi are present. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1620x1072, 239 KB) Sunrise at the Dead Sea Description: The Dead Sea (Israel) just after sunrise, seen from the top of the fortress of Massada. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1620x1072, 239 KB) Sunrise at the Dead Sea Description: The Dead Sea (Israel) just after sunrise, seen from the top of the fortress of Massada. ...


In times of flood, the salt content of the Dead Sea can drop from its usual 35% salinity to 30% or lower. The Dead Sea temporarily comes to life in the wake of rainy winters. In 1980, after one such rainy winter, the normally dark blue Dead Sea turned red. Researchers from Hebrew University found the Dead Sea to be teeming with a type of algae called Dunaliella. The Dunaliella in turn nourished carotenoid-containing (red-pigmented) halobacteria whose presence is responsible for the color change. Since 1980, the Dead Sea basin has been dry and the algae and the bacteria have not returned in measurable numbers. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels biggest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... Species D. salina In taxonomy, Dunaliella is a genus of algae, specifically of the Dunaliellaceae. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... Order Halobacteriales Synonyms Halobacteria Grant et al. ...


Many animal species make their homes in the mountains surrounding the Dead Sea. A hiker can see camels, ibex, hares, hyraxes, jackals, foxes, and even leopards. Hundreds of bird species inhabit the zone as well. Both Jordan and Israel have established nature reserves around the Dead Sea. For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Species Capra ibex Capra nubiana Capra pyrenaica Capra sibirica Capra walie An ibex, also called steinbock, is a type of wild mountain goat with large recurved horns that are transversely ridged in front. ... For other uses, see Hare (disambiguation). ... Genera Procavia Heterohyrax Dendrohyrax A hyrax (from Greek shrewmouse; Afrikaans: klipdassie) is any of four species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. ... Species Canis aureus Canis adustus Canis mesomelas A jackal (from Turkish çakal, via Persian shaghal ultimately from Sanskrit sṛgālaḥ [1][2]) is any of three (sometimes four) small to medium-sized members of the family Canidae, found in Africa, Asia and Southeastern Europe. ... This article is about the animal. ... This article is about the big cat. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ...


The delta of the Jordan river was formerly a veritable jungle of papyrus and palm trees. Flavius Josephus described Jericho as "the most fertile spot in Judea". In Roman and Byzantine times sugarcane, henna, and sycamore all made the lower Jordan valley quite wealthy. One of the most valuable products produced by Jericho was the sap of the balsam tree, which could be made into perfume. For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae (also known as Palmae or Palmaceae), the palm family, is a family of flowering plants, belonging to the monocot order Arecales. ... Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... -1... Sycamore is a name applied at various times and places to three very different types of trees, but with somewhat similar leaf forms. ... Balsam of Mecca (or balsam of Gilead or balm of Gilead) is a resinous gum of the tree Commiphora gileadensis (syn. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Perfume (disambiguation). ...


By the nineteenth century Jericho's fertility was a thing of the past.


Human history

World's lowest (dry) point, Jordan 1971
World's lowest (dry) point, Jordan 1971

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (5004x3324, 2805 KB) Beschreibung Photo taken by Dieter Manske (contact through Magnus Manske) in 1971 Scanned from film negative Edited (identifyable person removed on the left, colors slightly enhanced) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Dead Sea... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (5004x3324, 2805 KB) Beschreibung Photo taken by Dieter Manske (contact through Magnus Manske) in 1971 Scanned from film negative Edited (identifyable person removed on the left, colors slightly enhanced) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Dead Sea...

In Judaism

The human history of the Dead Sea goes all the way back to remote antiquity. Just north of the Dead Sea is Jericho. Somewhere, perhaps on the Dead Sea's southeast shore, would be the cities mentioned in the Book of Genesis which were said to have been destroyed in the time of Abraham: Sodom and Gomorra (Genesis 18) and the three other "Cities of the Plain" - Admah, Zeboim and Zoar (Deuteronomy 29:23). Zoar, however, escaped destruction when Abraham's nephew Lot escaped there from Sodom (Genesis 19:21-22). King David was said to have hidden from Saul at Ein Gedi nearby. This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Genesis redirects here. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Sodom redirects here. ... Categories: Hebrew Bible/Tanakh-related stubs | Torah places ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: שָׁאוּל, Standard Tiberian  ; asked for or borrowed) is a figure identified in the Books of Samuel and Quran as having been the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... Shulamit Fall at Nahal David Nahal Arugot An ibex at the Ein Gedi nature reserve Ein Gedi (עין גדי) is an oasis located on the east of the Dead Sea, close to Masada and the caves of Qumran. ...


Prophecies

In Ezekiel 47:8-9 there is a specific prophecy over the dead sea that the water will ".. be healed and made fresh". The dead sea will become a normal sea and even fish will live in the sea. A similar prophecy is stated in Zechariah 14:8, which says that "Living waters will go out from Jerusalem, half of them to the eastern sea (likely the Dead Sea) and half to the western sea (the Mediterranean)..." Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... The Book of Zechariah is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh attributed to the prophet Zechariah. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Ancient Greek period

The Greeks knew the Dead Sea as "Lake Asphaltites", due to the naturally surfacing asphalt. Aristotle wrote about the remarkable waters. Later, the Nabateans discovered the value of bitumen extracted from the Dead Sea needed by the Egyptians for embalming their mummies. The term asphalt is often used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... Ewer from Iran, dated 1180-1210CE. Composed of brass worked in repoussé and inlaid with silver and bitumen. ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is a process used to temporarily preserve a human cadaver to forestall decomposition and make it suitable for display at a funeral. ... Mummified cat from Ancient Egypt. ...


Herodian period

King Herod the Great built/rebuilt several fortresses and palaces on the Western Bank of the Dead Sea. The most famous was Masada, where, in 70-73 AD, a small group of rebellious Jewish zealots held out against the might of the Roman Legion, and Machaerus where, according to Josephus, John the Baptist was imprisoned by Herod Antipas and met his death.[11] Herod the Great. ... Combatants Jewish Sicarii Roman Empire Commanders Elazar ben Yair Lucius Flavius Silva Strength 960 15,000 Casualties 953 Unknown Masada (a romanisation of the Hebrew מצדה, Metzada, from מצודה, metzuda, fortress) is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on top of... Zealotry denotes zeal in excess, referring to cases where activism and ambition in relation to an ideology have become excessive to the point of being harmful to others, oneself, and ones own cause. ... Legion redirects here. ... Machaerus is a fortress fifteen miles southeast of the mouth of the Jordan river, in the wild and desolate hills that overlook the Dead Sea from the east. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... Herod Antipas (short for Antipatros) was an ancient leader (tetrarch, meaning ruler of a quarter) of Galilee and Perea. ...


Also in Roman times some Essenes had settled on the Dead Sea's western shore; Pliny the Elder identifies their location with the words, "on the west side of the Dead Sea, away from the coast ... [above] the town of Engeda" (Natural History, Bk 5.73); and it is therefore a hugely popular though not uncontested hypothesis today, that same Essenes are identical with the settlers at Qumran and that "the Dead Sea Scrolls" discovered during the 20th century in the nearby caves had been their own library. The Essenes were a Jewish religious group that flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD. Many separate, but related religious groups of that era shared similar mystic, eschatological, messianic, and ascetic beliefs. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Qumran (Hebrew:חירבת קומראן Khirbet Qumran) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... The Dead Sea scrolls consist of roughly 1000 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1979 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West...


In Christianity

The remoteness of the region attracted Greek Orthodox monks since the Byzantine era. Their monasteries such as Saint George in Wadi Kelt and Mar Saba in the Judean Desert are places of pilgrimage. Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ... Mar Saba seen from the view point Mar Saba seen from the bottom of the gorge Mar Saba in the 19th century Mar Saba is a Greek Orthodox monastery located near Bethlehem, Israel (Palestine), and overlooks the Kidron River. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided between Israel, Jordan and the West Bank. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ...

Mount Sodom, on the southwest side of the lake, is a giant mountain of halite.

photo Mt. ... photo Mt. ... Jabal Usdum or Mountain of Sodom or Mount Sodom is a hill in the southwestern part of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... For Halite Bittorrent client , see Halite Client. ...

In Islam

In Islamic tradition, the Dead Sea was about the land in which the Prophet Lut (Lot in the Hebrew scriptures) lived. The people of the towns and cities were wicked for their acts of homosexuality, raping men, robbery and murder and had therefore been given a punishment for such deeds. The punishment arrived when angels in the form of beautiful men were sent down by God as guests for Lut to host. When Lut's people heard of the men, they rushed to Lut's house to misbehave and rape the men. This was their final test which they failed so the angels raised the land where the prophet's people lived, tipped it upside down and threw it back on earth, causing the ground near the impact to cave in. Thus, the lowest land on Earth was formed because of this punishment. The non-believers (in the monotheism doctrine) were destroyed and the followers were saved. According to some interpretation, the sura of ar-Rum of the Quran refers to the Dead Sea as the lowest place on Earth.[12] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... Lut (circa 1781 BC - 1638 BC?[1] [2]), (Arabic: لوط ) was a prophet mentioned in the Quran and known as Lot in the Bible. ... According to the Bible and the Quran, Lot (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: لوط, ; Hidden, covered[1]) was the nephew of the patriarch, Abraham or Abram. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... Surat Ar-Rum (The Romans, The Byzantines) is the 30th sura of the Quran with 60 ayat. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


Bedouin tribes have continuously lived in this area, and more recently explorers and scientists arrived to analyze the minerals and conduct research into the unique climate. Tourism in the region has been developed since the 1960s. A Bedouin man in Sinai Peninsula The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), pl. ... http://www. ... Tourist redirects here. ...


Recent History

The Dead Sea Scrolls were found in caves at Qumran at the Dead Sea. The world's lowest road, Highway 90, runs along the Israeli and West Bank shores of the Dead Sea at 393 m (1,289 ft) below sea level. The Dead Sea scrolls consist of roughly 1000 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1979 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West... Qumran (Hebrew:חירבת קומראן Khirbet Qumran) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... The Israeli symbol for Route 90 An authentic Route 90 road sign on the southbound lane A memorial road sign on Route 90 dedicating the route in memory of the late Rehavam Zeevi Route 90 is the longest road in Israel and stretches from Metula and the northern border with...


There are also health spas and hot springs along the shore, besides the unique water of the Dead Sea itself. A golf course named for Sodom and Gomorrah was built by the British at Kalia on the northern shore. The first major hotels were built in Israel, first at nearby Arad, and since the 1960s at the Neve Zohar resort complex. The Jordanian side has seen increasing development in recent years, and includes international franchises. This article is about the sport of golf. ... For other uses, see Sodom and Gomorrah (disambiguation). ... For the archaeological site, see Tel Arad. ...


Industry

View of salt evaporation pans on the Dead Sea, taken in 1989 from the Space Shuttle Columbia. The southern half is now separated from the northern half at what used to be the Lisan Peninsula because of the fall of the level of Dead Sea.
View of salt evaporation pans on the Dead Sea, taken in 1989 from the Space Shuttle Columbia. The southern half is now separated from the northern half at what used to be the Lisan Peninsula because of the fall of the level of Dead Sea.

In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. The Palestine Potash Company was chartered in 1929 after its founder, Siberian Jewish engineer and pioneer of Lake Baikal exploitation Moses Novomeysky, worked for the charter ex for over ten years. The first plant was on the north shore of the Dead Sea at Kalia and produced potash, or potassium chloride, by solar evaporation of the brine. Employing Arabs and Jews, it was an island of peace in turbulent times. The company quickly grew into the largest industrial site in the Middle East[citation needed] and in 1934 built a second plant on the southwest shore, in the Mount Sodom area, south of the 'Lashon' region of the Dead Sea. Palestine Potash Company supplied half of Britain's potash during World War II, but ultimately became a casualty of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Its remnants were nationalised and Dead Sea Works Ltd. was established in 1952 in its stead as a state-owned company to extract potash and other minerals from the Dead Sea. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1286x1316, 2461 KB) Summary NASA Earth Observatory http://earthobservatory. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1286x1316, 2461 KB) Summary NASA Earth Observatory http://earthobservatory. ... Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy space shuttle in NASAs orbital fleet. ... The Lisan Peninsula is a large spit of land which now separates the North and the South basins of the Dead Sea. ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3). ... Bromo redirects here. ... Baikal redirects here. ... Jabal Usdum or Mountain of Sodom or Mount Sodom is a hill in the southwestern part of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... The Lisan Peninsula is a large spit of land which now separates the North and the South basins of the Dead Sea. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... An aerial view of the evaporation ponds operated by the Dead Sea Works The Dead Sea Works (‎, Mifaley Yam HaMelakh) is a major industrial centre on the shores of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... A government corporation or government-owned corporation is a legal entity created by a government to exercise some of the powers of the government. ...


From the Dead Sea brine, Israel produces (2001) 1.77 million tons potash, 206,000 tons elemental bromine, 44,900 tons caustic soda, 25,000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. On the Jordanian side of the Dead Sea, Arab Potash (APC), formed in 1956, produces 2.0 million tons of potash annually, as well as sodium chloride and bromine. Both companies use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea for the purpose of producing carnallite, potassium magnesium chloride, which is then processed further to produce potassium chloride. The power plant on the Israeli side allows production of magnesium metal (by a subsidiary, Dead Sea Magnesium Ltd.). The salt evaporation pans are visible from space. Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as caustic soda or lye in North America, is a caustic metallic base used in industry (mostly as a strong chemical base) in the manufacture of paper, textiles, and detergents. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Arab Potash is a company that is primarily involved in harvesting minerals from the Dead Sea. ... Pan evaporation is a measurement that combines or integrates the effects of several climate elements: temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind. ... CarnalliteBold text ...


Due to the popularity of the sea's therapeutic and healing properties, several companies have also shown interest in the manufacturing and supplying of Dead Sea salts as raw materials for body and skin care products. Companies, like the San Francisco Bath Salt Company and Cleopatra's Choice, for example, are based in the United States but import their supply of Dead Sea salts directly from Israel. [13][14]


Recession

In recent decades, the Dead Sea has been rapidly shrinking because of diversion of incoming water. From an elevation of 395 m (1,296 ft) below sea level in 1970 [15] it fell 22 m (72 ft) to 418 m (1,371 ft) below sea level in 2006, reaching a drop rate of 1 m (3 ft) per year. Although the Dead Sea may never entirely disappear,[citation needed] because evaporation slows down as surface area decreases and salinity increases, it is feared that the Dead Sea may substantially change its characteristics.


The Dead Sea level drop has been followed by a groundwater level drop, causing brines that used to occupy underground layers near the shoreline to be flushed out by freshwater. This is believed to be the cause of the recent appearance of large sinkholes along the western shore – incoming freshwater dissolves salt layers, rapidly creating subsurface cavities that subsequently collapse to form these sinkholes.[16] Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. ... Devils Hole near Hawthorne, Florida, USA. A sinkhole, also known as a sink, shake hole, swallow hole, swallet, doline or cenote, is a natural depression or hole in the surface topography caused by the removal of soil or bedrock, often both, by water. ...


One of the plans which were suggested as a means to stop the recession of the Dead Sea is to channel water from the Mediterranean or the Red Sea, either through tunnels or canals (the Dead Sea Canal). Although a Mediterranean structure would be shorter, Israel is now committed to building a Red Sea canal in deference to Jordan's needs. The plan is to pump water 120 m (394 ft) up the Arava/Arabah from Aqaba or Eilat, tunnel under the highest point of the Arava/Arabah valley, and then canalize the river of seawater as it falls 520 m (1,706 ft) to the Dead Sea. The downhill flow would be harnessed hydroelectrically, and the arriving seawater would run into a desalination plant to be constructed in Jordan. The salt water remaining after desalination would be deposited into the Dead Sea. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Dead Sea canal is a proposed project of building a canal from either the Mediterranean Sea or the Red Sea to the Dead Sea, taking advantage of the 400 meter height difference between the seas. ... Arava can refer to: Arabah, a section of the Great Rift Valley between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba in Israel. ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-Ê»Aqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... Hebrew אילת Founded in 1951 Government City (from 1959) District South Population 55,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 80,000 dunams (80 km²) Mayor Meir Yitzhak Halevi North Beach, Eilat, from southwest. ...


On May 9, 2005, Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinian Authority signed an agreement to begin feasibility studies on the project, to be officially known as the "Two Seas Canal". The scheme calls for the pumping of 870 million cubic metres of sea water from the Red Sea per year and generation of 550 Megawatts of electricity. The World Bank is supportive of the project. However, several environmental groups have raised concerns about possible negative impacts of the project on the natural environment of the Dead Sea and Arava. is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... The proposed Two Seas Canal would run from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea and provide electricity and potable water to Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ...


In 2007, the level of the Dead Sea fell by 1 metre.[17]


Gallery

See also

The Dead Sea region
The Dead Sea region

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (832x1920, 588 KB) The Dead Sea. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (832x1920, 588 KB) The Dead Sea. ... The Dead Sea canal is a proposed project of building a canal from either the Mediterranean Sea or the Red Sea to the Dead Sea, taking advantage of the 400 meter height difference between the seas. ... The proposed Two Seas Canal would run from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea and provide electricity and potable water to Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority. ... The following is a list of places on land located below mean sea level. ... Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Utah, is the largest salt lake in the Western Hemisphere,[1] the fourth-largest terminal lake in the world,[2] and the 33rd largest lake on Earth. ...

Further reading

  • Yehouda Enzel, et al, eds (2006) New Frontiers in Dead Sea Paleoenvironmental Research, Geological Society of America, ISBN 0-8137-2401-5 [1]
  • Niemi, Tina M., Ben-Avraham, Z., and Gat, J., eds., 1997, The Dead Sea: The Lake and Its Setting: N.Y., Oxford University Press, 286 p.

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Dead Sea Data Summary. International Lake Environment Committee Foundation.
  2. ^ a b c Monitoring of the Dead Sea. Israel Marine Data Center (ISRAMAR).
  3. ^ Goetz, P.W. (ed.) The New Encyclopaedia Britannica (15th ed.). Vol. 3, p. 937. Chicago, 1986
  4. ^ The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.
  5. ^ See Bitumen and asphalt for more about asphaltite.
  6. ^ Lowest Elevation: Dead Sea. Extreme Science. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  7. ^ Dead Sea Canal
  8. ^ I. Steinhorn, In Situ Salt Precipitation at the Dead Sea, Limnol. Oceanogr. 28(3),1983, 580-583
  9. ^ Asthma, Cystic Fibrosis, Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Dead Sea Research Center. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  10. ^ S. Halevy et al. Dead sea bath salt for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris: a double-blind controlled study. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, Volume 9, Issue 3: 237-242.
  11. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.119.
  12. ^ Dead Sea, Jordan
  13. ^ San Francisco Bath Salt Company The Story of Bath Salt San Francisco Bath Salt Company
  14. ^ Cleopatra's Choice More on Dead Sea Bath Salts
  15. ^ C. Klein, A. Flohn, Contribution to the Knowledge in the Fluctuations of the Dead Sea Level. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 38, p. 151–156, 1987
  16. ^ M. Abelson, Y. Yechieli, O. Crouvi, G. Baer, D. Wachs, A. Bein, V. Shtivelman. "Evolution of the Dead Sea Sinkholes", in New Frontiers in Dead Sea Paleoenvironmental Research, Geological Society of America, special paper 401, p. 241–253, 2006
  17. ^ "The level of the Dead Sea fell by 1.5 meters in 2007", Globes, 2008-02-24. Retrieved on 2008-02-24. 

Ewer from Iran, dated 1180-1210CE. Composed of brass worked in repoussé and inlaid with silver and bitumen. ... The term asphalt is often used as an abbreviation for asphalt concrete. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Antiquities of the Jews (Antiquitates Judaicae in Latin) was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus about 93-94 (cf. ... The Geological Society of America (or GSA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of the geosciences. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Dead Sea - MSN Encarta (575 words)
The Dead Sea (Hebrew : יָם הַ‏‏מֶ‏ּ‏לַ‏ח ‎, Yām Ha-Melaḥ, "Sea of Salt"; Arabic : ألبَحْر ألمَيّت ‎, al-Baḥrᵘ l-Mayyitⁱ, "Dead...
The surface of the Dead Sea, 418 m (1,371 ft) below sea level as of 2006, is the lowest water surface on earth.
The Dead Sea is fed mainly by the Jordan River, which enters the lake from the north.
Dead Sea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2815 words)
The Dead Sea zone's aridity is due to the rainshadow effect of the Judean Hills.
The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride (common salt) with the remainder comprised of various trace elements.
The Dead Sea is rapidly shrinking because of diversion of incoming water.
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