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Encyclopedia > De Havilland Mosquito
DH.98 Mosquito
Mosquito Mk IV c. 1944
Type Fast bomber, fighter-bomber, and night fighter
Manufacturer de Havilland Aircraft Company
Designed by Ronald Bishop
Maiden flight 25 November 1940
Introduction 1941
Retired 1956
Primary users Royal Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
United States Army Air Force
Produced 1940-1950
Number built 7,781

The de Havilland Mosquito[1] was a British combat aircraft that excelled in a number of roles during the Second World War. It served with the RAF and many other air forces both in the Second World War and postwar (see Operators below). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A ground attack aircraft is an aircraft that is designed to operate very close to the ground, supporting infantry and tanks directly in battle. ... A night fighter is a fighter aircraft adapted for use at night, or in other times of bad visibility. ... An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft. ... For other uses, see De Havilland (disambiguation). ... The Maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1940: Events March March 16 - Britain suffers its first civilian air-raid casualties of the war after a raid by KG 26 on Scapa Flow March 25 - the US government grants permission to the countrys aircraft manufacturers to sell advanced... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1941: Events Jacqueline Cochran became the first woman to fly a bomber across the Atlantic Ocean. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1956: Events March March 10 - Lt Cdr Peter Twiss sets a new airspeed record in the Fairey Delta FD.2, also becoming the first person to exceed 1,000 mph. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) was the air force of Canada from 1924 until 1968 when the three branches of the Canadian military were merged into the Canadian Forces. ... The United States Army Air Forces, or USAAF, was a part of the U.S. military during World War II. The direct precursor to the U.S. Air Force, the USAAF formally existed between 1941 and 1947. ... For other uses, see De Havilland (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “RAF” redirects here. ...


The Mosquito was a twin-engine aircraft, powered by a pair of Rolls-Royce Merlins with the pilot and navigator sitting side by side. Unorthodox in design, it used a plywood structure of spruce and balsa in a time when wooden construction was considered outmoded. In the conceptual design stage, de Havilland designers found that adding any defensive armament would significantly reduce the aircraft's maximum speed. Realising that the loss in performance was not worth the benefit, the initial bomber version was designed without any guns. The Mosquito was a very versatile aircraft; originally conceived as a fast day bomber, the various roles of the Mosquito included: tactical bomber, pathfinder, day or night fighter, fighter-bomber, intruder, maritime strike and photo reconnaissance aircraft. The Merlin was a 12 cylinder, 60° V, 27 litre, liquid cooled piston aircraft engine built during World War II by Rolls-Royce and under licence in the United States by Packard. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... For the web browser of the same name, see Netscape Navigator A navigator is the person onboard a ship responsible for the navigation of the vessel. ... Toy constructed from plywood. ... Species About 35; see text. ... Binomial name Ochroma lagopus Sw. ... The Pathfinder squadrons of the Royal Air Force were elite squadrons of RAF Bomber Command during World War II. At the start of the war Bomber command made many daylight raids but the losses incurred due to lack of escorting fighters when operating over Europe led them to switch the... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... A ground attack aircraft is an aircraft that is designed to operate very close to the ground, supporting infantry and tanks directly in battle. ... Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ...


The Mosquito inspired admiration from all quarters, including the Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe, Hermann Göring. Göring was due to address a parade in Berlin in the morning of 30 January 1943, commemorating the 10th anniversary of the Nazis' being voted into power. The low level attack of three 105 Squadron Mosquito B Mk. IV on the main Berlin broadcasting station[2] put Reichsmarschall Göring off the air for more than an hour, as he was about to launch into a scheduled speech. Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Machtergreifung is a German word meaning seizure of power. ...


The Reichsmarschall was not amused: The original uniform of the Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring shown in the Luftwaffe-Museum in Berlin. ...

In 1940 I could at least fly as far as Glasgow in most of my aircraft, but not now! It makes me furious when I see the Mosquito. I turn green and yellow with envy.

The British, who can afford aluminium better than we can, knock together a beautiful wooden aircraft that every piano factory over there is building, and they give it a speed which they have now increased yet again. What do you make of that?

 
Hermann Göring, January 1943, [3][4]

The Mosquito inspired a German imitation, the Focke Wulf Ta 154 Moskito, which, like its namesake, was constructed of wood. It was also used as the basis for a single seater heavy fighter the de Havilland Hornet Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ... Focke-Wulf Ta 154 Focke-Wuld TA 154 V1-1 The Focke-Wulf Ta 154 Moskito was a fast night fighter designed by Kurt Tank and produced by Focke-Wulf late in World War II. Only a few were produced and proved to have less impressive performance than the prototypes. ... The de Havilland Hornet was a development of de Havillands classic Mosquito designed as private venture for a long-range fighter for use in the Pacific Theater in the war against Japan. ...

Contents

Design and development

The de Havilland company conceived the idea of a wooden aircraft to take advantage of the underused resources and skills of the furniture industry at a time of great pressure on the conventional aircraft industry combined with wartime shortages of steel and aluminium. The Air Ministry was initially not interested in the innovative approach; de Havilland, under chief designer Ronald Bishop, developed the Mosquito on a speculative basis. The ministry became interested when they saw the Mosquito prototype's performance. welcome:: This is an article about items in a room. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, period, block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 26. ... The Air Ministry was formerly a department of the United Kingdom Government, established in 1918 with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the (then newly formed) Royal Air Force. ...


Throughout the 1930s, de Havilland had established a reputation in developing innovative high-speed aircraft such as the DH.88 Comet mailplane and DH.91 Albatross airliner that had already successfully employed the composite wood construction that the Mosquito would use. The de Havilland DH.88 Comet was an aircraft designed for one very specific purpose - to win the 1934 MacRobertson Air Race for Britain. ... The BOAC DH.91 Albatross Fortuna alongside the Control Tower at Croydon Airport in 1939 The de Havilland DH.91 Albatross was a four-engine British transport aircraft in the 1930s. ...


Construction

A 1943 advertisement for de Havilland taken from Flight & Aircraft Engineer magazine
A 1943 advertisement for de Havilland taken from Flight & Aircraft Engineer magazine

The genius of the aircraft's construction lay in the innovative and somewhat unorthodox use of seemingly commonplace materials and techniques. The bulk of the Mosquito was made of plywood. Stronger and lighter than most grades of plywood, this special plywood was produced by a combination of 3/8" sheets of Ecuadorean balsawood sandwiched between sheets of Canadian birch plywood. Like a deck of cards, sheets of wood alternated with sheets of a special casein-based (later formaldehyde) wood glue. DE HAVILLAND 1943 Advertisement scanned by me Ian Dunster from the February 18th 1943 issue of Flight and Aircraft Engineer magazine. ... DE HAVILLAND 1943 Advertisement scanned by me Ian Dunster from the February 18th 1943 issue of Flight and Aircraft Engineer magazine. ... Flight International is a magazine relating to airlines, general aviation, and aerospace manufacture. ... Toy constructed from plywood. ... Anthem Salve Oh Patria We Salute You, Our Homeland Capital Quito Largest city Guayaquil Official languages Spanish Demonym Ecuadorian Government Republic  -  President Rafael Correa  -  Vice-President Lenín Moreno Independence  -  from Spain May 24, 1822   -  from Gran Colombia May 13, 1830  Area  -  Total 256,370 km² (73nd) 98,985 sq... Binomial name Ochroma lagopus Sw. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... Casein is the most predominant phosphoprotein found in milk and cheese. ... The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal) is a gas with a pungent smell. ...


The fuselage was formed in concrete moulds. Left and right sides of the fuselage were fitted with bulkheads and structural members separately while the glue cured. Reinforcing was achieved with hundreds of small brass wood screws. This arrangement greatly simplified the installation of hydraulic lines and other fittings, as the two halves of the fuselage were open for easy access by workers. The halves were then glued and bolted together, and covered with doped Madapolam fabric. Bulkhead may refer to the following: Bulkhead (partition), a wall within the hull of a ship, vehicle or container Bulkhead (barrier) Bulkhead line See also: Flatcar Bulkhead Category: ... For other uses, see Brass (disambiguation). ... Aircraft dope is a plasticised lacquer that is applied to fabric-coated aircraft to tauten, stiffen, adhere and provide protection to the skin material. ...


The wings were also made of wood. To increase strength, the wings were made as one single assembly, onto which the fuselage, once both halves had been mated, was lowered and attached.


Metal was used sparingly in the construction of structural elements. It was mostly used in engine mounts and fairings, control surfaces, and, of course, brass screws.


The glue used was initially casein-based. It was changed to a formaldehyde-based preparation when the Mosquito was introduced to fighting in semi-tropical and tropical climates, after some unexplained crashes led to the suspicion that the glue was unable to withstand the climate. De Havilland also developed a technique to accelerate the glue drying by heating it using microwaves. Microwave Slang for small waves, like at a beach, often used by surfers. ...


In England fuselage shells were mainly made by E. Gomme, Parker Knoll and Styles & Mealing. Wing spars were made by J.B. Heath and Dancer & Hearne. Many of the other parts, including flaps, flap shrouds, fins, leading edge assemblies and bomb doors were also produced in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, which was well suited to these tasks due to a well established furniture making industry. Dancer and Hearne processed much of the wood from start to finish, receiving timber and transforming it into finished wing spars at their High Wycombe factory. Around 5,000 of the total 7,781 Mosquitos ever made contained parts made in High Wycombe. [5]


The specialized wood veneer used in the construction of the Mosquito was made by Roddis Manufacturing in Marshfield, Wisconsin, United States. Hamilton Roddis had teams of dexterous young women ironing the (unusually thin) strong wood veneer product before shipping to the UK. [5] Veneer, in woodworking, refers to thin slices of wood, usually thinner than 3 millimetres (1/8 inch). ... Marshfield is a city in Wisconsin. ...


Operational service

RAF Mosquito B IV
RAF Mosquito B IV

The Mosquito is often described as having been faster than enemy fighters. On its introduction to service, the aircraft was about as fast as the front-line German fighters that opposed it, the BF 109F and Fw 190A. Advancements in those aircraft would eventually outpace performance improvements in the Mosquito. Nonetheless their speed margin was slim enough that, by the time those aircraft could reach interception altitude, the Mosquito would have completed its bombing run and would be racing for home. Furthermore, the Mosquito could sustain its dash over a greater distance than the opposing fighter aircraft. Image File history File links Mosquito_600pix. ... Image File history File links Mosquito_600pix. ... German Airfield, France, 1941 propaganda photo of the Luftwaffe, Bf 109 fighters on the tarmac The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was a German World War II fighter aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt in the early 1930s. ... The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger (shrike), often called Butcher-bird, was a single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft of Germanys Luftwaffe, and one of the best fighters of its generation. ...


With the introduction of the nitrous oxide boosted Bf 109s and the jet-powered Me 262 late in the war, the Luftwaffe had interceptors with a clear speed advantage over the Mosquito. The PR Mk 32 photo reconnaissance version of the Mosquito attempted to counter this with long-span wings, special high-altitude superchargers and the elimination of as much weight as possible, raising its cruising altitude to 42,000 feet (12,800 metres). Even with these changes, the Mosquito was not totally immune – in December 1944, one was intercepted at maximum altitude. ...


RAF Bomber Operations

Mosquito FB VI
Mosquito FB VI

The first bomber squadrons to receive the Mosquito B IV used it for several low-level daylight raids. One was carried out in the morning of 30 January 1943, against a Nazi rally in Berlin, giving the lie to the speaker's (Reichmarschall Hermann Göring's) claim that such a mission was impossible. Not content with this, Mosquitos from RAF No 139 Squadron went to Berlin in the afternoon and tried to interrupt an important speech by Dr. Joseph Goebbels, Germany's Propaganda Minister. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ) (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ...


Mosquito bomber versions were used as part of Bomber Command; the Pathfinders in No. 8 Group and the Light Night Striking Force (LNSF). The LNSF carried out high speed night raids with precision aiming and navigation. Their mission was twofold: first, they would target small but vital installations; and second, they would act as a diversion from the raids of the heavy bombers, simulating large formations through the use of chaff. On nights when no heavy bomber raid was planned, the LNSF would often strike so the German air defences would not get a rest. Bomber Command badge RAF Bomber Command was the organisation that controlled the RAFs bomber forces. ... The Pathfinder squadrons of the Royal Air Force were elite squadrons of RAF Bomber Command during World War II. At the start of the war Bomber command made many daylight raids but the losses incurred due to lack of escorting fighters when operating over Europe led them to switch the... No. ... Modern US Navy RR-129 and RR-124 chaff countermeasures and containers Chaff, originally called Window by the British, and Düppel by the WWII era German Luftwaffe, is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallised glass fibre...


As part of No. 8 Group Mosquitos took part in many bombing operations as pathfinders, marking targets accurately with flares for later attack by massive formations of heavy bombers. Bomber Command Mosquitos flew over 28,000 operations, dropping 35,000 tons of bombs, and losing just 193 aircraft in the process (a loss rate of 0.7%, compared to a 2.2% loss rate for the four engined heavies). It has been calculated that a Mosquito could be loaded with a 4,000 lb. "cookie" bomb, fly to Germany, drop the bomb, return, bomb up and refuel, fly to Germany again and drop a second 4,000 lb bomb and return, and still land before a Stirling (the slowest of Bomber Command's four-engined bombers) which left at the same time armed with a full bomb load, could strike Germany. A Lancaster drops bundles of incendiary bombs (left), incendiary bombs and a “cookie” (right) on Duisburg on 15 October 1944 Blockbuster or Cookie was the name given to several of the largest conventional bombs used in World War II by the Royal Air Force (RAF). ... The Stirling was a World War II heavy bomber design built by Short Brothers. ...


A Mosquito IX also holds the record for the most missions flown by an Allied bomber in the Second World War. LR503, "F for Freddie," first serving with 109 and subsequently 105 Squadron, flew 213 sorties during the war, only to crash on 10 May 1945, two days after VE Day at Calgary airport during a victory tour, an accident attributed to pilot error. A serial number is a unique number that is one of a series assigned for identification which varies from its successor or predecessor by a fixed discrete integer value. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Night fighter

The use of the Mosquito as a night fighter came about when the Air Ministry project for a night fighter (based on the Gloster F.9/37) was terminated to concentrate production on other types. [6] This twin-engined fighter was designed under the direction of W G Carter to Specification F.9/37 as a single-seater carry-ing an armament of four 0. ...


The first fighter Mosquito introduced into service was the NF Mk II in mid 1942, with four 20 mm Hispano cannon in the fuselage belly and four 0.303 in. Browning machine-guns mounted in the nose. It carried Aircraft Interception radar (AI) Mk IV / Mk V when operating as a defensive night fighter over the UK, although at the time this was omitted from Mk IIs operating as night "Intruders," roaming over Europe at night to cause maximum disruption to lines of communications and flying operations. The Hispano-Suiza HS.404 20 mm autocannon was one of the most widely used aircraft weapons of the 20th century, used by British, American, French, and many other military services. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...


In May 1942, the NF Mk II scored its first kill and until the end of the war, Mosquito night fighters claimed approximately 600 enemy aircraft, along with 600 V-1 flying bombs. This variant also operated over Malta, Italy, Sicily and North Africa from late 1942 on. The Mosquito NF XII became the first aircraft to carry the highly effective centimetric radar. The V-1 (German: Vergeltungswaffe 1) was the first guided missile used in war and the forerunner of todays cruise missile. ...


From early 1944 the Mosquito also operated in the bomber support role with Bomber Command's 100 Group, their task being to harass the Luftwaffe NachtJagd (night fighters) attacking the bomber streams over Germany. Some 258 Luftwaffe night fighters were claimed destroyed by the Group, for the loss of some 70 Mosquitoes. The omniprescence of the potent night fighter threat led to what the Luftwaffe crews dubbed "Mosquitoschreck" (Mosquito scare), as the German aircrews were never sure when or where they may come under attack from the marauding 100 Group fighters and indirectly led to a high proportion of both aircraft wastage from crashes as night fighters hurried in to land to avoid the Mosquito threat (real or imagined). No. ... A map of part of the Kammhuber Line showing the belt and nightfighter boxes through which the bomber stream flew The bomber stream was a tactic developed by the Royal Air Force (RAF) Bomber Command to overwhelm the German aerial defences of the Kammhuber Line during World War II. The...


Fighter-bomber versions

Operational experience in its varied roles quickly led to the development of a versatile fighter-bomber version; the FB VI, which first saw service in early 1943. The Mark VI had a strengthened wing for external loads and along with its standard fighter armament could carry two 250 lb bombs in the rear of the bomb bay and two 250 lb bombs under the wings, or eight wing-mounted rockets. Later up-engined versions could carry 500 lb bombs. The FB VI became the most numerous version of the Mosquito, (2,292 built) equipping the day bomber 2 Group, the intruder squadrons of Fighter Command and 2nd TAF, and the strike wings of Coastal Command, who used the variant as a potent anti-shipping aircraft armed with eight "60 lb" rockets. Number 2 Group of the Royal Air Force is one of the two groups in RAF Strike Command. ... The RAFs Second Tactical Air Force was one of three tactical air forces within the Royal Air Force (RAF) during and after World War II. It was made up of squadrons and personnel from the RAF, the air forces of the British Commonwealth and exiles from German-occupied Europe. ... Coastal Command was an organization within the Royal Air Force tasked with protecting the United Kingdom from naval threats. ... The RP-3 (for Rocket Projectile 3), was a British air to ground rocket used in the Second World War. ...


One of the higher risk uses of the fighter-bomber Mosquito FB VI was by squadrons of No. 2 Group, 2nd Tactical Air Force in Operation Jericho, a mission to destroy the walls and guards' quarters of Amiens prison to allow members of the French resistance to escape. The RAFs Second Tactical Air Force was one of three tactical air forces within the Royal Air Force during and after World War II. // It was formed in June 1943 in connection with preparations then in train to invade Europe a year later. ... Amiens Prison during the raid Operation Jericho was a low-level bombing raid by Allied aircraft on Amiens Prison in German-occupied France, on 18 February 1944, during World War II. The object of the raid was the release of French resistance and political prisoners, 120 of whom were to... Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


On 11 April 1944, after a request by Dutch resistance workers, six Mosquito FB VIs of No. 613 (City of Manchester) Squadron made a pinpoint attack at rooftop height on the Gestapo records centre in The Hague, Netherlands. Their bombs, a mixture of high explosive and incendiary, went in through the doors and windows and the incriminating records were burned. Only persons in the building were killed - nearby civilians in a bread queue were unharmed. is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ...


On 25 March 1945, another similar raid - Operation Carthage - involved a very low-level bombing attack on the Gestapo headquarters in Copenhagen, Denmark, which resulted in the accidental destruction of a Catholic school (the French school) causing the death of 86 children, ten nuns, eight teachers and 21 other civilians, together with destruction of the Gestapo records in the headquarters. Eight Gestapo prisoners were killed while 18 prisoners escaped. The main attack on the Gestapo headquarters caused the death of 55 German soldiers and 47 Danes working for the Gestapo. No civilians were killed during the main attack. Four Mosquitos were lost and nine pilots/crew members died. The attack was requested several times by Danish resistance workers, but were found to be too dangerous by RAF. The attack did save the life of many Danish resistance workers, due to the fact that the Gestapo archives and organisation were severely damaged. is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ...


USAAF

The USAAF ordered 120 Mosquitos for photographic reconnaissance, but only 40 were delivered and given the US designation F-8 (6 Canadian-built B Mk VII and 34 B Mk XX). Only 16 reached Europe, where 11 were turned over to the RAF and five were sent to Italy. The RAF provided 145 PR Mk XVI aircraft to the Eighth Air Force between 22 April 1944 and the end of the war. These were used for a variety of weather, photographic, and night reconnaissance missions; as chaff dispensers; as scouts for the heavy bomber force; on "Red Stocking" OSS missions; and as H2X Mickey platforms by the 802d Reconnaissance Group (Provisional), later re-named the 25th Bomb Group (Reconnaissance). The 25th BG flew 3,246 sorties and lost 29 PR Mk XVIs on operations. The Eighth Air Force is a numbered air force (NAF) of the major command (MAJCOM) of Air Combat Command of the United States Air Force and it is headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Modern US Navy RR-129 and RR-124 chaff countermeasures and containers Chaff, originally called Window by the British, and Düppel by the WWII era German Luftwaffe, is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallised glass fibre... The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency and was the predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Special Forces, and Navy SEALs. ... The H2X radar, nicknamed the Mickey set, provided a ground mapping capability for both navigation and in daylight when overcast (and at night) for the USAAF during World War II. The H2X system replaced the British H2S radar. ...


BOAC

Between 1943 and the end of the war, Mosquitos were used as transport aircraft on a regular route over the North Sea between Leuchars in Scotland and Stockholm. Lockheed Hudsons and Lodestars were also used but these slower aircraft could only fly this route at night or in bad weather to avoid the risk of being shot down. During the long daylight hours of summer, the Mosquito was the only safe alternative. The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... St Athernase Church in Leuchars, Fife, Scotland Leuchars is a small town near the north east coast of Fife in Scotland, sited nearly 2 miles (3 km) to the north of the village of Guardbridge which lies on the north bank of the River Eden where it widens to the... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Lockheed Hudson Mk V The Lockheed Hudson was a light bomber and coastal reconnaissance aircraft built initially for the Royal Air Force shortly before the outbreak of World War II. The Hudson was the first significant aircraft construction contract for the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation—the initial RAF order for 200... The Lockheed 18 Lodestar was a passenger transport aircraft of the Second World War era. ...


Because Sweden was neutral, the aircraft carried civilian markings and were operated by Norwegian officers, who were nominally "civilian employees" of BOAC. They carried small, high value cargos such as precision ball bearings and machine-tool steel. Occasionally, important passengers were carried in an improvised cabin in the bomb bay, one notable passenger being the physicist Niels Bohr, who was evacuated from Stockholm in 1943 in an unarmed Mosquito sent by the RAF. The flight almost ended in tragedy as Bohr did not don his oxygen equipment as instructed, and passed out. He would have died had not the pilot, surmising from Bohr's lack of response to intercom communication that he had lost consciousness, descended to a lower altitude for the remainder of the flight. Bohr's comment was that he had slept like a baby for the entire flight. BOAC Logo The British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) was the British state airline from 1939 until 1946 and the long-haul British state airline from 1946. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Niels (Henrik David) Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1922. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ...


Post-Second World War

Mosquitos flying with the Israeli Air Force saw action during the Suez Crisis of 1956. Although, at the time, the Mosquito was being taken out of service, 13 aircraft of various marks were taken out of storage. An additional 13 TR 33 Mosquitos were purchased from a British scrap dealer in 1954. The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1...


Sweden purchased 60 ex-RAF Mk XIX Mosquitos in 1948 to be used as a night fighter under the J 30 designation. The planes were assigned to the F1 Wing at Västerås, thereby becoming the first (and only) dedicated night fighter unit of the Swedish Air Force. Its Mosquitos were replaced by jet fighters (de Havilland Venom Mk 51, designated J 33) in 1953. One third of the J 30s crashed or broke down during service, mainly due to rudder problems. However, Swedish air force general Björn Bjuggren writes in his memoirs that mechanical problems in the swivelling nose-mounted radar antenna caused destructive vibrations that broke apart one or two J 30s in the air. Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... VästerÃ¥s [vÉ›stÉ™roːs] is a city in central Sweden, located on the shore of Lake Mälaren in the province Västmanland, some 100 km west of Stockholm. ... The de Havilland DH.112 Venom was a post- war jet single-seat fighter-bomber of the Royal Air Force. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Notable pilots

  • "Bob" John Randall Daniel Braham – The highest decorated RAF airman of the Second World War and a top night-fighter ace.
  • Branse Burbridge – the RAF highest scoring Mosquito night fighter ace
  • Leonard Cheshire VC – British No. 617 Squadron RAF commander (and successor to Guy Gibson); one of the most distinguished exponents of precision marking and of the Pathfinders; he later distinguished himself by devoting his life to the care of the disabled and terminally ill and founded the Cheshire Homes. Cheshire's 1944 VC cited his dive over Munich in a Mosquito, enduring "withering" fire for many minutes.[7]
  • Sidney Cotton – Australian spy and photographic reconnaissance pioneer
  • John "Cats Eyes" Cunningham – British night-fighter pilot
  • Geoffrey de Havilland Jr – son of the founder and chief test-pilot of the firm, carried out the maiden flight of the de Havilland Mosquito.
  • Bill Edrich – English international cricketer, who played against Miller. Graduated from Blenheims to Mosquitos. Was awarded the DFC and became a Squadron Leader.
  • Guy Gibson – British 617 Sqn commander; killed when his Mosquito crashed in the Netherlands while returning to England from a mission.
  • Kirk Kerkorian – Worked as a ferry pilot for Mosquitos from Canada to Britain and elsewhere during WWII. The North Atlantic route was dangerous; the pay was high, $1000 per trip. [8] with a section of the Las Vegas Review-Journal book, The Top 100, citing a 1974 biography by Dial Torgerson Kerkorian, An American Success Story.
  • Keith Miller – Australian international cricketer, regarded by many as the greatest Australian all-rounder. In later life when asked how he dealt with pressure on the cricket field, Miller replied: "Pressure is [having] a Messerschmitt up your arse, playing cricket is not."
  • Bolesław Orliński DFC – famous Polish pilot who flew a Breguet 19 from Warsaw-Tokio-Warsaw in 1926 and, with a PZL P.24, set a speed record on 28 June 1934. Commanding officer of Polish 305 Squadron", he flew a Mosquito in a mission against German prison camp in Lille and a large German fuel dump at Nomexy.
  • Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema – Dutch resistance fighter and secret agent flew 72 sorties for the 139th Pathfinder squadron and wrote Soldier of Orange.
  • Kenneth Wolstenhome – Was a Flight Lieutenant in No. 105 Squadron RAF. He later became the presenter and commentator on the BBC Match of the Day football programme. He spoke the widely repeated words "some people are on the pitch ... they think it's all over ... it is now" as Geoff Hurst scored the fourth goal in England's 4-2 World Cup Final win over West Germany in 1966.

John Randall Daniel Bob Braham (6 April 1920 - 7 February 1974), Distinguished Service Order and 2 bars, Distinguished Flying Cross & 2 bars, Air Force Cross, was the most highly decorated airman of the RAF in World War II. He claimed 29 enemy aircraft destroyed, probably destroyed one more, and damaged... Wing Commander Branse Burbridge DSO*, DFC* of 85 Squadron, Royal Air Force earned his wings in 1941. ... Group Captain Geoffrey Leonard Cheshire, Baron Cheshire, VC, OM, DSO and 2 Bars, DFC (7 September 1917–31 July 1992) was a British RAF pilot during the Second World War who received the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that... For the video game see The Dam Busters (video game) No. ... Frederick Sidney Cotton (17 June 1894 - 13 February 1969)was an Australian inventor, photographer and aviation and photography pioneer, responsible for developing and promoting an early colour film process, and largely responsible for the development of photographic reconnaissance before and during World War II. He numbered among his close friends... John Cats Eyes Cunningham at an airshow in 1979 Group Captain John Cats Eyes Cunningham CBE, DSO and two Bars, DFC and Bar, (27 July 1917- 21 July 2002), was an officer in the Royal Air Force during World War II and a test pilot, both before and... Geoffrey de Havilland Junior, (b. ... William John Bill Edrich was a distinguished cricketer who played for Middlesex, MCC, Norfolk and England. ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... The Bristol Blenheim is also the name of the main model produced by Bristol Cars since 1994. ... Photo from 617 Squadron The dambusters Photo submitted by Roger Shenton - (taken by John Kramer) Photo of the Dambusters Memorial at Woodhall Spa. ... For the video game see The Dam Busters (video game) No. ... Kerkor Kirk Kerkorian (born June 6, 1917) is an American billionaire, and president/CEO of Tracinda Corporation, his private holding company based in Beverly Hills, California. ... Keith Ross Miller (born 28 November 1919, died 11 October 2004, Melbourne, Australia) was a famous Australian Test cricketer and World War II pilot. ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... An all-rounder is a cricket player who excels at both batting and bowling. ... (Bf 109 was the official Reichsluftfahrtministerium designation, though some late-war aircraft actually carried the Me 109 designation stamped onto their aircraft type plates. ... BolesÅ‚aw OrliÅ„ski (April 13, 1899 - February 28, 1992) was a Polish aviator, military, sports and test pilot. ... The Breguet 19 (Breguet XIX, Br. ... The PZL P.24 was a Polish fighter aircraft, designed in mid-1930s in the PZL factory in Warsaw. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The No. ... New city flag Traditional coat of arms Motto: – Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Nord-Pas de Calais Department Nord (59) Intercommunality Urban Community of Lille Métropole Mayor Martine Aubry  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 39. ... Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema (April 3rd, 1917, Surabaya, Netherlands East Indies - present), is the writer of the book Soldaat van Oranje (Dutch for Soldier of Orange) in which he describes his experiences in World War II. Eric Hazelhoff Roelfzema managed to escape from Nazi-occupied the Netherlands to the United Kingdom. ... Soldaat van Oranje (Soldier of Orange) is a 1977 film by Paul Verhoeven, starring Rutger Hauer and Jeroen Krabbe. ... Kenneth Wolstenholme, DFC (born Worsley, Lancashire, July 17, 1920; died March 25, 2002) was the original football commentator for BBC television in the 1950s and 1960s, responsible for the games most famous commentary phrase. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... For the Doctor Who novel, see Match of the Day (Doctor Who). ... Sir Geoffrey Charles Hurst, MBE (born December 8, 1941 in Ashton-under-Lyne, Lancashire) is a footballer enshrined in the games history as the only player to have scored a hat-trick in a World Cup final. ...

Variants

Prototypes

A Mosquito PR41 restored to display standard at the Australian War Memorial.
A Mosquito PR41 restored to display standard at the Australian War Memorial.
The first Prototype to fly (E-0234 later W4050) being restored at the de Havillard Aircraft Heritage Centre near St Albans.

The original Mosquito design dated from 1938, but it was not until March 1940 that there was sufficient interest in the aircraft for construction to commence. Three prototypes were built, each with a different configuration. The first to fly was the bomber prototype W4050 on 25 November 1940, followed by the night-fighter model on 15 May 1941 and the photo-reconnaissance model on 10 June 1941. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2687x1067, 305 KB) De Haviland Mosquito - Australian War Memorial, Canberra File links The following pages link to this file: De Havilland Mosquito ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2687x1067, 305 KB) De Haviland Mosquito - Australian War Memorial, Canberra File links The following pages link to this file: De Havilland Mosquito ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 975 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Deben Dave 19:18, 4 September 2007 (UTC) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 975 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Deben Dave 19:18, 4 September 2007 (UTC) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1938: Events Imperial Airways inaugurates scheduled service from London to Montreal. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1940: Events March March 16 - Britain suffers its first civilian air-raid casualties of the war after a raid by KG 26 on Scapa Flow March 25 - the US government grants permission to the countrys aircraft manufacturers to sell advanced... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1941: Events Jacqueline Cochran became the first woman to fly a bomber across the Atlantic Ocean. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...

  • Mosquito Mk I : First prototype aircraft.
  • Mosquito Mk II : Second prototype aircraft.

Photo-reconnaissance aircraft

The photo-reconnaissance model became the basis for the Mosquito PR Mk I, while the bomber model became the Mosquito B Mk IV, of which 273 were built. The first operational sortie by a Mosquito was made by a PR Mk I on 20 September 1941, and the Mk IV entered service in May 1942 with No. 105 Squadron. The B Mk IV could accommodate 4 × 500 lb (227 kg) bombs in the bomb bay, and either two drop tanks or two additional 500 lb bombs on wing hardpoints. Sortie is a term for deployment of one military aircraft or a ship for the purposes of a specific mission, whether alone, or with other aircraft or vessels. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1942: Events January January 30 - Canadian Pacific Air Lines formed by the acquisition and merger of Arrow Airways and Canadian Airways, along with all the various subsidiaries of the latter. ... A hardpoint is a mount where parts (often weapons) are externally mounted to a vehicle. ...

  • Mosquito PR.Mk IV : This designation was given to 32 Mosquito B.Mk IV bombers, converted into two-seat photo-reconnaissance aircraft.
  • Mosquito PR.Mk VIII : Photo-reconniassance version. Powered by two Rolls-Royce Merlin 31 piston engines. 25 built.
  • Mosquito PR.Mk IX : Photo-reconnaissance version based on the Mosquito B.Mk IX bomber aircraft. Powered by two 1,680-hp (1253-kW) Merlin 72 piston engines.
  • Mosquito PR.Mk 32 : Long-range photo-reconnaissance version. Powered by two 1,960-hp (1260-kW) Rolls-Royce Merlin 32 piston engines. Five conversions.
  • Mosquito PR.Mk 34 : Very long-range photo-reconnaissance version. Addition fuel was carried in a bulged bomb-bay. 50 built.

Bomber aircraft

The Mosquito B.Mk IX was a high-altitude bomber variant, but the most numerous bomber version was the Mosquito B.Mk XVI of which about 1,200 were built. The Mosquito bombers could carry a 4,000 lb. (1 816 kg) "blockbuster" bomb in their internal bomb bay. This required a bulged bomb bay which could alternatively accommodate up to six 500 lb bombs on an Avro carrier. Mosquitos were widely used by the RAF Pathfinder Force which marked targets for night-time strategic bombing. Despite an initially high loss rate, the Mosquito ended the war with the lowest losses of any aircraft in RAF Bomber Command service. The RAF found that when finally applied to bombing, in terms of useful damage done, the Mosquito had proved 4.5 times cheaper than the Lancaster; and they never specified a defensive gun on a bomber thereafter.[citation needed] Special Luftwaffe units (Jagdgruppe 25 and Jagdgruppe 50) were formed to combat the Mosquito attacks, though they were rather unsuccessful and the Luftwaffe considered the Mosquito a superior implementation of their own "Schnellbomber" concept. A Lancaster drops bundles of incendiary bombs (left), incendiary bombs and a “cookie” (right) on Duisburg on 15 October 1944 Blockbuster or Cookie was the name given to several of the largest conventional bombs used in World War II by the Royal Air Force (RAF). ... Avro 504K. Avro was a British aircraft manufacturer, well known for planes such as the Avro Lancaster which served in World War II. One of the worlds first aircraft builders, A.V.Roe and Company was established at Brownsfield Mills, Manchester, England by Alliot Verdon Roe and his brother... The Pathfinder squadrons of the Royal Air Force were elite squadrons of RAF Bomber Command during World War II. At the start of the war Bomber command made many daylight raids but the losses incurred due to lack of escorting fighters when operating over Europe led them to switch the... The city heart of Rotterdam after being terror bombed by Germany in 1940, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of Rotterdams medieval architecture. ... Bomber Command badge RAF Bomber Command was the organisation that controlled the RAFs bomber forces. ... The Avro Lancaster was a British four-engine Second World War bomber aircraft made initially by Avro for the British Royal Air Force (RAF). ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... A Schnellbomber (German, literally fast bomber) was a specialized high-speed bomber aircraft. ...

  • Mosquito B.Mk V : One prototype bomber aircraft fitted with underwing pylons. One built.
  • Mosquito B.Mk 35 : Long-range high-altitude bomber version. Fitted with a pressurised cockpit. 122 built.

Fighter Aircraft

Developed during 1940 the Mosquito F Mk II was developed and the first prototype was completed on 15 May 1941. These aircraft were fitted with four 20 mm Hispano cannon in the fuselage belly and four 0.303 in. Browning machine guns mounted in the nose. This fit required the movement of the crew ingress/egress door from the bottom to the right side of the nose. The aircraft also featured a revised windscreen, with flat bullet proof panels in front, as opposed to the original design.[9] The Hispano-Suiza HS.404 20 mm autocannon was one of the most widely used aircraft weapons of the 20th century, used by British, American, French, and many other military services. ... The Browning M1919 is a light infantry unit machine gun manufactured by the Browning Arms Company. ...


Night-fighter aircraft

The first production night fighter Mosquitos were designated the Mosquito NF Mk II. 466 were built with the first entering service with No. 157 Squadron in January 1942, replacing the Douglas Havoc. These aircraft were similar to the F Mk II, but were fitted with the AI Mk IV metric wavelengthradar. The herring-bone transmit antenna was mounted on the nose and the dipole receive antennae were carried under the outer wings.[10] A number of NF II's had their radar equipment removed and additional fuel tanks installed for use as night intruders. These aircraft, designated NF II (Special) were deployed to Malta on 20 December 1942, and operated against targets in Italy.[11] A night fighter is a fighter aircraft adapted for use at night, or in other times of bad visibility. ... The Douglas A-20 series, Douglas model DB-7, was a family of bomber and fighter aircraft of World War II, serving with United States, British, Soviet, French and Australian services. ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an electronic device which with the aid of an antenna propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... A Yagi-Uda beam antenna Short Wave Curtain Antenna (Moosbrunn, Austria) A building rooftop supporting numerous dish and sectored mobile telecommunications antennas (Doncaster, Victoria, Australia) An antenna is a transducer designed to transmit or receive radio waves which are a class of electromagnetic waves. ... The word receiver has a number of different meanings: In communications and information processing, a receiver is the recipient (observer) of a message (information), which is sent from a source (object). ...


Ninety-seven NF Mk IIs were upgraded with centrimetric AI Mk VIII radar and these were designated the Mosquito NF.Mk XII. The Mosquito NF Mk XIII, of which 270 were built, was the production equivalent of the Mk XII conversions. The centimetric radar sets were mounted in a solid "thimble" (Mk XII / XIII) or "bull nose" (Mk XVII / XIX) radome, which required the machine guns to be dispensed with. The other night-fighter variants were the Mk XV, Mk XVIII (converted Mk IIs), Mk XIX and Mk 30. The last three marks mounted the US-built AI Mk X radar. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

  • Mosquito NF Mk X: Unbuilt night-fighter version.
  • Mosquito NF Mk XI: Unbuilt night-fighter version.
  • Mosquito NF Mk XIV: Unbuilt night-fighter version.
  • Mosquito NF Mk XV: This designation was given to five Mosquito B.Mk IV bombers, which were converted into two-seat high-altitude night-fighters.
  • Mosquito NF Mk XVIII: This designation was given to 100 Mosquitos NF.Mk IIs, which were fitted with the American AI.Mk X radar.
  • Mosquito NF Mk XIX: Improved version of the Mosquito NF XIII night-fighter aircraft. It could be fitted with American or British AI radars. 220 built.
  • Mosquito NF Mk 30: High-alititude night-fighter version. Powered by two 1,710-hp (1275-kW) Roll-Royce Merlin 76 piston engines. It also carried early ECM equipment. 526 built.
  • Mosquito NF Mk 31: Unbuilt night-fighter version.

After the war, two more night fighter versions were developed, the NF Mk 36 and the NF Mk 38.

  • Mosquito NF Mk 36: Similar to the mosquito NF.Mk 30 night-fighter, but fitted with the American-built AI.Mk X radar. Powered by two 1,690-hp (1260-kW) Roll-Royce Merlin 113/114 piston engines. 266 built.
  • Mosquito NF Mk 38: Similar to the Mosquito NF.Mk 30 night-fighter, but fitted with the British-built AI Mk IX radar. 50 built.

To warn German night fighters that they were being tracked by these radars, the Germans introduced Naxos ZR radar detectors. Naxos radar detector was a World War II German counter measure to centimetric radar produced by a cavity magnetron. ...


Mosquito night intruders of No. 100 Group RAF, Bomber Command, were also fitted with a device called "Serrate" to allow them to track down German night fighters from their Lichtenstein B/C and SN-2 radar emissions, as well as a device named "Perfectos" that tracked German IFF. No. ... The Serrate radar detector was an Allied Lichtenstein radar detection and homing device, used in Allied night fighters to track down German night fighters equipped with Lichtenstein radar during World War II. The first successfull operational deployment of the equipment by RAF night fighter was on the night of 16... Lichtenstein radar was a German airborn radar in use during World War II. Early Lichtenstein BC units were not deployed until 1942, and as they operated on the 2 m wavelength they required large antennas. ... In telecommunications, identification, friend or foe (IFF) is a crypto identification system designed for command and control. ...


Fighter-bomber aircraft

The most numerous Mosquito variant was the FB Mk VI fighter-bomber of which 2,718 were built. Originally converted from a Mk II, the Mk VI first flew in February 1943. Designed for a fighter-bomber role, the Mk VI could carry two 250 lb (110 kg) or two "short-fin" 500 lb (230 kg) bombs in the internal bomb bay as well as two more bombs under the wings. From early 1944, Coastal Command operated Mk VIs armed with eight 60 lb (27 kg) rockets to carry out anti-shipping strikes. This is a list of aviation-related events from 1943: Events January January 27 - the USAAF makes its first daylight raid on Germany January 30 - Royal Air Force de Havilland Mosquitos make the first daylight air-raid on Berlin January 30-31 – the H2S radar is used by RAF... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1944: Events January January 11 - in one of the largest air raids to date, 570 USAAF bombers strike Brunswick, Halberstadt, and Oschersleben. ... Coastal Command was an organization within the Royal Air Force tasked with protecting the United Kingdom from naval threats. ... A Soyuz rocket, at Baikonur launch pad. ...


Other fighter-bomber variants were the Mosquito FB Mk XVIII (sometimes known as the Tsetse) of which 27 were made by converting Mk VIs. These were fitted with a Molins 57 mm cannon, a 6 pounder anti-tank gun modified with an auto-loader to allow both semi- or fully-automatic fire, in the nose, along with two .303 in (7.7 mm) sighting machine guns. The Air Ministry initially suspected that this variant would not work, but mock tests proved otherwise. Although the gun provided the Mosquito with yet more anti-shipping firepower to pit against U-boats, it required a steady and vulnerable approach-run to aim and fire the gun, thus making rockets more effective, especially because Mosquitos without the 6 pounder didn't suffer the weight penalty of the gun. The FB Mk 26 and FB Mk 40, based on the Mk VI, were built in Canada and Australia and were powered by Packard-built Merlin engines. The QF 6-pdr 7 cwt was a British anti-tank gun of World War 2. ... The term auto-loader is used, in this article to specify a mechanical aid or replacement for a loader in case of gun-based crew-served weapons, such as as tanks and artillery. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... The Packard family coat of arms, adopted as the companys logo in 1928 Packard red hexagon wheel hub center made its debut in 1905, with the color red added in 1913 Packard was a United States based brand of luxury automobile built by the Packard Motor Car Company of...


All the fighter variants shared a number of common features. They had a flat, single-piece armoured windscreen and the pilot was provided with a fighter-style control stick rather than a wheel. The guns in the nose also meant that the bomber variants' entry hatch in the nose had to be relocated to a door on the starboard side, forward of the leading edge. Strictly, Bulletproof glass would be glass that is capable of stopping all manner of bullets fired at it. ...


Training aircraft

The Mosquito was also built as a trainer. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

  • Mosquito T.Mk III : Two-seat training version. Powered by two Rolls-Royce Merlin 21 piston engines. 348 of the T Mk III were built for the RAF and Fleet Air Arm. de Havilland Australia built 11 T Mk 43 trainers, similar to the Mk III.

The Fleet Air Arm is the branch of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships. ... de Havilland Australia was formerly part of de Havilland, then later a separate company. ...

Canadian-built aircraft

  • Mosquito B.Mk VII : Canadian version based on the Mosquito B.Mk V bomber aircraft. Powered by two 1,418-hp (1057-kW) Packard Merlin 31 piston engines. 25 built.
  • Mosquito B.Mk XX : Canadian version of the Mosquito B.Mk IV bomber aircraft. 145 built, of which 40 were converted into F-8 photo-reconnaissance aircraft for the USAAF.
  • Mosquito FB.Mk 21 : Canadian version of the Mosquito FB.Mk VI fighter-bomber aircraft. Powered by two 1,460-hp (1089-kW) Rolls-Royce Merlin 31 piston engines. Three built.
  • Mosquito T.Mk 22 : Canadian version of the Mosquito T.Mk III training aircraft.
  • Mosquito B.Mk 23 : Unbuilt bomber version.
  • Mosquito FB.Mk 24 : Canadian fighter-bomber version. Powere by two 1,620-hp (1208-kW) Rolls-Royce Merlin 301 piston engines. Two built.
  • Mosquito B.Mk 25 : Improved version of the Mosquito B.Mk XX Bomber aircraft. Powered by two 1,620-hp (1208-kW) Packard Merlin 225 piston engines. 400 built.
  • Mosquito FB.Mk 26 : Improved version of the Mosquito FB.Mk 21 fighter-bomber aircraft. Powered by two 1,620-hp (1208-kW) Packard Merlin 225 piston engines. 338 built.
  • Mosquito T.Mk 27 : Canadian-built training aircraft.
  • Mosquito T.Mk 29 : A number of FB.Mk 26 fighters were converted into T.Mk 29 trainers.

USAAF recruitment poster. ...

Torpedo reconnaissance fighter aircraft

To meet specification N.15/44 for Royal Navy use, de Havilland produced a carrier-borne variant. This resulted in 50 Sea Mosquito TR Mk 33s which featured folding wings, a thimble nose radome and fuselage hardpoints for mounting torpedoes. These were followed by 14 Sea Mosquito TR Mk 37s, which differed in having ASV Mk. XIII radar instead of the TR.33's AN/APS-6. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ...


Target tug aircraft

The Royal Navy also operated the Mosquito TT Mk 39 for target towing. A number of B.Mk XVIs bombers were converted into TT.Mk 39 target tug aircraft. The RAF's target tug version was the Mosquito TT Mk 35 which were the last aircraft to remain in operational service, finally being retired in 1956. This is a list of aviation-related events from 1956: Events March March 10 - Lt Cdr Peter Twiss sets a new airspeed record in the Fairey Delta FD.2, also becoming the first person to exceed 1,000 mph. ...


Australian-built aircraft

  • Mosquito FB.Mk 40 : Two-seat fighter-bomber version for the RAAF. Powered by two 1,460-hp (1089-kW) Roll-Royce Merlin 31 piston engines. A total of 178 built in Australia.
  • Mosquito PR.Mk 40 : This designation was given to six FB.Mk 40s, which were converted into photo-reconnaissance aircraft.
  • Mosquito FB.Mk 41 : Two-seat fighter-bomber version for the RAAF. A total of 11 built in Australia.
  • Mosquito PR.Mk 41 : Two-seat photo-survey version for the RAAF. A total of 17 built in Australia.
  • Mosquito FB.Mk 42 : Two-seat fighter-bomber version. Powered by two Rolls-Royce Merlin 69 piston engines. One FB.Mk 40 aircraft was converted into a Mosquito FB.Mk 42.
  • Mosquito T.Mk 43 : Two-seat training version for the RAAF. A total of 11 FB.Mk 40s were converted into Mosquito T.Mk 43s.

The RAAF Roundel is based on that of the British Royal Air Force, with the central circle replaced by a Kangaroo, a symbol of Australia. ...

Numbers produced

Total Mosquito production was 7,781 of which 6,710 were built during the war. De Havilland accounted for 5,007 aircraft built in three factories in the United Kingdom. Mosquitos were also built by Airspeed Ltd, Percival Aircraft Company and Standard Motors. The Canadian and Australian arms of de Havilland produced 1,134 and 212 aircraft respectively. The ferry operation of the Mosquito from Canada to the war front was problematic, as a small fraction of the aircraft would mysteriously disappear over the mid-Atlantic. The theory of "auto-explosion" was offered, and, although a concentrated effort at de Havilland Canada to address production problems with engine and oil systems reduced the number of aircraft lost, it was unclear as to the actual cause of the losses. The company introduced an additional five hours flight testing to "clear" production aircraft before the ferry flight. By the end of the war, nearly 500 Mosquito bombers and fighter-bombers were delivered successfully by the Canadian operation.[12] For other uses, see De Havilland (disambiguation). ... This article describes the company Airspeed Ltd. ... Hunting Aircraft was a British aircraft manufacturer, primarily producing light training aircraft. ... The Standard Motor Company was founded in Coventry, England in 1903 by Reginald Walter Maudslay. ...


The last Mosquito was completed in November 1950; an NF Mk 38 built at Broughton near Chester. This is a list of aviation-related events from 1950: Events Arrow Air is founded March March 20 - Royal Air Force Avro Lincoln bombers are sent to Singapore to be used against the Communist guerillas of Malaya in the Malayan Emergency. ... Introduction Hawarden Airport (IATA: CEG, ICAO: EGNR), often known as Chester Airport, is a small airport in Hawarden in north east Wales. ... For the larger local government district, see Chester (district). ...


Preservation

Mosquito B.Mk 35 (RS712) at the AirVenture Museum, Oshkosh, Wisconsin
Mosquito B.Mk 35 (RS712) at the AirVenture Museum, Oshkosh, Wisconsin
de Havilland Mosquito B 35 (reconfigured to a FB VI, on display at the Alberta Aviation Museum) in Edmonton. Alberta
de Havilland Mosquito B 35 (reconfigured to a FB VI, on display at the Alberta Aviation Museum) in Edmonton. Alberta

There are believed to be around 30 preserved examples at various collections including the Royal Air Force Museum at Hendon. The wooden construction makes restoration difficult. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (3001 × 1883 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (3001 × 1883 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 2653 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 2653 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... An Avro Lancaster in the main hangar of the RAF Museum Hendon The Royal Air Force Museum (RAF Museum) is a museum dedicated to the history of aviation, and the British Royal Air Force in particular. ...


As of 2004, the original prototype, serial number W4050, was undergoing complete restoration in the de Havilland Aircraft Heritage Centre in Hertfordshire, UK. A restored example is currently on display in the WWII gallery at the National Museum of the United States Air Force. This Mosquito is a British-built B Mk 35 manufactured in 1946, later converted for target-towing, and is similar to the PR Mk XVIs used by the AAF. Having been flown to the Museum in February 1985, suffering several breakdowns along the way and taking many months to arrive, this aircraft has now been restored to a Mk XVI configuration and painted to represent a weather reconnaissance aircraft of the 653rd Bomb Squadron, 25th Bomb Group, based in England in 1944-1945. Another Mosquito is currently under restoration in a hangar at the RAAF Museum at Point Cook, Victoria, Australia. A de Havilland DH.104 Dove at the museum The de Havilland Aircraft Heritage Centre, formerly the Mosquito Aircraft Museum, is a volunteer run aviation museum in the English county of Hertfordshire, just north of Greater London. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... View of the National Museum of the United States Air Force Main entrance to the museum The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official national museum of the United States Air Force and is located at Wright-Patterson Air... Point Cook is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ...


The last Mosquito known to be airworthy (serial number RR299), a T Mk III built sometime between October 1944 and July 1945, crashed on 21 July 1996 with the loss of both crew after stalling during a banked turn at an airshow at the Barton Aerodrome near Barton, Greater Manchester. is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Located in Greater Manchester, UK. Barton Aerodrome was the Worlds first municipal airport, opening in 1929. ... Barton or Barton-upon-Irwell is an area of Eccles in the Metropolitan Borough of Salford, Greater Manchester. ...


Several potential restorations to airworthiness exist. A flying replica using new wood but otherwise original parts is under construction in New Zealand. Another in New Zealand is being restored for American collector Jerry Yagen, and it is highly likely that this will become the first airworthy Mosquito since 1996. The Mosquito B 35 held in the Experimental Aircraft Association, Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA was airworthy when owner Kermit Weeks loaned it to the museum. Kermit Weeks Kermit Weeks (b. ...


The Canadian Historical Aircraft Association (CHAA) based in Windsor, Ontario is building a Mosquito from scratch. Glyn Powell located in Papakura, New Zealand has built a mould for the wooden fuselage, and CHAA bought the very first one ever sold. They have two unused engines still in the crates and some parts retrieved from a crash in the Arctic. The Canadian Historical Aircraft Association is a non-profit organization based in Windsor, Ontario which is commited to preserving old planes. ... Nickname: Motto: The river and the land sustain us. ... Papakura district (boundary red, urban area orange) in relation to the Auckland metropolitan area (grey) The Papakura District is one of the several local territories in New Zealands Auckland Region. ...


Operators

See also: List of De Havilland Mosquito operators
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Specifications (DH.98 Mosquito B Mk XVI)

Data from Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II[13] and World War II Warbirds[14]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2: pilot, bombardier/navigator
  • Length: 44 ft 6 in (13.57 m)
  • Wingspan: 54 ft 2 in (16.52 m)
  • Height: 17 ft 5 in (5.3 m)
  • Wing area: 454 ft² (42.18 m²)
  • Empty weight: 14,300 lb (6,490 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 18,100 lb (8,210 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 25,000 lb (11,000 kg)
  • Powerplant:Rolls-Royce Merlin 76/77 (left/right) liquid-cooled V12 engine, 1,710 hp (1,280 kW) each

Performance

Armament

  • Bombs: 4,000 lb (1 800 kg)

Avionics

The distance AB is the wing span of this Aer Lingus Airbus A320. ... In aviation, the Maximum Take-Off Weight (or MTOW) is the maximum weight with which an aircraft is allowed to try to achieve flight. ... The Merlin was a 12 cylinder, 60° V, 27 litre, liquid cooled piston aircraft engine built during World War II by Rolls-Royce and under licence in the United States by Packard. ... Colombo Type 125 Testa Rossa engine in a 1961 Ferrari 250TR Spyder V-12 engine simplified cross-section V12 redirects here. ... VNO of an aircraft is the V speed which refers to the velocity of normal operation. ... The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft. ... In aeronautics, the service ceiling is the maximum density altitude where the best rate of climb airspeed will produce a 100 feet per minute climb(twin engine) and 50 feet(single engine) at maximum weight while in a clean configuration with maximum continuous power. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... In aerodynamics, wing loading is the loaded weight of the aircraft divided by the area of the wing. ... Power-to-weight ratio is a measure commonly used when comparing various vehicles (or engines), including automobiles, motorcycles and aircraft. ... GEE (short for Grid and pronounced simply as G) or AMES Type 7000 was a British radio navigation system used during World War II; the ideas in GEE were developed by the Americans into the LORAN system. ... Radio navigation or radionavigation is the application of radio frequencies to determining a position on the Earth. ...

References

  1. ^ Also known as "The Wooden Wonder" or "The Timber Terror".
  2. ^ Berlin, 30 January 1943: postponement of Göring's speech, commemorating the 10th anniversary of the Nazi's seizure of power
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ A similar quote from Göring in German from March 1943
  5. ^ a b Cole 2001
  6. ^ Buttler, Tony. Secret Projects: British Fighters and Bombers 1935 -1950 (British Secret Projects 3). Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-85780-179-2.
  7. ^ Daily Mail
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ Scutts, 1993. p. 4-5
  10. ^ Scutts, 1993. p. 7
  11. ^ Scutts, 1993. p. 8
  12. ^ Hotson, 1983, p. 77-87.
  13. ^ Jane, Fred T. “The D.H.98 Mosquito.” Jane’s Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946. p. 115-117. ISBN 1 85170 493 0.
  14. ^ La Bonné, Frans. The de Havilland Mosquito. World War II Warbirds. 9 February 2001. [3] Access date: 21 April 2006.
  • Bishop, Edward. Mosquito: Wooden Wonder. New York: Ballantine Books, Inc., 1971. ISBN 0-34502-310-2.
  • Bowman, Martin. Mosquito Fighter/Fighter-bomber Units of World War 2. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1-85532-731-7.
  • Cole, Roger. High Wycombe - Local History Series. Stoud, Gloucestershire, UK: Tempus Publishing Ltd., 2001. ISBN 0-7524-2290-1.
  • Holliday, Joe. Mosquito! The Wooden Wonder Aircraft of World War II. Toronto: Doubleday, 1970. ISBN 0-77010-138-0.
  • Hotson, Fred. The De Havilland Canada Story. Toronto: CANAV Books, 1983. ISBN 0-9690703-2-2.
  • Jones, R.C. de Havilland Mosquito: RAF Northern Europe 1936-45. London: Ducimus Books Ltd., 1970.
  • Sasbye, Kjeld Mahler. Operation Carthage. Copenhagen: Den Danske Luftfartsskole, 1994. ISBN 87-985141-0-5.
  • Scutts, Jerry. Mosquito in Action, Part 2. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1993. ISBN 0-89747-303-5.
  • Sharp, Martin and Bowyer, Michael. Mosquito. London: Faber & Faber, 1971. ISBN 0-571-04750-5.

External links

Related content

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Related development

Comparable aircraft

Designation sequence

Related lists

See also

  • RAF Strategic Bombing in World War II

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The de Havilland Hornet was a development of de Havillands classic Mosquito designed as private venture for a long-range fighter for use in the Pacific Theater in the war against Japan. ... de Havilland Dove The de Havilland DH.104 Dove was a British monoplane short-haul airliner from de Havilland, the successor to the bi-plane de Havilland Dragon Rapide and was one of Britains most successful post-war civil designs. ... This article is about the de Havilland Comet jet airliner. ... The Lockheed P-38 Lightning was a World War II American fighter aircraft. ... The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang was an American long-range single-seat fighter aircraft that entered service with Allied air forces in the middle years of World War II. The P-51 became one of the conflicts most successful and recognizable aircraft. ... The Consolidated B-24 Liberator was an American heavy bomber that was produced in greater numbers than any other American combat aircraft during World War II and still holds the record as the most produced allied aircraft. ... During World War II, several B-17 Flying Fortresses were converted to long-range photographic reconnaissance aircraft, designated F-9 Flying Fortress. ... Lt. ... The second XF-11 prototype in flight. ... Many aircraft types have served in the Royal Air Force since it was formed in 1918 by the merger of the Royal Flying Corps and Royal Naval Air Service. ... // 1914-1918 France Breguet 14 Germany Albatros C.III Rumpler Taube Gotha G AEG G.I AEG G.II AEG G.III AEG G.IV AEG G.V AEG N.I AEG R.I Italy Caproni Ca. ... Aviation refers to flying using aircraft, machines designed by humans for atmospheric flight. ... This is a timeline of aviation history. ... 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