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Encyclopedia > Day of Ashura
Day of Ashura
Day of Ashura. Qom, Iran.
Official name Arabic: عاشوراء (‘Āshūrā’)
Also called Hosay, Tabuik
Observed by Sunnis, Shi'a Muslims
Type Islamic and national
Significance Muslims: marks the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali; In addition Sunni: Liberation of Moses and Israelites from Pharaoh
Date 10 Muharram
2006 date February 9
2007 date January 29
2008 date January 19
Observances Mourn and derive messages from Husayn's Sacrifice; In addition Sunni: Prayer, Fasting
Related to Remembrance of Muharram, which encompasses the first ten days of Muharram and Ashura

The Day of Ashura (عاشوراء transliteration: ‘Āshūrā’, Ashura, Ashoura, and other spellings) is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram but not the Islamic month. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... A tadjah at Hosay in Port of Spain during the 1950s Hosay or Tadjah is a West Indian street festival, in which multi-colored model mausoleums are paraded, then ritually offered up to the sea, or any body of water. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Salat redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Remembrance of Muharram (Arabic: احتفال محرم or مناسبة محرم) is an important period of mourning in the Shiite branch of Islam. ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... The Remembrance of Muharram (Arabic: احتفال محرم or مناسبة محرم) is an important period of mourning in the Shiite branch of Islam. ...


This day is well-known because of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala in the year 61 AH (AD 680). Furthermore Sunni Muslims believe that Moses fasted on that day to express gratitude to God for liberation of Israelites from Egypt. According to Sunni Muslim tradition, Muhammad fasted on this day and asked other people to fast.[1][2] Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali† Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 100+ 72(Tabari) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2] in Karbala, in present day Iraq. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The Exodus or Ytsiyat Mitsrayim (Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, Tiberian: , the going out of Egypt) refers to the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


The word ashura means simply tenth in Arabic; hence the name of the remembrance, literally translated, means "the tenth day". Islamic scholars, however, give various explanations as to why it is thus called. sdvsgvsvsv This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...

Contents

Etymology of Ashura

The word Ashura is Arabic for tenth. The day is indeed the tenth day of the month, although some Islamic scholars offer up different etymologies. In his book Ghuniyatut Talibin, Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani writes that the Islamic scholars have a difference of opinion as to why this day is known as Ashura. The general consensus is that the day is the tenth day of the month of Muharram. Some scholars, however, suggest that this day is the tenth most important day that God has blessed Muslims with; hence the name Ashura.[10] Not to be confused with the ancient Assyrian god Ashur. For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Significance of Ashura for Sunni muslims

Ashura was already known as a commemorative day during which some Meccans used to observe customary fasting. In hijrah event when Muhammad led his followers to Medina, he found the Jews of that area likewise observing fasts on the day of Ashura - this day could have been the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur. At this, Muhammad affirmed the Islamic claim to the fast, and subsequently it was made mandatory for the Muslims to fast on combinations of two or three consecutive days including the 10th of Muharram (e.g. 9th and 10th or 10th and 11th)[3][4]. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Hijra may refer to: Hijra (Hegira/Hijrah/Hejira) is an Arabic term referring to the migration of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622. ... Yom Kippur (Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר ) is a Jewish holiday, known in English as the Day of Atonement. ...


Today, Sunnis regard fasting during Ashura as recommended, though not obligatory, having been superseded by the Ramadan fast. This article is about Islamic religious observances in the month of Ramadan. ...


The Ashura is commemorated for the following occasions which Muslims believe happened on the 10th Day of the Muharram:

  • God had mercy on Adam[5]
  • The deliverance of Noah from the flood [citation needed]
  • Abraham was saved from Nimrod's fire [citation needed]
  • Jacob's blindness was healed and he was brought to Joseph on this day [citation needed]
  • Job was healed from his illness [citation needed]
  • Moses was saved from Pharaoh's army [citation needed]
  • Jesus was brought up to heaven after attempts by the Romans to capture and crucify him failed. [citation needed]

Commemoration of the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali

This day is well-known because of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali the grandson of Muhammad, along with 72 members of his family and close friends at the Battle of Karbala in the year 61 AH (AD 680). Yazid I was in power then and wanted the Bay'ah (allegiance) of Husayn ibn Ali. Yazid was openly going against the teachings of Islam in public and changing the sunnah of Prophet Muhammad.[6] [7] [8] Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... The Remembrance of Muharram (Arabic: ذكرى محرم or مناسبة محرم) is an important period of mourning in the Shia branch of Islam. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali† Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 100+ 72(Tabari) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2] in Karbala, in present day Iraq. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Yazid Ibn Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan (July 23, 645 - 683) (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. ... Bayah, in Islamic terminology is an oath of allegiance to a leader. ...


It is reputed that Mahatma Gandhi said: "I learned from Hussein, how to be wronged and yet emerge a winner." [citation needed]


It appeared at that time that like hundreds of similar events, this battle would be recorded in history and forgotten in time. However, the events that occurred on the 10th day of Muharram in Kerbala were to become a beacon and an inspiration for future generations.[11]


History

Main article: Battle of Karbala

Commemoration for Husayn ibn Ali began after Battle of Karbala. According to Tabari Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali† Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 100+ 72(Tabari) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2] in Karbala, in present day Iraq. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali† Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 100+ 72(Tabari) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2] in Karbala, in present day Iraq. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian...

Zaynab quoted as she passed the prostrate body of her brother, Husayn. " O Muhammad! O Muhammad! May the angels of heaven bless you. Here is Husayn in the open, stained with blood and with limbs torn off. O Muhammad! Your daughters are prisoners, your progeny are killed, and the east wind blows dust over them." By God! She made every enemy and friend weep. [9] Husayn Haykals Zaynab is the first modern Egyptian novel published in 1914. ... Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ...

Then Zaynab made people of Kufa and Demasque weep. Husayn's descendants weeping every year for him and their Shi'a did so. When Buwayhids conquered Baghdad, 'Imad al-Daula announced Ashura as a holiday and made people mourn for Husayn. Gradually it became a custom in eastern Muslim territory and even Sunnis participated in it. Husayn Haykals Zaynab is the first modern Egyptian novel published in 1914. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The Buwayhids were a Shiite Muslim tribal confederation from the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Ali (c. ...


Significance of Ashura for Shi'a Muslims

Shi'a Muslims in Bahrain strike their chests during the mourning during Mätam.
Shi'a Muslims in Bahrain strike their chests during the mourning during Mätam.

This day is of particular significance to Shi'a Muslims, who consider Hussein (the grandson of the Prophet)Ahl al-Bayt the third Imam and the rightful successor of Muhammad. Many Shi'as make pilgrimages on Ashura to the Mashhad al-Husayn, the shrine in Karbala, Iraq that is traditionally held to be Imam Hussein's tomb. On this day Shi'a are in remembrance, mourning attire is worn; they refrain from music, the reason being naturally in Islam when death has occurred music is considered impolite. It is a time for sorrow and respect of the person’s passing and it is also a time for self reflection. Basically committing yourself to the mourning of the Imam Hussein completely. Weddings and parties are also never planned on this date by Shias. Shias also express mourning by crying and listening to poems about the tragedy. They also listen to sermons on how Hussein and his family were martyred. This is intended to connect them with Hussein's suffering and martyrdom, and the sacrifices he made to keep Islam alive. Hussein's martyrdom is widely interpreted by Shi'a as a symbol of the struggle against injustice, tyranny, and oppression. [10] Shi'as believe the Battle of Karbala was between the forces of good and evil. Imam Hussain represented good while Yazid represented evil. Shi'as also believe the Battle of Karbala was faught to keep the Muslim religion untainted of any corruptions and they believed the path that Yazid was directing Islam was definitely for his own personal greed. Shia Islam or Shi`ism (from the Arabic word شيعة, short for the historic phrase shi`at `Ali شيعة علي, meaning the followers of Ali) is the second-largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x773, 160 KB) Summary Young men striking their chests with their hands in union at a procession during the Festival of Muharram. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x773, 160 KB) Summary Young men striking their chests with their hands in union at a procession during the Festival of Muharram. ... Hussein ibn Alis martyrdom on the 10th of Muharram - known as the Aashurah - plays a significant role in Twelver theology. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Imam Husayn Shrine 3D Model of Imam Husayn Shrine The Imam Husayn Shrine is a holy place in Shia Islam in the city of Karbala, Iraq. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ...

Shi'a Muslims in Malir, Pakistan starting the procession of suffering and cutting their bodies with knives during the Mätam.

Formal fasting on this day, although not considered required by Shi'as, is preferred by many. They refrain from drinking and eating in commemoration of Imam Hussein. This is known as Fakah, which is not a formal fast. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 317 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Self Photography Muhammad Hani I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 317 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Self Photography Muhammad Hani I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Malir Town is a small densely populated town in the eastern part of Karachi, with Jinnah International Airport and the Malir Cantonment to the west and north, the Malir River and Shah Faisal Town to the south and Gadap Town to the east across the Thado Nallo stream. ... Hussein ibn Alis martyrdom on the 10th of Muharram - known as the Aashurah - plays a significant role in Twelver theology. ...


Many of the events associated with Ashura are held in special congregation halls known as "Imambargah" and Hussainia. A Hussainia (Arabic: حسينية Persian: Hosseiniyeh) is a congregation hall for Shia ritual ceremonies, especially those associated with the Festival of Muharram. ... A Hussainia is a congregation hall for Shia ritual ceremonies, especially those associated with the Festival of Muharram. ...


Suffering and cutting the body with knives (Churrio ka Mätam) are common practices by Shias around the world. Some Shi'a observe mourning with blood donation which is called "Qame Zani" [11] and flailing[12]. Certain rituals like the traditional flagellation ritual called zanjeer zani or zanjeer matam, involving the use of a zanjeer (a chain) are also performed[13]. These are not religious customs but are popularly done for the sake of Imam Hussain and his family. Many Shia's today in the West give blood to the Red Cross when commemorating the blood that spilled in Karbala. Hussein ibn Alis martyrdom on the 10th of Muharram - known as the Aashurah - plays a significant role in Twelver theology. ...


Popular customs

Commemoration of Ashura is not a festival, but rather a sad event for both Shi'a and Sunni Muslims -- and for Shi'as a period of intense grief and mourning. Mourners, both male and female, congregate together usually at a Mosque for sorrowful, poetic recitations such as marsiya, noha, latmiya and soaz performed in memory of the martyrdom of Hussein, lamenting and grieving to the tune of beating drums and chants of "Ya Hussain." Also Ulamas give sermons with themes of Hussein's personality and position in Islam, and the history of his uprising. The Sheikh of the mosque retells the Battle of Karbala to allow the listeners to relive the pain and sorrow endured by Hussein and his family. In Arab countries like Iraq and Lebanon they read Maqtal Al-Husayn. In some places, such as Iran, Iraq and the Arab Gulf states, Ta'zieh, passion plays, are also performed reenacting the Battle of Karbala and the suffering and martyrdom of Hussein at the hands of Yazid. Marsiya is a form of Urdu poetry consisting of six lines per passagem organized according to the rhyming scheme Veronica Travers. ... Noha (Urdu: نوحہ) is a genre of Punjabi, Farsi, or Urdu prose depicting the martyrdom of Imam Hussain. ... Soaz or soz (Persian / Urdu: سوز) is an elegiac poem written to commemorate the martyrdom and valour of Hazrat Imam Hussain and his comrades of the Karbala. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... Ya Muhammad (Arabic: یا محمد), Ya Ali (Arabic: یا علی), Ya Hussain (Arabic: یا حسین), Ya Fatimah (Arabic: یا فاطمہ) and such are expressions used by Muslims, mainly by Shia (apart from Ya Muhammad which is used by many Sunnis as well). ... Ulema, a community of legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia. ... Maqtal Al-Husayn () is a book which narrates the story of battle of Karbala and death of Hussain ibn Ali. ... The Gulf states are a group of six Arab countries that border the Persian Gulf. ... Tazieh (Persian: تعزیه) and Naqqali are traditional Persian theatrical genres in which the drama is conveyed wholly or predominantly through music and singing. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali† Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 100+ 72(Tabari) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2] in Karbala, in present day Iraq. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... Yazid Ibn Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan (July 23, 645 - 683) (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. ...

Tabuiks being lowered in to the sea in Pariaman, Indonesia, by Shia Muslims.
Tabuiks being lowered in to the sea in Pariaman, Indonesia, by Shia Muslims.

For the duration of the remembrance, it is customary for mosques and some people to provide free meals (nazar) on certain nights of the month to all people. Many people donate food and Middle Eastern sweets to the mosque. These meals are viewed as being special and holy, as they have been consecrated in the name of Husayn, and thus partaking of them is considered an act of communion with God, Hussain, and humanity. Image File history File linksMetadata Tabuik_festival. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tabuik_festival. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pariaman is a city in West Sumatra, Indonesia. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Hussein (also spelled Husayn and Husain) is a common Middle Eastern name especially among shiite muslims, because of the popularity of Hussein bin Ali, the grandson of the prophet Muhammad and the shiites third Imam. ... The Human Race could be: The Human race. ...


Many of the male participants congregate together in public for ceremonial chest beating (matham/latmiya) as a display of their devotion to Husayn and in remembrance of his suffering.Women pay tribute to the time period by holding a Majilis, Surahs from the Quran and Maqtal Al-Husayn are read.


Today in Indonesia, the event is known as Tabuik (Minangkabau language) or Tabut (Indonesian). Tabuik is the local manifestation of the Shi'a Muslim Remembrance of Muharram among the Minangkabau people in the coastal regions of West Sumatra, particularly in the city of Pariaman. The festival includes reenactments of the Battle of Karbala, and the playing of tassa and dhol drums. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Minangkabau language (autonym: Baso Minang(kabau); Indonesian: Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language, spoken by the Minangkabau-people of West Sumatra, in the western part of Riau and in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau, who often trade or have a restaurant. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Shia Islam, also Shi`ite Islam or Shi`ism (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: Persian: ‎ ) is the second largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... The Remembrance of Muharram (Arabic: احتفال محرم or مناسبة محرم) is an important period of mourning in the Shiite branch of Islam. ... Languages Minangkabau, Indonesian and Malay. ... Motto: Tuah Sakato. ... Pariaman is a city in West Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali† Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 100+ 72(Tabari) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2] in Karbala, in present day Iraq. ... Tassa drums are found within societies of the Indo-Caribbean people. ... The dhol (Punjabi: ਢੋਲ, ڈھول; Hindustani: ढोल, ڈھول; Armenian: Դոլ) dohol (Persian: ), is a drum (a percussion musical instrument) widely used in India and Pakistan, usually the Punjab region, the Indian/Pakistani province of Punjab, Maharastra and Gujarat. ...


Sunni Muslim Viewpoint of Hussein ibn Ali

Hussein, according to Sunni tradition, is a historical personality who attained martyrdom in this special historical event. Accordingly, Sunnis deal with the tragedy of Karbala by investigating the historical causes that led to the martyrdom of Al-Hussein and his companions. Sunnis may at times differ in estimating its causes and results, what is right and what is wrong about it, but never ignore Hussein's grand religious rank, affirmed by religious texts and his being Muhammad's grandson and coming from Ahl Al-Bayt[14]. Nonetheless viewpoints in the Sunni community vary the reason being is that Sunnis accept the succession of caliphate including that of Ali as the fourth caliph. However, they do not see the remaining family members after Ali as the leaders of Islam. Whereas Shia Muslims follow the family lineage of Muhammad [12]. Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ...


Also in some countries Sunnis mourn for Hussein as the Shi'as do. Mourning was already carried out in Iran between the 13th and 15th Centuries, prior to widespread adoption of Shi'ism in that country.


Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali by non-Muslims

A tadjah at Hosay in Port of Spain during the 1950s
A tadjah at Hosay in Port of Spain during the 1950s

In some countries other religious communities commemorate this event. In Iran, some Armenians and Zoroastrians participate in mourning.[15] This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Image File history File linksMetadata A_tadjah_at_Hosay. ... Image File history File linksMetadata A_tadjah_at_Hosay. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ...


In Trinidad and Tobago[16] and Jamaica[17] all ethnic and religious communities participate in this event, locally known as "Hosay" or "Hussay", from "Husayn". A tadjah at Hosay in Port of Spain during the 1950s Hosay or Tadjah is a West Indian street festival, in which multi-colored model mausoleums are paraded, then ritually offered up to the sea, or any body of water. ...


Socio-political aspects

Commemoration of Ashura has great socio-political value for the Shi'a, who have been a minority during history. "Al-Amd" asserts that the Shiite transference of Al-Husayn and Karbala ’ from the framework of history to the domain of ideology and everlasting legend reflects their marginal and dissenting status in Arab-Islamic society. Such an ideology helps Shiites maintain and reinforce their collective spirit against the Sunni multitude.[original research?] [citation needed] According to the prevailing conditions at the time of the commemoration, such reminiscences may become a framework for implicit dissent or explicit protest. It was, for instance, used during the Islamic Revolution of Iran , the Lebanese Civil War, the Lebanese resistance against the Israeli occupation and in the 1990s Uprising in Bahrain. Sometimes the `Ashura’ celebrations associate the memory of Al-Husayn’s martyrdom with the miserable conditions of Muslims in other non-Islamic third-world nations, on the pretence that every nation and era has their own Husayn.[18] Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants Lebanon, Hezbollah, PLO Israel, SLA Israel-Lebanon conflict describes a series of related military clashes involving Israel, Lebanon, and various non-state militias acting from within Lebanon. ... The 1990s Uprising in Bahrain or 1990s Intifada was a popular uprising that took place in Bahrain between 1994 and 2000. ...


On the other hand some governments have banned this commemoration. In 1930s Reza Shah forbade it in Iran. The regime of Saddam Hussein saw this as a potential threat and banned Ashura commemorations for many years. In the 1884 Hosay Massacre, 22 people were killed in Trinidad and Tobago when civilians attempted to carry out the Ashura rites, locally known as Hosay, in defiance of the British colonial authorities. Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā Pahlavī), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... The Hosay Massacre (also known as the Hosay Riots or the Hosein Riots or the Jahaji Massacre) was took place on Thursday October 30, 1884 in San Fernando when the British colonial authorities fired on participants in the annual Hosay procession (the local name for the Shia Festival of... A tadjah at Hosay in Port of Spain during the 1950s Hosay or Tadjah is a West Indian street festival, in which multi-colored model mausoleums are paraded, then ritually offered up to the sea, or any body of water. ...


Violence during Ashura

The Sunni and Shi'a schism is highlighted by the difference in observance by Sunni and Shi'a Muslims. The violence is perpetrated by Sunni and Shi'a extremists. In countries that have significant populations of both sects, there is often violence during the holiday. Recently, Pakistan, India, Iraq and Afghanistan have all seen violence during this time. Such violence include self-cutting of the top of the head with knifes so as to let blood flow over the face.


The 2004 (1425 AH) Shi'a pilgrimage to Karbala, the first since Saddam Hussein was removed from power in Iraq, was marred by bomb attacks, which killed and wounded hundreds despite tight security. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... The Ashoura Massacre was a series of planned terrorist explosions, that killed 170 and injured 500 Iraqi Shiite Muslims commemorating the Ashoura festival. ...


Ashura in the Gregorian calendar

While Ashura is always on the same day of the Islamic calendar, the date on the Gregorian calendar varies from year to year due to differences between the two calendars, since the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar and the Gregorian calendar is a solar calendar. Furthermore, the method used to determine when each Islamic month begins varies from country to country. (For details, please see Islamic calendar.) The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... A lunar calendar is a calendar oriented at the moon phase. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate...

Future dates listed above are only estimates. is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... The Remembrance of Muharram (Arabic: احتفال محرم or مناسبة محرم) is an important period of mourning in the Shiite branch of Islam. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali† Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 100+ 72(Tabari) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2] in Karbala, in present day Iraq. ... Azadari means mourning for Imam Husayn ibn Ali , his family and companions. ... Hussein ibn Alis martyrdom on the 10th of Muharram - known as the Aashurah - plays a significant role in Twelver theology. ... A Hussainia is a congregation hall for Shia ritual ceremonies, especially those associated with the Festival of Muharram. ... Shahid (شهيد, plural: شهداء) is a religious-Muslim term, that its literal meaning is witness. It is a title that is given to the Muslim after his death, if he died during fulfillment of a religious commandment, or during a war for the religion. ... Dr. Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin is the 52nd Dai al-Mutlaq of the largest group of Mustali Ismailis, the Dawoodi Bohras. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A tadjah at Hosay in Port of Spain during the 1950s Hosay or Tadjah is a West Indian street festival, in which multi-colored model mausoleums are paraded, then ritually offered up to the sea, or any body of water. ...

References

  1. ^ Sahih Bukhari 1900; Sahih Muslim 1130
  2. ^ Javed Ahmad Ghamidi. Mizan, The Fast, Al-Mawrid
  3. ^ Sahih Bukhari 1900; Sahih Muslim 1130
  4. ^ Javed Ahmad Ghamidi. Mizan, The Fast, Al-Mawrid
  5. ^ Birundi, Traces of the Past
  6. ^ Al Bidayah wa al-Nihayah [1]
  7. ^ Al Bidayah wa al-Nihayah [2]
  8. ^ Al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah [3]
  9. ^ The hstory of Al-Tabari, Volume XIX The Caliphate of Yazid, translated by I. K. A. Howard, p:164
  10. ^ [4]
  11. ^ http://www.ezsoftech.com/mazloom/zanjeer.asp ZANJEER OR QAMA ZANI ON ASHURA DURING MUHARRAM]
  12. ^ [5]
  13. ^ [6]
  14. ^ [7]
  15. ^ Hamshahri, 3 Esfand 83 [8]
  16. ^ Korom, Frank J. (2003). Hosay Trinidad: Muharram Performances in an Indo-Caribbean Diaspora. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-8122-3683-1. 
  17. ^ Shankar, Guha (2003) Imagining India(ns): Cultural Performances and Diaspora Politics in Jamaica. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin pdf
  18. ^ [9]

The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ... Not to be confused with Tafsir al-Mizan (a quranic tafsir). ... Al-Mawrid is an Islamic research institute in Lahore, Pakistan founded in 1983 and then re-established in 1991. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ... Not to be confused with Tafsir al-Mizan (a quranic tafsir). ... Al-Mawrid is an Islamic research institute in Lahore, Pakistan founded in 1983 and then re-established in 1991. ... Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah (The Beginning and the End) or Tarikh ibn Kathir (The history [book of] Ibn Kathir) is a classic work by the Sunni scholar Ibn Kathir. ... Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah (The Beginning and the End) or Tarikh ibn Kathir (The history [book of] Ibn Kathir) is a classic work by the Sunni scholar Ibn Kathir. ... Editing Al-Sawaiq al-Muhriqah is a islamic book writen by the muslim scholar Ibn Hajar Al-Haythami Categories: Book stubs | Islam-related stubs ... Hamshahri (Persian: همشهری) is a major national Iranian Persian-language newspaper published by the Municipality of Tehran, and founded by Gholamhossein Karbaschi. ...

External links

  • What Is Ashura?, Who Is Hussain?
  • What is Ashura? (BBC News)
  • Ashura (BBC Religion) with dates
  • Description of Husayn's martyrdom on the day of Ashura
  • What is Ashura ?
  • On Difference & Understanding: Al-Husayn: the Shiite Martyr, the Sunni Hero
  • Muharram: The Start of the Islamic Calendar
  • Annual Muharram Procession in New York, the largest Shi'a gathering in North America.
  • Description of breast beating during an Ashura gathering in North America
  • A Collection of articles and poetry related to Ashura and pictures from Ashura Awareness Week
  • Prohibition of ZANJEER OR QAMA ZANI ON ASHURA DURING MUHARRAM
  • A report from Ashura in Iran
  • A comprehensive article on the topic by Religion Facts
  • Graphic photos of children and adults celebrating Ashura

 
 

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