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Encyclopedia > Daylight saving time
Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the world's people do not use it.      DST used      DST no longer used      DST never used
Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the world's people do not use it.      DST used      DST no longer used      DST never used

Daylight saving time (DST; also summer time in British English) is the convention of advancing clocks so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less. Typically clocks are adjusted forward one hour near the start of spring and are adjusted backward in autumn; several ancient cultures lengthened each summer daylight hour instead. Modern DST was first proposed in 1907 by William Willett, and saw its first widespread use in 1916 as a wartime measure aimed at conserving coal. Despite controversy, many countries have used it since then; details vary by location and change occasionally. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1427x628, 42 KB) This image was derived from the data in the tz database. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1427x628, 42 KB) This image was derived from the data in the tz database. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... William Willett (August 10, 1856 - March 4, 1915) is the inventor of Daylight saving time. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Adding daylight to afternoons generally benefits shopping, sports, and other activities that exploit sunlight after working hours,[1] but it can cause problems for farmers and others whose hours depend on the sun.[2] Extra afternoon daylight appears to cut traffic fatalities;[3] its effect on health and crime is less clear. An early goal was to reduce evening usage of incandescent lighting, formerly a primary use of electricity;[4] nowadays, though, DST sometimes increases overall electricity costs and peak demand.[5] The incandescent light bulb uses a glowing wire filament heated to white-hot by electrical resistance, to generate light (a process known as thermal radiation). ...


DST's clock shifts complicate timekeeping and can disrupt meetings, travel, billing, recordkeeping, medical devices, and heavy equipment;[6] they also serve as twice-yearly fire safety reminders.[7] Many computer-based systems can adjust their clocks automatically, but this can be limited and error-prone, particularly when DST rules change.[8]

Contents

Origin

In this ancient water clock, a series of gears rotated a cylinder to display hour lengths appropriate for each day's date.
In this ancient water clock, a series of gears rotated a cylinder to display hour lengths appropriate for each day's date.

Although not punctual in the modern sense, the ancients adjusted daily schedules to the sun more flexibly than modern DST does, often dividing daylight into 12 equal hours regardless of day length, so that each daylight hour was longer during summer.[9] For example, Roman water clocks had different scales for different months of the year: at Rome's latitude the third hour from sunrise, hora tertia, started in modern terms at 09:02 solar time and lasted 44 minutes at the winter solstice, but at the summer solstice it started at 06:58 and lasted 75 minutes.[10] After ancient times, equal-length civil hours eventually supplanted unequal, so civil time no longer varies by season. Unequal hours are still used in a few traditional settings, such as some Mount Athos monasteries.[11] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... A water clock or clepsydra is a device for measuring time by letting water regularly flow out of a container usually by a tiny aperture. ... A water clock or clepsydra is a device for measuring time by letting water regularly flow out of a container usually by a tiny aperture. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Terce, or Third Hour, is a fixed time of prayer of the Divine Office of almost all the Christian liturgies. ... Solar time is based on the idea that when the sun reaches its highest point in the sky, it is noon. ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... Civil time is another name for mean solar time reckoned from midnight. ... Capital Karyes Official languages Koine Greek, Church Slavonic, Modern Greek, Russian, Serbian, Georgian, Bulgarian, Romanian (both liturgical and civil use), Modern Greek (civil use) Government  -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis  -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I Area  -  Total 390 km²  150 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 2,250  Demonyms: Athonite, Hagiorite (English); Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης (Greek). ...

Benjamin Franklin suggested firing cannons at sunrise to waken Parisians.
Benjamin Franklin suggested firing cannons at sunrise to waken Parisians.

During his time as an American envoy to France, Benjamin Franklin anonymously published a letter in 1784 suggesting that Parisians economize on candles by arising earlier to use morning sunlight.[12] Franklin's satire proposed taxing shutters, rationing candles, and waking the public by ringing church bells and firing cannons at sunrise, in the spirit of his earlier proverb "Early to bed and early to rise / Makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise."[13] Franklin did not propose shifting clocks; like ancient Rome, 18th-century Europe did not keep accurate schedules. However, this soon changed as rail and communication networks came to require a standardization of time unknown in Franklin's day.[14] Download high resolution version (1500x1988, 1086 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1988, 1086 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Candle (disambiguation). ... 1867 edition of the satirical magazine Punch, a British satirical magazine, ground-breaking on popular literature satire. ... A window shutter panel is a solid, firm, erect, stable, strong, window covering usually consisting of side stiles, top and bottom rails, and louvers. ... “railroads” redirects here. ...

William Willett invented DST and advocated it tirelessly.
William Willett invented DST and advocated it tirelessly.[15]

In 1905, the prominent English builder and outdoorsman William Willett was inspired to invent DST during one of his pre-breakfast horseback rides, when he observed with dismay how many Londoners slept through the best part of a summer day.[16] An avid golfer, he also disliked cutting short his round at dusk. His solution was to advance the clock during the summer months, a proposal he published two years later.[17] He lobbied unsuccessfully for the proposal until his death in 1915; see Politics for more details. Wartime Germany, its allies, and their occupied zones were the first European countries to use DST, starting April 30, 1916. Britain, most other belligerents, and many European neutrals soon followed suit, but Russia and a few other countries waited until the next year, and the United States did not use it until 1918. Since then the world has seen many enactments, adjustments, and repeals.[18] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... William Willett (August 10, 1856 - March 4, 1915) is the inventor of Daylight saving time. ... William Willett (August 10, 1856 - March 4, 1915) is the inventor of Daylight saving time. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the sport. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Benefits and drawbacks

Willett's 1907 proposal argued that DST increases opportunities for outdoor leisure activities during afternoon sunlight hours. Obviously it does not change the length of the day; the longer days nearer the summer solstice in high latitudes merely offer more room to shift apparent daylight from morning to evening so that early morning daylight is not wasted.[17] A relaxing afternoon of leisure: a young girl resting in a pool. ...


However, many people ignore DST by altering their nominal work schedules to coordinate with daylight, television broadcasts, or remote colleagues.[19] DST is commonly not observed during most of winter, because its mornings are darker: workers may have no sunlit leisure time, and children may need to leave for school in the dark.[20]


Energy use

Delaying the nominal time of sunrise and sunset increases the use of artificial light in the morning and reduces it in the evening. As Franklin's 1784 satire pointed out, energy is conserved if the evening reduction outweighs the morning increase, which can happen if more people need evening light than morning. An early goal of DST was to reduce evening usage of incandescent lighting, formerly a primary use of electricity.[4] However, statistically significant evidence for energy conservation has proved elusive. The U.S. Dept. of Transportation (DOT) concluded in 1975 that DST might reduce the country's electricity usage by 1% during March and April,[4] but the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) reviewed the DOT study in 1976 and found no significant energy savings.[20] In 2000 when parts of Australia began DST in late winter, overall electricity consumption did not decrease, but the morning peak load and prices increased.[5] A 2007 simulation estimated that introducing DST to Japan would increase energy use in Osaka residences by 0.13%, with a 0.02% decrease due to less lighting more than outweighed by a 0.15% increase due to extra cooling; the simulation did not examine non-residential buildings.[21] In North America, there was no clear evidence that electricity would be saved by the extra DST introduced in 2007,[22] and although one utility did report a decrease in March 2007, five others did not.[23] DST may increase gasoline consumption: U.S. gasoline demand grew an extra 1% during the newly introduced DST in March 2007.[24] The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) is a federal Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with transportation. ... As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... Osaka )   is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of HonshÅ«. The city is the capital of Osaka Prefecture. ... Petrol redirects here. ...


Economic effects

Clock shifts affect apparent sunrise and sunset times in Greenwich in 2007.
Clock shifts affect apparent sunrise and sunset times in Greenwich in 2007.[25]

Retailers, sporting goods makers, and other businesses benefit from extra afternoon sunlight, as it induces customers to shop and to participate in outdoor afternoon sports. For example, in 1984 Fortune magazine estimated that a seven-week extension of DST would yield an additional $30 million for 7-Eleven stores, and the National Golf Foundation estimated the extension would increase golf industry revenues $200 million to $300 million.[26] Conversely, DST can adversely affect farmers and others whose hours are set by the sun. For example, grain harvesting is best done after dew evaporates, so when field hands arrive and leave earlier in summer their labor is less valuable.[2] DST also hurts prime-time broadcast ratings[27] and theaters, especially drive-ins.[28] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 763 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (851 × 669 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 763 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (851 × 669 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about Greenwich in England. ... For other uses, see 7-Eleven (disambiguation). ... The National Golf Foundation provides golf-business research and consulting services. ... Dew on a spider web Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle &#8212... Hulls Drive In Theatre, outside Lexington, Virginia A drive-in theater is a form of cinema structure consisting of a large screen, a projection booth, a concession stand and a large parking area for automobiles. ...


Clock shifts correlate with decreased economic efficiency. In 2000 the daylight-saving effect implied an estimated one-day loss of $31 billion on U.S. stock exchanges.[29] Clock shifts and DST rule changes have a direct economic cost, since they entail extra work to support remote meetings, computer applications and the like. For example, a 2007 North American rule change cost an estimated $500 million to $1 billion.[30]


Public safety

In 1975 the U.S. DOT conservatively identified a 0.7% reduction in traffic fatalities during DST, and estimated the real reduction to be 1.5% to 2%,[4] but the 1976 NBS review of the DOT study found no differences in traffic fatalities.[20] In 1995 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety estimated a reduction of 1.2%, including a 5% reduction in crashes fatal to pedestrians.[3] Others have found similar reductions.[31] Single/Double Summer Time (SDST), a variant where clocks are one hour ahead of the sun in winter and two in summer, has been projected to reduce traffic fatalities by 3% to 4% in the UK, compared to ordinary DST.[32] It is not clear whether sleep disruption contributes to fatal accidents immediately after the spring and autumn clock shifts. A correlation between clock shifts and accidents has been observed in North America but not in Sweden. If this twice-yearly effect exists, it is far smaller than the overall reduction in fatalities.[33][34] The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety is a U.S. non-profit organization funded by auto insurers. ... For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ...


In the 1970s the U.S. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) found a reduction of 10% to 13% in Washington, D.C.'s violent crime rate during DST. However, the LEAA did not filter out other factors, and it examined only two cities and found crime reductions only in one and only in some crime categories; the DOT decided it was "impossible to conclude with any confidence that comparable benefits would be found nationwide."[35] Outdoor lighting has a marginal and sometimes even contradictory influence on crime and fear of crime.[36] The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) was a U.S. federal agency within the U.S. Dept. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


In several countries, fire safety officials encourage citizens to use the two annual clock shifts as reminders to replace batteries in smoke and carbon monoxide detectors. This is especially important in autumn, just before the heating and candle season causes an increase in home fires. Similar twice-yearly tasks include reviewing and practicing fire escape and family disaster plans, inspecting vehicle lights, checking storage areas for hazardous materials, and reprogramming thermostats.[37][38][7] This is not an essential function of DST, as locations without DST can instead use the first days of spring and autumn as reminders.[39] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A smoke detector or smoke alarm is a device that detects smoke and issues an alarm to alert nearby people that there is a potential fire. ... Carbon Monoxide detector connected to a North American power outlet. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts that remove air from return-air grilles Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC... Bi-metallic thermostat for buildings A thermostat is a device for regulating the temperature of a system so that the systems temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint temperature. ...


Not in Use

  • DST is not used in many third world countries.
  • Some Parts of Arizona do not use daylight savings>
  • Saskatchewan, Canada and some parts of Austrailia do not use daylight savings.
  • Some Residents of Macomb County, Michigan are petitioning to have clocks "Spring Forward" one year, and never "Fall Back" or "Spring Forward" again.

Macomb County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan. ...

Health

DST has mixed effects on health. In societies with fixed work schedules it provides more afternoon sunlight for outdoor exercise, which can contribute greatly to health. It alters sunlight exposure; whether this is beneficial depends on one's location and daily schedule, as sunlight triggers vitamin D synthesis in the skin, but overexposure can lead to skin cancer. Sunlight strongly influences seasonal affective disorder; DST may help in depression by causing individuals to arise earlier,[40] but some argue the reverse.[41] The Retinitis Pigmentosa Foundation Fighting Blindness, chaired by blind sports magnate Gordon Gund, successfully lobbied in 1985 and 2005 for U.S. DST extensions,[1][42] but DST can hurt night blindness sufferers.[43] Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin which can have many causes. ... Seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, also known as winter depression or winter blues is an affective, or mood, disorder. ... In everyday language depression refers to any downturn in mood, which may be relatively transitory and perhaps due to something trivial. ... Normal vision. ... Gordon Gund was formely the principal owner of the NBA franchise the Cleveland Cavaliers, a co-owner of the San Jose Sharks NHL team, and remains the CEO of Gund Investment Corporation. ... Nyctalopia (literally night blindness) is a condition making it difficult or impossible to see in the dark. ...


Clock shifts reduce sleep duration and efficiency,[44] particularly for late-risers after clocks spring forward; effects can last for weeks.[45] The government of Kazakhstan cited health complications due to clock shifts as a primary reason for abolishing DST in 2005.[46]


Complexity

DST's clock shifts have the obvious disadvantage of complexity. People must remember to change their clocks; this consumes time, particularly for mechanical clocks that cannot be moved backward safely.[47] People who work across time zone boundaries need to keep track of multiple DST rules, as not all locations observe DST or observe it the same way. The length of the day becomes variable. Disruption to meetings, travel, broadcasts, billing systems, and records management is common, and can be expensive.[48] Near an autumn transition from 02:00 to 01:00, a clock reads times from 01:00 to 02:00 twice, possibly leading to confusion.[49] Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ...


Computer-based systems may also require downtime or restarting when clocks shift. Ignoring this requirement damaged a German steel facility in 1993.[6] Medical devices may generate adverse events that could harm patients, without being obvious to clinicians responsible for care.[50] These problems are compounded when the DST rules themselves change, as in the Year 2007 problem. Software developers must test and perhaps modify many programs, and users must install updates and restart applications.[8] The Year 2007 problem also known as Y2K7 (or DST07) is an error caused by a US-mandated change to Daylight Saving Time, which has repercussions in the computer industry. ...


Some clock-shift problems could be avoided by adjusting clocks continuously[51] or at least more gradually—for example, Willett originally suggested weekly 20-minute transitions—but this would add complexity and has never been implemented.

The William Willett Memorial Sundial is always on DST.
The William Willett Memorial Sundial is always on DST.

DST inherits and can magnify the disadvantages of standard time. For example, when reading a sundial, one must compensate for it along with time zone and natural discrepancies.[52] Also, DST complicates time-of-day approaches for avoiding sun exposure, necessitating even more the shadow rule of avoiding sun exposure whenever your shadow is shorter than you are.[53] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (983 × 1475 pixel, file size: 417 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Memorial to William Willett in Petts Wood, London. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (983 × 1475 pixel, file size: 417 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Memorial to William Willett in Petts Wood, London. ... William Willett (August 10, 1856 - March 4, 1915) is the inventor of Daylight saving time. ... For other uses, see Sundial (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Politics

Daylight saving has caused controversy since it began. Winston Churchill argued that it enlarges "the opportunities for the pursuit of health and happiness among the millions of people who live in this country".[54] Robertson Davies, however, detected "the bony, blue-fingered hand of Puritanism, eager to push people into bed earlier, and get them up earlier, to make them healthy, wealthy and wise in spite of themselves."[55] Historically, retailing, sports and tourism interests have favored daylight saving, while agricultural and evening entertainment interests have opposed it, and a war or economic crisis is often associated with its adoption. Churchill redirects here. ... William Robertson Davies, CC, FRSC, FRSL (born August 28, 1913, at Thamesville, Ontario, and died December 2, 1995 at Orangeville, Ontario) was a Canadian novelist, playwright, critic, journalist, and professor. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ...


The fate of Willett's 1907 proposal illustrates several political issues involved. The proposal attracted many supporters, including Balfour, Churchill, Lloyd George, MacDonald, Edward VII (who used half-hour DST at Sandringham), the managing director of Harrods, and the manager of the National Bank. However, the opposition was stronger: it included Prime Minister Asquith, Christie (the Astronomer Royal), George Darwin, Napier Shaw (director of the Meteorological Office), many agricultural organizations, and theater owners. After many hearings the proposal was narrowly defeated in a Parliament committee vote in 1909. Willett's allies introduced similar bills every year from 1911 through 1914, to no avail.[56] The U.S. was even more skeptical: U.S. Representative Andrew Peters of Massachusetts introduced a DST bill in May 1909, but it soon died in committee.[57] For the steel manufacturer, see Arthur Balfour, 1st Baron Riverdale. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910. ... Sandringham time is the name given to the idiosyncratic alterations that King Edward VII made to the timekeeping at the royal estate of Sandringham. ... The Harrods storefront Harrods in 1909 The opulent Egyptian-style clothing department at Harrods, London Harrods in Buenos Aires Harrods is a department store on Brompton Road in Knightsbridge, London, UK. The Harrods brand also applies to other enterprises undertaken by the Harrods group of companies including Harrods Bank, Harrods... The name Herbert Asquith normally refers to: Herbert Henry Asquith, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1908–1916), but may also refer to his son: Herbert Asquith, a poet. ... William Henry Mahoney Christie (1845 – January 22, 1922) was a British astronomer. ... Astronomer Royal is a senior post in the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. ... George Howard Darwin Sir George Howard Darwin, F.R.S. (July 9, 1845 – December 7, 1912) was a British astronomer and mathematician, the second son and fifth child of Charles and Emma Darwin. ... Sir Napier Shaw (March 4, 1854 - March 23, 1945), British meteorologist. ... Categories: Stub | Geography of the United Kingdom ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Andrew James Peters was a member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Massachusettss 11th congressional district from 1907 to 1914, and was Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts from 1918 to 1922. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Retailers generally favor DST. United Cigar Stores hailed a 1918 DST bill.
Retailers generally favor DST. United Cigar Stores hailed a 1918 DST bill.

World War I changed the political equation, as DST was promoted as a way to alleviate hardships from wartime coal shortages and air raid blackouts. After Germany led the way, the United Kingdom first used DST on May 21, 1916.[58] U.S. retailing and manufacturing interests led by Pittsburgh industrialist Robert Garland soon began lobbying for DST, but were opposed by railroads. The U.S.'s 1917 entry to the war overcame objections, and DST was established in 1918.[59] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 337 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (2194 × 3896 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 337 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (2194 × 3896 pixel, file size: 2. ... United Cigar Stores hails 1918 U.S. daylight saving time bill. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ...


War's end swung the pendulum back. Farmers continued to dislike DST, and many countries repealed it after the war. Britain was an exception: it retained DST nationwide but over the years adjusted transition dates for several reasons, including special rules during the 1920s and 1930s to avoid clock shifts on Easter mornings.[60] The U.S. was more typical: Congress repealed DST after 1919. President Woodrow Wilson, like Willett an avid golfer, vetoed the repeal twice but his second veto was overridden,[61] and only a few U.S. cities retained DST locally thereafter.[62] Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ...


Wilson's successor Warren G. Harding opposed DST as a "deception". Reasoning that people should instead get up and go to work earlier in the summer, he ordered District of Columbia federal employees to start work at 08:00 rather than 09:00 during summer 1922. Many businesses followed suit though many others did not, and critics gave the scheduling mess names like "Ragtime" and "Daylight Slaving Time"; the experiment was not repeated.[63] More recent economic theory suggests that general agreement about the day's layout confers so many advantages that a standard DST schedule usually outranks ad hoc efforts to get up earlier, even for people who personally dislike the DST schedule.[64] Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the twenty-ninth President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ...


Since Willett's day the world has seen many enactments, adjustments, and repeals of DST, with similar politics involved.[65] The U.S. advanced clocks by an hour throughout World War II,[66] but it was not until 1966 that the federal government established peacetime DST in most locations.[67] In the mid-1980s, Clorox (parent of Kingsford Charcoal) and 7-Eleven provided the primary funding for the Daylight Saving Time Coalition behind the 1987 extension to U.S. DST, and both Idaho senators voted for it on the basis of fast-food restaurants selling more French fries made from Idaho potatoes;[1] in 2005, the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association and the National Association of Convenience Stores successfully lobbied for the 2007 extension to U.S. DST.[42] In early 2007, Western Australia continued to debate a trial use of DST and several politicians changed positions after public sentiment swung against it.[68] In the UK the sport and leisure industry supports a proposal to observe SDST's additional hour year-round.[69] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Clorox headquarters The Clorox Company (NYSE: CLX) is a manufacturer of various food and chemical products based in Oakland, California, which is best known for its bleach product, Clorox. ... Kingsford is a brand of charcoal used for grilling, along with related products. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association (SGMA) is a trade association that represents sporting goods manufacturers, retailers, and marketers. ... The National Association of Convenience Stores (NACS) is a trade association that represents convenience and petroleum retailers. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person...


Observance practices

Clocks advance when DST starts.
Clocks advance when DST starts.

In a typical case where a one-hour shift occurs at 02:00 local time, in spring the clock jumps forward from 02:00 standard time to 03:00 DST and the day has 23 hours, whereas in autumn the clock jumps backward from 02:00 DST to 01:00 standard time, repeating that hour, and the day has 25 hours. A digital display of local time does not read 02:00 exactly, but instead jumps from 01:59:59.9 either forward to 03:00:00.0 or backward to 01:00:00.0. In this example, a location observing UTC+10 during standard time is at UTC+11 during DST; conversely, a location at UTC−10 during standard time is at UTC−9 during DST. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Standard time is the result of synchronizing clocks in different geographical locations within a time zone to the same time rather than using the local meridian as in local mean time or solar time. ... UTC+10 time zone Australia (AEST—Australian Eastern Standard Time) Australian Capital Territory**, New South Wales** (except Broken Hill, which observes South Australia time), Queensland, Tasmania** (which observes DST starting on the first weekend of October instead of the last), Victoria** Guam (Chamorro Standard Time via US Law) Federated States... as non DST time Federated States of Micronesia Kosrae, Pohnpei, and surrounding area New Caledonia Russia Kuril Islands* Magadan Oblast* Sakha Republic* (eastern portion) Solomon Islands Vanuatu as DST Australia (Australian Eastern Daylight Time) Australian Capital Territory** New South Wales** Tasmania** (where daylight saving time starts on the first weekend... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7...


Clock shifts are usually scheduled near a weekend midnight to lessen disruption to weekday schedules. A one-hour shift is customary, but Australia's Lord Howe Island uses a half-hour shift.[70] Twenty-minute and two-hour shifts have been used in the past. For the island off Solomon Islands, see Ontong Java Atoll Lord Howe Island is a small island in the Pacific Ocean 600 km (373 mi) east of the Australian mainland. ...


Coordination strategies differ when adjacent time zones shift clocks. The European Union shifts all at once, at 01:00 UTC; for example, Eastern European Time is always one hour ahead of Central European Time.[60] Most of North America shifts at 02:00 local time, so its zones do not shift at the same time; for example, Mountain Time can be temporarily either zero or two hours ahead of Pacific Time. Australian districts go even further and do not always agree on start and end dates; for example, to start DST in 2006 Tasmania shifted clocks forward on 1 October, Western Australia on 3 December, and the remaining DST-observing areas on 29 October.[71] ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Mountain Standard Time (MST) is UTC-7, Mountain Daylight Time (MDT) is UTC-6 The Mountain Time Zone of North America keeps time by subtracting seven hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC-7) during the shortest days of autumn and winter, and by subtracting six hours during daylight saving time... PST is UTC-8, highlighted in red. ... Slogan or Nickname: The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $16,114... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Start and end dates vary with location and year. Since 1996 European Summer Time has been observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October; previously the rules were not uniform across the European Union.[60] Starting in 2007, most of the United States and Canada observe DST from the second Sunday in March to the first Sunday in November,[72] yielding 34 weeks of DST every year, which is 65% of the year. The 2007 U.S. change was part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005; previously, from 1987 through 2006, the start and end dates were the first Sunday in April and the last Sunday in October, and Congress retains the right to go back to the previous dates once an energy-consumption study is done.[73] European Summer Time is the daylight saving time practiced in Europe, the period during which clocks are reset by one hour in relation to the official time observed during the rest of the year. ... The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. ...


Beginning and ending dates are the reverse in the southern hemisphere. For example, mainland Chile observes DST from the second Saturday in October to the second Saturday in March, with transitions at 24:00 local time.[74] The time difference between the United Kingdom and mainland Chile may therefore be three, four, or five hours, depending on the time of year. southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ...

Time zones often lie west of their idealized boundaries, resulting in year-round DST.
Time zones often lie west of their idealized boundaries, resulting in year-round DST.

Argentina, western China, Iceland, and other areas skew time zones westward, in effect observing DST year round without complications from clock shifts. For example, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan is at 106°39′W longitude, slightly west of center of the idealized Mountain Time Zone (105°W), but Saskatchewan observes Central Standard Time (90°W) year-round so Saskatoon is always about 67 minutes ahead of mean solar time.[75] The United Kingdom and Ireland experimented with year-round DST from 1968 to 1971 but abandoned it because of its unpopularity, particularly in northern regions.[76] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... For other uses of Saskatoon, see Saskatoon (disambiguation). ...  CST or UTC-6 The Central Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time (UTC-6) and five hours during daylight saving time (UTC-5). ... Solar time is based on the idea that, when the sun reaches its highest point in the sky, it is noon. ...


Western France, Spain, and other areas skew time zones and shift clocks, in effect observing DST in winter with an extra hour in summer. For example, Nome, Alaska is at 165°24′W longitude, which is just west of center of the idealized Samoa Time Zone (165°W), but Nome observes Alaska Time (135°W) with DST, so it is slightly more than two hours ahead of the sun in winter and three in summer.[77] Aerial view of the harbor in Nome Nome is a city located on the southern Seward Peninsula coast of Norton Sound in the Nome Census Area of the U.S. state of Alaska. ... SST is UTC-11 The Samoa Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting eleven hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC-11). ... AKDT is UTC-8 The Alaska Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting nine hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC-9). ...


DST is generally not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it. Some countries observe it only in some regions; for example, southern Brazil observes it while equatorial Brazil does not.[78] Only a minority of the world's population uses DST because Asia and Africa generally do not observe it. World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Terminology

In the normative form, daylight saving time uses the present participle saving as an adjective, as in labor saving device; the first two words are sometimes hyphenated. Daylight savings time and daylight time are common variants.[79] In linguistics, a participle is an adjective derived from a verb. ...


Time zone names typically change when DST is observed. American English replaces standard with daylight: for example, Pacific Standard Time (PST) becomes Pacific Daylight Time (PDT). British English uses summer: for example, Central European Time (CET) becomes Central European Summer Time (CEST). Abbreviations do not always change: for example, many (though not all) Australians say that Eastern Standard Time (EST) becomes Eastern Summer Time (also EST). For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... The Pacific Standard Time Zone is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... In mainland Australia, the keeping of standard time is divided into three time zones: Australian Eastern Standard Time EST/AEST (UTC+10), Australian Central Standard Time CST/ACST (UTC+9:30) and Australian Western Standard Time WST/AWST (UTC+8). ...


The American English mnemonic "spring forward, fall back" (also "spring ahead …", "spring up …", and "… fall behind") helps people remember which direction to shift clocks. Much of North America now advances clocks before the vernal equinox, so the mnemonic disagrees with the astronomical definition of spring, but a proposed substitute "March forward …"[80] works only in the northern hemisphere, and is less robust against future rule changes. For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spring. ... This article is about the temperate season. ... For other uses, see Equinox (disambiguation). ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ...


Computing

A 2001 public service announcement reminded people to adjust clocks manually.
A 2001 public service announcement reminded people to adjust clocks manually.

Many computer-based systems can shift their clocks automatically when DST starts and finishes, based on their time zone settings. Two implementations in wide use today are zoneinfo and Microsoft Windows. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (976x1472, 132 KB) Text: You cant stop time. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (976x1472, 132 KB) Text: You cant stop time. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ...


Zoneinfo

The zoneinfo database maps a name to the named location's historical and predicted clock shifts. This database is used by many computer software systems, including most Unix-like operating systems, Java, and Oracle;[81] HP's "tztab" database is similar but incompatible.[82] When temporal authorities change DST rules, zoneinfo updates are installed as part of ordinary system maintenance. In Unix-like systems a process's TZ environment variable specifies the location name, as in TZ='America/New_York'. The zoneinfo database, also called the tz database, is a collaborative compilation of information about the worlds time zones, primarily intended for use with computer programs and operating systems. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... Java refers to a number of computer software products and specifications from Sun Microsystems (the Javaâ„¢ technology) that together provide a system for developing and deploying cross-platform applications. ... The term Oracle database may refer either to the database management system (DBMS) software released by Oracle Corporation as Oracle RDBMS, or to any of the individual databases managed by such software. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Environment variables are a set of dynamic values that can affect the way running processes will behave on a computer. ... The zoneinfo database maintains properties of timezones, which are identified by name. ...


Older or stripped-down systems may support only the TZ values required by POSIX, which specify at most one start and end rule explicitly in the value. For example, TZ='EST5EDT,M3.2.0/02:00,M11.1.0/02:00' specifies time for eastern North America starting in 2007. TZ must be changed whenever DST rules change, and the new TZ value applies to all years, mishandling some older time stamps.[83] POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ...


Microsoft Windows

As with zoneinfo, a user of Microsoft Windows configures DST by specifying the name of a location, and the operating system then consults a table of rule sets that must be updated when DST rules change. Procedures for specifying the name and updating the table vary with release. Updates are not issued for older versions of Microsoft Windows.[84] Windows Vista supports at most two start and end rules per time zone setting. In a Canadian location observing DST, a single Vista setting supports both 1987–2006 and post-2006 time stamps, but mishandles some older time stamps. Older Microsoft Windows systems usually store only a single start and end rule for each zone, so that the same Canadian setting reliably supports only post-2006 time stamps.[85] “Windows” redirects here. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ...


These limitations have caused problems. For example, before 2005, DST in Israel varied each year and was skipped some years. Windows 95 used rules correct for 1995 only, causing problems in later years. In Windows 98 Microsoft gave up and marked Israel as not having DST, causing Israeli users to shift their computer clocks manually twice a year. The 2005 Israeli Daylight Saving Law established predictable rules but Windows zone files cannot represent the rules' dates in a year-independent way. Partial workarounds, which mishandle older time stamps, include manually switching zone files every year[86] and a Microsoft tool that switches zones automatically.[87] Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ... Israeli Daylight Saving Law historically differed from the daylight saving rules of most other countries. ...


References in Popular Culture

- An episode of the Nickelodeon television series The Adventures of Pete & Pete entitled "The Time Tunnel" involves Daylight Savings Time as a central theme. Big Pete Wrigley and Little Pete Wrigley want to use the extra hour of "time warp" to do something earth-shattering. Nickelodeon may refer to: Nickelodeon movie theater, an early 20th century form of small, neighborhood movie theaters Nickelodeon (film), a 1976 film directed by Peter Bogdanovich Nickelodeon (TV channel), a cable TV network whose demographic is primarily children and pre-teens in the United States. ... The Adventures of Pete & Pete was a U.S. television series produced and broadcast by the Nickelodeon cable channel. ...


Notes

Franklin's letter about daylight is often miscited. It never mentioned DST and its first publication had neither title nor byline.
Franklin's letter about daylight is often miscited. It never mentioned DST and its first publication had neither title nor byline.[12]
William Willett's pamphlet promoting DST went through nineteen editions.
William Willett's pamphlet promoting DST went through nineteen editions.[17]
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  83. ^ Other environment variables. IEEE Std 1003.1-2004. The Open Group (2004). Retrieved on 2007-05-16.
  84. ^ Daylight saving time help and support center. Microsoft Corp. (2007-09-14). Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  85. ^ Visual Studio and daylight saving time change. Microsoft Corp. (2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-22.
  86. ^ Windows daylight savings timezones for Israel. Lingnu Open Source Consulting (2005-04-20). Retrieved on 2007-03-22.
  87. ^ Microsoft support entry regarding daylight saving time in Israel (Hebrew). Microsoft Corp. (2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-22.

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Image File history File links Size of this preview: 416 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1008 × 1452 pixel, file size: 118 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Daylight saving time ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 416 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1008 × 1452 pixel, file size: 118 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Daylight saving time ... William Willett (August 10, 1856 - March 4, 1915) is the inventor of Daylight saving time. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter G. Neumann is a researcher who has worked on the Multics operating system. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berthold Louis Ullman (born 1882; died June 26, 1965) was an American Classical scholar. ... Jérôme Carcopino (1881–1970) was a French historian and author. ... Robert D. Kaplan (born 1952) is an American journalist, currently an editor for the Atlantic Monthly. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Anonymity is the state of not being identifiable within a set, called the anonymity set. When referring to human beings, we say that a person is anonymous when the identity of that person is not known. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eviatar Zerubavel is professor of sociology at Rutgers University. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Willett (August 10, 1856 - March 4, 1915) is the inventor of Daylight saving time. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is a website devoted to the promotion of scholarship in the fields of economics, finance, accounting, management and law. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The logotype of the United States Government Printing Office In the United States, the Government Printing Office (GPO) prints and provides access to documents produced by and for all three branches of the federal government, including the Supreme Court, the Congress, and all executive branch agencies like the FCC and... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Robertson Davies, CC, FRSC, FRSL (born August 28, 1913, at Thamesville, Ontario, and died December 2, 1995 at Orangeville, Ontario) was a Canadian novelist, playwright, critic, journalist, and professor. ... The Diary of Samuel Marchbanks, published in 1947, is the first of the Marchbanks Books by Canadian novelist and journalist Robertson Davies. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Crombie Schelling (born 14 April 1921) is an American economist and professor of foreign affairs, national security, nuclear strategy, and arms control at the School of Public Policy at University of Maryland College Park. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Ian R. Bartky; Elizabeth Harrison (1979). "Standard and daylight-saving time". Scientific American 240 (5): 46–53. ISSN 0036-8733. 
  • Michael Downing (2005). Spring Forward: The Annual Madness of Daylight Saving Time. Shoemaker & Hoard. ISBN 1-59376-053-1. Retrieved on 2007-05-16. 
  • David Prerau (2005). Seize the Daylight: The Curious and Contentious Story of Daylight Saving Time. Thunder’s Mouth Press. ISBN 1-56025-655-9. Retrieved on 2007-05-16.  The British version, focusing on the UK, is Saving the Daylight: Why We Put the Clocks Forward. Granta Books. ISBN 1-86207-796-7. Retrieved on 2007-05-16. 

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Daylight Saving Time - general history and anecdotes
  • Saving Time, Saving Energy - North American viewpoint
  • Summer Time - European viewpoint
  • Sources for time zone and daylight saving time data - technical resources


  Results from FactBites:
 
About Daylight Saving Time (0 words)
Daylight Saving Time (or summertime as it is called in many countries) is a way of getting more light out of the day by advancing clocks by one hour during the summer.
During Daylight Saving Time, the sun appears to rise one hour later in the morning, when people are usually asleep anyway, and sets one hour later in the evening, seeming to stretch the day longer.
The reason DST works is because its saves energy due to less artificial light needed during the evening hours—clocks are set one hour ahead during the spring, and one hour back to standard time in the autumn.
Daylight saving time - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6574 words)
Daylight saving time (DST), also known as summer time and sometimes referred to as daylight savings time, is a widely used system of adjusting the official local time forward, usually by one hour from its official standard time, for the summer months.
DST is particularly unpopular among people working in agriculture because they must rise with the sun regardless of what the clock says, and thus the people are placed out of synchronization with the rest of the community, including school times, broadcast schedules, and the like.
In the USSR daylight saving time was introduced on April 1, 1981 by a decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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