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Encyclopedia > Day of the Dead
Sugar skull given for the Day of the Dead, also made with chocolate and amaranto.
Sugar skull given for the Day of the Dead, also made with chocolate and amaranto.

The Day of the Dead (El Día de los Muertos in Spanish) is a holiday celebrated mainly in Mexico and by people of Mexican heritage (and others) living in the United States and Canada. The celebration occurs on the 1st and 2nd of November, in connection with the Catholic holy days of All Saints' Day and All Souls' Day which take place on those days. Traditions include building private altars honoring the deceased, and using sugar skulls, marigolds, and the favorite foods and beverages of the departed. Observance of the holiday in Mexican-American communities in the United States has become more important and widespread as the community grows numerically and economically. Mexican-style Day of the Dead festivities have spread around the world, including to Europe and New Zealand. The name Day of the Dead has several meanings: Day of the Dead (Día de los Muertos), a Mexican holiday. ... Dia De Los Muertos is the Spanish name for the Mexican holiday Day of the Dead. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (913x1033, 189 KB) Summary Photo of a candy skull made of sugar, a common gift and decoration for the Day of the Dead in Mexico. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (913x1033, 189 KB) Summary Photo of a candy skull made of sugar, a common gift and decoration for the Day of the Dead in Mexico. ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... Species See text The amaranths (also called pigweeds) comprise the genus Amaranthus, a widely distributed genus of short-lived herbs, occurring mostly in temperate and tropical regions. ... For other uses, see Holiday (disambiguation). ... All Saints in Poland The festival of All Saints, also sometimes known as All Hallows, or Hallowmas, is a feast celebrated in honour of all the saints and martyrs, known or unknown. ... This article is about the Christian religious holiday. ... Mexican Americans are citizens of the United States of Mexican ancestry. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Scholars trace the origins of the modern holiday to indigenous observances dating back thousands of years, and to an Aztec festival dedicated to a goddess called Mictecacihuatl (known in English as "The Lady of the Dead"). For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ... In Aztec mythology, Mictecacihuatl was the Queen of Mictlan, the underworld, and wife of Mictlantecuhtli. ...


Similar holidays are celebrated in many parts of the world; for example, it is a public holiday in Brazil, where many Brazilians celebrate by visiting cemeteries and churches. In Spain, there are festivals and parades, and at the end of the day, people gather at cemeteries and pray to their loved ones who have died. Similar observances occur elsewhere in Europe and in the Philippines, and similarly-themed celebrations appear in many Asian and African cultures. Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... The culture of Asia is the artificial aggregate of the cultural heritage of many nationalities, societies, religions, and ethnic groups in the region, traditionally called a continent from a Western-centric perspective, of Asia. ... The Culture of Africa encompasses and includes all cultures which were ever in the continent of Africa. ...

Contents

Observance in Mexico

Origins of Day of the Dead

The Day of the Dead celebrations in Mexico can be traced back to the indigenous peoples such as the Olmec, Zapotec, Mixtec, Mexican, Aztec, Maya, P'urhépecha, and Totonac. Rituals celebrating the deaths of ancestors have been observed by these civilizations perhaps for as long as 2500–3000 years.[1] In the pre-Hispanic era, it was common to keep skulls as trophies and display them during the rituals to symbolize death and rebirth. Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... The Zapotec are an indigenous people of Mexico. ... Jade mask found in Tomb 7, Monte Alban, c. ... For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Purhépecha men reeling cord for nets and making nets, 1899. ... The Totonac people resided in the eastern coastal and mountainous regions of Mexico at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519. ...


The festival that became the modern Day of the Dead fell in the ninth month of the Aztec calendar, about the beginning of August, and was celebrated for an entire month. The festivities were dedicated to the goddess Mictecacihuatl,[2] known as the "Lady of the Dead," corresponding to the modern Catrina. The sun stone also called the Aztec calendar on display at the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. ... In Aztec mythology, Mictecacihuatl was the Queen of Mictlan, the underworld, and wife of Mictlantecuhtli. ... For other uses, see Catrina (disambiguation). ...


In most regions of Mexico, November 1st honors deceased children and infants where as deceased adults are honored on November 2nd. This is indicated by generally referring to November 1st as "Día de los Angelitos" (Day of the Little Angels) and November 2nd as "Día de los Difuntos" (Day of the Dead).[3]


Beliefs

Graveside ofrenda (altar) in Morelia, Mexico
Detail of an "Ofrenda" in Ciudad Universitaria, México.
Detail of an "Ofrenda" in Ciudad Universitaria, México.

Many people believe that during the Day of the Dead, it is easier for the souls of the departed to visit the living. People will go to cemeteries to communicate with the souls of the departed, and will build private altars, containing the favorite foods and beverages, and photos and memorabilia, of the departed. The intent is to encourage visits by the souls, so that the souls will hear the prayers and the comments of the living directed to them. Celebrations can take a humorous tone, as celebrants remember funny events and anecdotes about the departed.[3] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (2899 × 1921 pixels, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (2899 × 1921 pixels, file size: 3. ...


Plans for the festival are made throughout the year, including gathering the goods to be offered to the dead. During the period of November 1 and November 2, families usually clean and decorate graves;[2] most visit the cemeteries where their loved ones are buried and decorate their graves with ofrendas, or offerings, which often include orange marigolds called "cempasúchil" (originally named cempoalxochitl, Nahuatl for "twenty (i.e., many) flowers"). In modern Mexico this name is often replaced with the term "Flor de Muerto" ("Flower of the Dead"). These flowers are thought to attract souls of the dead to the offerings. is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Species About 50, including: Tagetes erecta Tagetes filifolia Tagetes lacera Tagetes lucida Tagetes minuta Tagetes patula Tagetes tenuifolia as well as numerous hybrids Tagetes lucida Tagetes is a genus of about 50 species of annual or perennial herbaceous plants in the daisy family (Asteraceae). ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ...


Toys are brought for dead children (los angelitos, or little angels), and bottles of tequila, mezcal, pulque or atole for adults. Families will also offer trinkets or the deceased's favorite candies on the grave. Ofrendas are also put in homes, usually with foods such as candied pumpkin, pan de muerto ("bread of the dead") or sugar skulls and beverages such as atole. The ofrendas are left out in the homes as a welcoming gesture for the deceased.[2] Some people believe the spirits of the dead eat the "spiritual essence" of the ofrenda food, so even though the celebrators eat the food after the festivities, they believe it lacks nutritional value. Pillows and blankets are left out so that the deceased can rest after their long journey. In some parts of Mexico, such as the towns of Mixquic, Pátzcuaro and Janitzio, people spend all night beside the graves of their relatives. Various brands of tequila Tequila is a spirit made primarily in the area surrounding Tequila, a town in the western Mexican state of Jalisco, 65 km northwest of Guadalajara and in the highlands of Jalisco, 65 km east of Guadalajara. ... A cheap commercial bottle of Mexican Mezcal bought in Cancun. ... Pulque, or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ... Traditional cornstarch-based Mexican hot drink. ... Pan de muerto in an ofrenda. ... San Andrés Mixquic is a small town located in the Tláhuac borough of the Mexican Federal District, on the south-eastern fringes of Mexico City. ... Pátzcuaro, Michoacán Pátzcuaro, which means place of stones in the Purepecha language, is a city in the state of Michoacán, Mexico. ... Statue of José María Morelos at Janitzio Isla de Janitzio, located at 19° 57 N , 101° 65 W, is the main island of Lake Patzcuaro in the state of Michoacán, Mexico. ...

Catrinas, one of the most popular figures of the Day of the Dead celebrations in Mexico
Catrinas, one of the most popular figures of the Day of the Dead celebrations in Mexico

Some families build altars or small shrines in their homes.[2] These altars usually have the Christian cross, statues or pictures of the Blessed Virgin Mary, pictures of deceased relatives and other persons, and scores of candles. Traditionally, families spend some time around the altar praying and telling anecdotes about the deceased. In some locations, celebrants wear shells on their clothing so when they dance the dead will wake up because of the noise. Some will dress up as the deceased. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2336 × 3504 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2336 × 3504 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Catrina (disambiguation). ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Shrine is also used as a conventional translation of the Japanese Jinja. ... A reliquary in the form of an ornate Christian Cross Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope... Our Lady redirects here. ...


Public schools at all levels build altars with offerings, usually omitting the religious symbols. Government offices usually have at least a small altar, as this holiday is seen as important to the Mexican heritage.


Those with writing talent sometimes create short poems, called "calaveras" ("skulls"), mocking epitaphs of friends, sometimes describing interesting habits and attitudes or some funny anecdotes. This custom originated in the 18th-19th century, after a newspaper published a poem narrating a dream of a cemetery in the future, "and all of us were dead", proceeding to "read" the tombstones. Newspapers dedicate calaveras to public figures, with cartoons of skeletons in the style of José Guadalupe Posada, a Mexican illustrator. Theatrical presentations of Don Juan Tenorio by José Zorrilla (1817–1893) are also traditional on this day. For other uses, see Epitaph (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Skeleton (disambiguation). ... Posada in front of his workshop Calavera Oaxaqueña, 1910 José Guadalupe Posada (2 February 1852 – 20 January 1913) was a Mexican engraver and illustrator. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Don Juan Tenorio: Drama religioso-fantástico en dos partes (Don Juan Tenorio: Religious-Fantastic Drama in Two Parts), is a play published in 1844 by José Zorrilla. ... José Zorrilla José Zorrilla y Moral (February 21, 1817 - January 23, 1893), was a Spanish Romantic poet and dramatist. ...

Island Pacanda, Lake Patzcuaro Mexico - Dia de los Muertos
Island Pacanda, Lake Patzcuaro Mexico - Dia de los Muertos

A common symbol of the holiday is the skull (colloquially called calavera), which celebrants represent in masks, called calacas (colloquial term for "skeleton"), and foods such as sugar skulls, which are inscribed with the name of the recipient on the forehead. Sugar skulls are gifts that can be given to both the living and the dead. Other holiday foods include pan de muerto, a sweet egg bread made in various shapes, from plain rounds to skulls and rabbits often decorated with white frosting to look like twisted bones. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mask (disambiguation). ... A calaca of Catrina A calaca (a colloquial Spanish name for skeleton) is a figure of a skull or skeleton (usually human) commonly used for decoration during the Mexican Day of the Dead festival, although they are made all year round. ... Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ...


José Guadalupe Posada created a famous print of a figure that he called the "calavera de la catrina" ("calavera of the female dandy"), as a parody of a Mexican upper class female. Posada's striking image of a costumed female with a skeleton face has become associated with the Day of the Dead, and Catrina figures often are a prominent part of modern Day of the Dead observances. Posada in front of his workshop Calavera Oaxaqueña, 1910 José Guadalupe Posada (2 February 1852 – 20 January 1913) was a Mexican engraver and illustrator. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Catrina (disambiguation). ...


The traditions and activities that take place in celebration of the Day of the Dead are not universal and often vary from town to town. For example, in the town of Pátzcuaro on the Lago de Pátzcuaro in Michoacán the tradition is very different if the deceased is a child rather than an adult. On November 1 of the year after a child's death, the godparents set a table in the parents' home with sweets, fruits, pan de muerto, a cross, a Rosary (used to ask the Virgin Mary to pray for them) and candles. This is meant to celebrate the child’s life, in respect and appreciation for the parents. There is also dancing with colorful costumes, often with skull-shaped masks and devil masks in the plaza or garden of the town. At midnight on November 2, the people light candles and ride winged boats called mariposas (Spanish for "butterfly") to Janitzio, an island in the middle of the lake where there is a cemetery, to honor and celebrate the lives of the dead there. Pátzcuaro, Michoacán Pátzcuaro, which means place of stones in the Purepecha language, is a city in the state of Michoacán, Mexico. ... Lake Pátzcuaro Lake Patzcuaro seen from Janitzio Island Lake Pátzcuaro is a famous lake located in the municipality of Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, Mexico. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 113 Government  - Governor Lazaro Cardenas Batel (PRD)  - Federal Deputies PRD: 8 PAN: 4  - Federal Senators Jesús Garibay García (PRD) Silvano Aureoles Conejo (PRD) Marko A. Cortés (PAN) Area Ranked 16th  - Total 59,928 km² (23,138. ... A godparent, in Christianity, is someone who sponsors a childs baptism. ...

Pan de muerto, traditionally eaten on the holiday
Pan de muerto, traditionally eaten on the holiday

In contrast, the town of Ocotepec, north of Cuernavaca in the State of Morelos opens its doors to visitors in exchange for 'veladoras' (small wax candles) to show respect for the recently dead. In return, the visitors receive tamales and 'atole'. This is only done by the owners of the house where somebody in the household has died in the previous year. Many people of the surrounding areas arrive early to eat for free and enjoy the elaborate altars set up to receive the visitors from 'Mictlán'. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1760x1168, 363 KB) Pan de muerto, eaten on the Day of the dead. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1760x1168, 363 KB) Pan de muerto, eaten on the Day of the dead. ... Ocotepec This word comes from the nahuatl ocotl which means pine a coniferous tree and tepec which means mountain, so, the name of this location means Mountain with pines. Originaly this place was inhabitated by the tlahuica culture, then, they became a group under the mexicas rule and they paid... Cuernavaca is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. ... Morelos is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... For the city in Ghana, see Tamale, Ghana A tamale or tamal (from Nahuatl tamalli) is a traditional Mexican foodstuff that begins with corn (maize) flour mixed with water and lard. ...


In some parts of the country, children in costumes roam the streets, asking passersby for a calaverita, a small gift of money; they don't knock on people's doors.


Some people believe that possessing "dia de los muertos" items can bring good luck. Many people get tattoos or have dolls of the dead to carry with them. They also clean their houses and prepare the favorite dishes of their deceased loved ones to place upon an altar.


Observances outside Mexico

A Day of the Dead altar in Los Angeles pays homage to "dead" (cancelled) television shows, with traditional marigolds, sugar skulls and candles.
A Day of the Dead altar in Los Angeles pays homage to "dead" (cancelled) television shows, with traditional marigolds, sugar skulls and candles.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1230x1591, 2454 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Day of the Dead ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1230x1591, 2454 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Day of the Dead ... In television, cancellation refers to the termination of a program by the network, typically because of low viewership. ...

United States

In many U.S. communities with immigrants from Mexico, Day of the Dead celebrations are held, very similar to those held in Mexico. In some of these communities, such as in Texas[4] and Arizona,[5] the celebrations tend to be mostly traditional. For example, the All Souls’ Procession has been an annual Tucson event since 1990. The event combines elements of traditional Dia de los Muertos celebrations with those of pagan harvest festivals. People wearing masks carry signs honoring the dead and an urn in which people can put slips of paper with prayers on them to be burned.[6] For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Nickname: The Old Pueblo Location in Pima County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: Country United States State Arizona Counties Pima Mayor Bob Walkup (R) Area    - City 505. ...

Day of the Dead display in Southern California
Day of the Dead display in Southern California

In other communities, interactions between Mexican traditions and American culture are resulting in celebrations in which Mexican traditions are being extended to make artistic or sometimes political statements. For example, in Los Angeles, California, the Self Help Graphics & Art Mexican-American cultural center presents an annual Day of the Dead celebration, that includes both traditional and political elements, such as altars to honor the victims of the Iraq War highlighting the high casualty rate among Latino soldiers. An updated, inter-cultural version of the Day of the Dead is also evolving at a cemetery near Hollywood.[7] There, in a mixture of Mexican traditions and Hollywood hip, conventional altars are set up side-by-side with altars to Jayne Mansfield and Johnny Ramone. Colorful native dancers and music intermix with performance artists, while sly pranksters play on traditional themes. This article is about the region of Southern California. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Self-Help Graphics & Art, Inc. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... ... Jayne Mansfield (born Vera Jayne Palmer; April 19, 1933—29 June 1967) was an American actress working both on Broadway and in Hollywood. ... John William Cummings (October 8, 1948 – September 15, 2004), better known by the stage name Johnny Ramone, was the guitarist for the seminal punk rock group The Ramones. ... This article is about Performance art. ... Since the humble beginnings of Saturday Night Live, the show has been something of an anti-television show, turning the medium on its head with endless fake commercials and parodies of TV shows themselves. ...


Similar traditional and inter-cultural updating of Mexican celebrations is occurring in San Francisco,[8] for example through the Galería de la Raza, SomArts Cultural Center, Mission Cultural Center, de Young Museum, and in Missoula, Montana, where skeletal celebrants on stilts, novelty bicycles, and skis parade through town.[9] It also occurs annually at historic Forest Hills Cemetery in Boston's Jamaica Plain neighborhood. Sponsored by Forest Hills Educational Trust and the folkloric performance group La Piñata, the Day of the Dead celebration celebrates the cycle of life and death. People bring offerings of flowers, photos, mementos, mentos, and food for their departed loved ones which they place at an elaborately and colorfully decorated altar. A program of traditional music and dance also accompanies the community event. San Francisco redirects here. ... Galería de la Raza (GDLR) is a non-profit art gallery and artist collective that serves the heavily-Latino population of San Franciscos Mission District. ... The M. H. de Young Memorial Museum is a fine arts museum located in San Franciscos Golden Gate Park. ... Location of Missoula in Montana Coordinates: , Country State County Missoula Founded 1866 Government  - Mayor John Engen Area  - City 23. ...


Europe and elsewhere

Observance of a Mexican-style Day of the Dead has spread to Europe as well. In Prague, Czech Republic, for example, local citizens celebrate the Day of the Dead with masks, candles, and sugar skulls.[10] Mexican-style Day of the Dead celebrations can also be found in Wellington, New Zealand, complete with altars celebrating the deceased with flowers and gifts.[11] Prague (Praha in Czech) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... Alternative meanings at Wellington (disambiguation) A view of Wellington from the top of Mount Victoria. ...


Similar celebrations

Latin America

Guatemalan celebrations of the Day of the Dead are highlighted by the construction and flying of giant kites[12] in addition to the traditional visits to gravesites of ancestors. A big event also is the consumption of fiambre that is made only for this day during the year."[13] Fiambre is a typical food from Guatemala that is eaten on November 1st and 2nd. ...


The Brazilian public holiday of "Finados" (Day of the Dead) is celebrated on November 2. Similar to other Day of the Dead celebrations, people go to cemeteries and churches, with flowers, candles, and prayer. The celebration is intended to be positive, to celebrate those who are deceased.


In Haiti, voodoo traditions mix with Roman Catholic Day of the Dead observances, as, for example, loud drums and music are played at all-night celebrations at cemeteries to waken Baron Samedi, the god of the dead, and his mischievous family of offspring, the Gede. Voodoo is a religious tradition originating in West Africa, which became prominent in the New World due to the importation of African slaves. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Depiction of Baron Samedi Veve of Baron Samedi In Vodun or voodoo, Baron Samedi (Baron Saturday, also Baron Samdi, Bawon Samedi, or Bawon Sanmdi) is one of the aspects of Baron, one of the loa. ...


Dia de los ñatitas (Day of the Skulls) is a festival celebrated in La Paz, Bolivia on November 9th. In pre-Columbian times, indigenous Andeans had a tradition of sharing a day with the bones of their ancestors on the third year after burial, however only the skulls are used today. Traditionally, the skull of one or more family members are kept at home to watch over the family and protect them during the year. On November 9th, the family crowns the skull with fresh flowers, sometimes also dressing it up in various garments, and makes offerings of cigarettes, coca leaves, alcohol, and various other items in thanks for the year's protection. The skulls are also sometimes taken to the central cemetery in La Paz for a special mass and blessing.[14][15][16] Motto: Los discordes en concordia, en paz y amor se juntaron y pueblo de paz fundaron para perpetua memoria Location of La Paz within Bolivia Coordinates: , Country Departament Province Pedro Domingo Murillo Province Founded October 20, 1548 Incorporated (El Alto) 20th century Government  - Mayor Juan Del Granado Area  - Total 470... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ...


Asia

In the Philippines, the holiday is called Araw ng mga Patay (Day of the Dead), Todos Los Santos or Undas (the latter two due to the fact that this holiday is celebrated on November 1, All Saints Day), and has more of a "family reunion" atmosphere.[17] Tombs are cleaned or repainted, candles are lit, and flowers are offered. Entire families camp in cemeteries, and sometimes spend a night or two near their relatives' tombs. Card games, eating, drinking, singing and dancing are common activities in the cemetery. It is considered a very important holiday by many Filipinos (after Christmas and Holy Week), and additional days are normally given as special non-working holidays (but only November 1 is a regular holiday). is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For the 1958 novel of the same name by Louis Aragon, see La Semaine Sainte. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Europe

In many countries with a Roman Catholic heritage, All Saints Day and All Souls Day have long been holidays where people take the day off work, go to cemeteries with candles and flowers, and give presents to children, usually sweets and toys.[18] In Portugal and Spain, ofrendas (offerings) are made on this day. In Spain, the play Don Juan Tenorio is traditionally performed. In Spain, Portugal, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, France and Ireland, people bring flowers to the graves of dead relatives and say prayers over the dead. In Poland,[19] Slovakia,[20] Hungary,[21] Lithuania,[22] Croatia,[23] Slovenia,[24] Romania,[25] Austria, Germany and Sweden, the tradition is to light candles and visit the graves of deceased relatives. In Tyrol, cakes are left for them on the table and the room kept warm for their comfort. In Brittany, people flock to the cemeteries at nightfall to kneel, bareheaded, at the graves of their loved ones, and to anoint the hollow of the tombstone with holy water or to pour libations of milk on it. At bedtime, the supper is left on the table for the souls.[26] This article is about the Christian holiday. ... All Souls Day by William Bouguereau All Souls Day (formally, Commemoratio omnium Fidelium Defunctorum or Commemoration of all the Faithful Departed), also called Defuncts Day in Mexico and Belgium, is the day set apart for the commemoration of the faithful departed. ... Don Juan Tenorio: Drama religioso-fantástico en dos partes (Don Juan Tenorio: Religious-Fantastic Drama in Two Parts), is a play published in 1844 by José Zorrilla. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Coat of arms of the Counts of Tyrol Austria-Hungary in 1914, showing Tirol–Vorarlberg as the left-most province, coloured cream Capital Meran (Merano), until 1848 Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Created County 1140  - Bequeathed to Habsburgs 1363 or 1369  - Joined Council of Princes 1582  - Trent, Tyrol and... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Headstones in the Japanese Cemetry in Broome, Western Australia A cemetery in rural Spain A typical late 20th century headstone in the United States A headstone, tombstone or gravestone is a marker, normally carved from stone, placed over or next to the site of a burial. ... This article is about water that has been blessed. ... A glass of cows milk. ...


Other similar cultural traditions

Many other cultures around the world have similar traditions of a day set aside to visit the graves of deceased family members. Often included in these traditions are celebrations, food and beverages, in addition to prayers and remembrances of the departed.


The Bon Festival (O-bon (お盆?) or only Bon (?) is a Japanese Buddhist holiday to honor the departed spirits of one's ancestors. This Buddhist festival has evolved into a family reunion holiday during which people from the big cities return to their home towns and visit and clean their ancestors' graves. Traditionally including a dance festival, it has existed in Japan for more than 500 years. This holiday is three days in August. Illuminated by the Albuquerque Bridge, Japanese volunteers place candle lit lanterns into the Sasebo River during the Obon festival. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... For other uses, see Spirit (disambiguation). ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... Family Reunion is a 35 second song by blink-182 consisting entirely of profanity. ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ...


In Korea, Chuseok is a major traditional holiday, also called Hankawi (한가위,中秋节). People go where the spirits of one's ancestors are enshrined, and perform ancestral worship rituals early in the morning; they visit the tombs of immediate ancestors to trim plants and clean the area around the tomb, and offer food, drink, and crops to their ancestors. This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Chuseok], a major holiday in Korea, is celebrated on the 15th day of the 8th month of the lunar Korean calendar. ...


The Qingming Festival (traditional Chinese: 清明節; simplified Chinese: 清明节; pinyin: qīng míng jié) is a traditional Chinese festival usually occurring around April 5 of the Gregorian calendar. Along with Double Ninth Festival on the ninth day of the ninth month in the Chinese calendar, it is a time to tend to the graves of departed ones. In addition, in the Chinese tradition, the seventh month in the Chinese calendar is called the Ghost Month (鬼月), in which ghosts and spirits come out from the underworld to visit earth. Burning paper gifts for the departed. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Traditional Chinese holidays have been part of Chinese tradition for thousands of years; they are an essential part of Chinese culture. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Double Ninth Festival (Chinese: ; pinyin: ChóngjiÇ”, also Traditional Chinese: 重陽節; pinyin: Chóngyángjié or Chung Yeung Festival in Hong Kong) dated on the ninth day of the ninth month in Chinese calendar, is a traditional Chinese holiday, mentioned in writing since before the East Han period. ... The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ... This article is about the Chinese Ghost Festival. ...


During the Nepali holiday of Gai Jatra ("Cow Pilgrimage") every family where a family member died during the previous year makes a construction of bamboo branches, cloth, paper decorations and portraits of the deceased, called a "gai." Traditionally, a cow leads the spirits of the dead into the next land. Depending on local custom, either an actual live cow, or a construct representing a cow may be used. The festival is also a time to dress up in costume, including costumes involving political comments and satire.[27]


In some cultures in Africa, visits to the graves of ancestors, the leaving of food and gifts, and the asking of protection serve as important parts of traditional rituals. One example of this is the ritual that occurs just before the beginning of hunting season.[28] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


In fiction

  • The novel Under the Volcano (1947) by Malcolm Lowry takes place on this day in a fictionalized Cuernavaca, Morelos.
  • Ray Bradbury's novel The Halloween Tree (1972) includes an explanation of the holiday as part of a greater worldwide tradition, and features a Mexican sugar skull as a key plot device.
  • The PC game Grim Fandango is inspired by the Day of the Dead and features imagery greatly drawn from the festival including characters reminiscent of the skeletal calaca figures.
  • Barbara Hambly's novel Days Of The Dead (2003) sets its climax on this day in 1835.
  • In the film version of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (2004), some traditional Day of the Dead sugar skulls can be seen in storage shelves while Harry enters the candy store Honeydukes through the secret passage. This is an inside joke as the director of the movie, Alfonso Cuarón, is Mexican.
  • The film Once Upon a Time in Mexico, directed by Robert Rodriguez, takes place in the days leading up to the Day of the Dead, culminating in numerous acts of violence on the holiday itself.
  • The plot, as well as the title, of the first episode of the Adult Swim series The Venture Bros., "Dia de Los Dangerous!", takes place on this day. The series' titular characters, Hank and Dean Venture, purchase sombreros and traditional sugar skulls (not on screen; their first scene has Hank describing their events to their father, who has just given a lecture to a very small audience, due in part to the holiday).
  • An episode of the television science fiction series Babylon 5 is entitled Day of the Dead and features sugar skulls in the culture of an alien species.
  • A song "El Dia De Los Muertos" by Zoe Aves from El Tigre: The Adventures of Manny Rivera.

This article is about the book, for the film see Under the Volcano (film) Under the Volcano (1947) is a semi-autobiographical novel by English writer Malcolm Lowry. ... Malcolm Lowry (July 28, 1909 – June 26, 1957) was an English poet and novelist. ... Cuernavaca is the capital city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. ... The Halloween Tree (1972) is a fantasy novel by Ray Bradbury. ... Grim Fandango is a graphical adventure computer game released by LucasArts in 1998. ... A calaca of Catrina A calaca (a colloquial Spanish name for skeleton) is a figure of a skull or skeleton (usually human) commonly used for decoration during the Mexican Day of the Dead festival, although they are made all year round. ... Barbara Hambly (born August 28, 1951) is an award winning and prolific American novelist and screenwriter within the genres of fantasy, science fiction and historical fiction. ... HP3 redirects here. ... Alfonso Cuarón Orozco (born November 28, 1961 in Mexico City) is an Academy Award-nominated Mexican film director, screenwriter and producer. ... Once Upon a Time in Mexico (2003) is an action film by Robert Rodriguez and the final film in the Mariachi Trilogy, which includes El Mariachi and Desperado. ... For the American composer born 1946, see Robert Xavier Rodriguez. ... Adult Swim is the name for an adult-oriented television programming network. ... The Venture Bros. ... Dia de La Dangerous! is the first episode in the first season of The Venture Brothers. ... Henry Allen Hank Venture is one of the two titular Venture Brothers and a main character on the Adult Swim program of the same name, parodying boy detectives and adventurers. ... Dean Venture is one of the two titular Venture Brothers and a main character on the Adult Swim program of the same name, serving as a parody of such boy adventurers as The Hardy Boys and Jonny Quest. ... Dr. Thaddeus S. Rusty Venture is one of the main characters on the Adult Swim show The Venture Bros. ... Babylon 5 is an epic American science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ... Day of the Dead is an episode from the fifth season of the science fiction television series Babylon 5. ...

See also

Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... The Dance of Death (1493) by Michael Wolgemut, from the Liber chronicarum by Hartmann Schedel. ... This article is about the Chinese Ghost Festival. ... This article is about the holiday. ... The Hispanic world The term Hispanic culture pertains to cultures found in Spain and to the cultures of any country that was colonized by the early Spanish conquistadors. ... For other uses, see Mardi Gras (disambiguation). ... Burning paper gifts for the departed. ... Look up Samhain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A life sized figure of Santa Muerte stands outside a fortune tellers storefront in Mexico Citys Chinatown. ... Walpurgis Night in Sweden. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Miller, Carlos. "History: Indigenous people wouldn't let 'Day of the Dead' die", Day of the Dead - Dia De Los Muertos, The Arizona Republic, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-11-28. 
  2. ^ a b c d Salvador, R. J. (2003). "What Do Mexicans Celebrate On The Day Of The Dead?", in John D. Morgan and Pittu Laungani: Death and Bereavement Around the World: Death and Bereavement in the Americas, Death, Value and Meaning Series, Vol. II. Amityville, New York: Baywood Publishing Company, 75-76. ISBN 0895032325. Retrieved on 2007-11-27. 
  3. ^ a b Palfrey, Dale Hoyt (1995). The Day of the Dead. Día de los Muertos Index. Access Mexico Connect. Retrieved on 2007-11-28.
  4. ^ Wise, Danno. Port Isabel's Day of the Dead Celebration. Texas Travel. About.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-28.
  5. ^ Hedding, Judy. Day of the Dead. Phoenix. About.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-28.
  6. ^ White, Erin. "All Souls Procession", Arizona Daily Star, 2006-11-05. Retrieved on 2007-11-28. 
  7. ^ Making a night of Day of the Dead Los Angeles Times October 18, 2006; accessed November 26, 2006.
  8. ^ See newspaper article, and see photos.
  9. ^ Photos of Missoula, Montana Day of the Dead parade.
  10. ^ Day of the Dead in Prague.
  11. ^ Day of the Dead in Wellington, New Zealand
  12. ^ Visit to cemetery in Guatemala
  13. ^ Observance in Guatemala Accessed June 11, 2007.
  14. ^ Guidi, Ruxandra. "Las Natitas", BBC, 2007-11-09. 
  15. ^ Smith, Fiona. "Bolivians Honor Skull-Toting Tradition", Associated Press, 2005-11-08. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  16. ^ All Saints day in Bolivia - "The skull festival". Bolivia Line (November 2005). Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  17. ^ "One of the many Filipino traditions often practiced is celebrating All Saints’/Souls’ Day or Day of the Dead." Accessed Nov. 26, 2007.
  18. ^ All Saints Day celebrations in Italy
  19. ^ Polish observance Accessed June 11, 2007.
  20. ^ Slovakia observance. Accessed June 11, 2007.
  21. ^ Hungary observance. Accessed June 11, 2007.
  22. ^ Lithuanian observance. Accessed June 11, 2007
  23. ^ Croatian observance. Accessed June 11, 2007
  24. ^ Slovenian observance. Accessed November 5, 2007.
  25. ^ Romanian observance. Accessed June 11, 2007.
  26. ^ See All Saints Day, All Souls Day.
  27. ^ Nepali holiday honoring the dead. Accessed June 11, 2007
  28. ^ African ancestor ritual; Importance in many traditional religions throughout all of Africa serve as communications with ancestors

The Arizona Republic is a newspaper published in Phoenix, Arizona. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of About. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of About. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Arizona Daily Star is a daily newspaper that serves Tucson, Arizona, and southern Arizona. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Christian holiday. ... All Souls Day by William Bouguereau All Souls Day (formally, Commemoratio omnium Fidelium Defunctorum or Commemoration of all the Faithful Departed), also called Defuncts Day in Mexico and Belgium, is the day set apart for the commemoration of the faithful departed. ...

Further reading

  • Brandes, Stanley. “The Day of the Dead, Halloween, and the Quest for Mexican National Identity.” Journal of American Folklore 442 (1998) : 359-80.
  • Brandes, Stanley. “Sugar, Colonialism, and Death: On the Origins of Mexico’s Day of the Dead” Comparative Studies in Sociology and History 39.2 (1997): 270-299
  • Brandes, Stanley. “Iconogaphy in Mexico’s Day of the Dead.” Ethnohistory 45.2(1998):181-218
  • Carmichael, Elizabeth. Sayer, Chloe. The Skeleton at the Feast: The Day of the Dead in Mexico. Great Britain: The Bath Press, 1991.
  • Conklin, Paul. “Death Takes A Holiday.” U.S. Catholic 66 (2001) : 38-41.
  • Garcia-Rivera, Alex. “Death Takes a Holiday.” U.S. Catholic 62 (1997) : 50.
  • Roy, Ann. “A Crack Between the Worlds.” Commonwealth 122 (1995) : 13-16
  • Shawn D. Haley and Curt Fukuda Day of the Dead: When Two Worlds Meet in Oaxaca, Berhahn Books, 2004.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Day of the Dead - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1366 words)
The Day of the Dead (Día de los Muertos, Día de los Difuntos or, simply, Día de Muertos in Spanish) is an ancient Aztec celebration of the memory of deceased ancestors that is celebrated on November 1 (All Saints) and November 2 (All Souls).
The origins of the celebration of The Day of the Dead in Latin America can be traced back to the indigenous peoples of the Americas, such as the Aztec, Maya, Purepecha, Nahual and Totonac.
All Saints' Day is the day after Halloween, which was in turn based on the earlier pagan ritual of Samhain, the Celtic day and feast of the dead.
Day of the Dead (film) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2496 words)
Day of the Dead (released 1985) is a horror film by director George A. Romero, and the third of four movies beginning with Night of the Living Dead, continued in Dawn of the Dead and completed in Land of the Dead.
Day of the Dead deals with the zombie assault on a military establishment, satirizing the military mindset in the process.
Day of the Dead • Land of the Dead • Diary of the Dead
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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