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Encyclopedia > Davidic line

Davidic line, (also House of David or Davidic Dynasty, sometimes referred to as Royal House of Israel), known in Hebrew as Malkhut Beit David ("Monarchy of the House of David") refers to the tracing of royal lineage by kings and major leaders in Jewish history to the Biblical King David in Judaism. Hebrew redirects here. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ...

Contents

History

Upon being chosen and becoming king, the custom in the times of the Tanakh was to be anointed with olive oil by having it poured on the head. In David's case, this was done by the prophet Samuel. The anointing is called meshicha (meaning "pouring") in Hebrew and that is why a king (melekh or melech in Hebrew) is referred to as a Mashiach or Messiah or a Melech HaMashiach meaning "The Anointed King". The procedure of anointment, in David's case symbolized the descent of God's holiness (kedusha) upon the king and as a sign of a bond never to be broken. Tanakh (Hebrew: ‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak, is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... A bottle of olive oil. ... Samuel or Shmuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל, Standard Tiberian ) is an important leader of ancient Israel in the Book(s) of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. ... The concept of the messiah in Judaism is briefly discussed in the Jewish eschatology entry. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Standard Hebrew Arabic: Al-Masih, المسيح), Tiberian Hebrew , Aramaic ) initially meant any person who was anointed by a prophet of God. ...


Since the monarchy was vouchsafed to David by God in the Book of Samuel: The Books of Samuel, also referred to as [The Book of] Samuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל), are (two) books in the Hebrew Bible (Judaisms Tanakh and originally writtten in Hebrew) and the Old Testament of Christianity. ...

  • "...Now he [David] was ruddy, and with beautiful eyes, and goodly to look upon. And the Lord said: 'Arise, anoint him; for this is he.' Then Samuel [the prophet] took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren; and the spirit of the Lord came mightily upon David from that day forward..." (I Samuel, 16:12-13), and
  • "And Nathan said to the king:...Thus says the Lord of hosts: I took you from the sheepcote, from following the sheep, that you should be prince over my people, over Israel. And I have been with you wherever you went, and have cut off all your enemies from before you; and I will make you a great name, like the name of the great ones that are in the earth... and I will cause you to rest from all your enemies. Moreover the Lord tells you that the Lord will make you a house....Then David the king went in, and sat before the Lord...'now therefore let it please you to bless the house of your servant, that it may continue forever before you; for you, O Lord God, have spoken it; and through your blessing let the house of your servant be blessed forever.'" (II Samuel, 7:1-29), and
  • "Then came all the tribes of Israel to David to Hebron, and spoke, saying: 'Behold, we are your bone and your flesh. In times past, when Saul was king over us, it was you that did lead out and bring in Israel; and the Lord said to you: You shalt feed my people Israel, and you shall be prince over Israel.' So all the elders of Israel came to the king to Hebron; and king David made a covenant with them in Hebron before the Lord; and they anointed David king over Israel..." (II Samuel, 5:1-3).

As well as in the Book of Chronicles: The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ...

  • "...So all the elders of Israel came to the king to Hebron; and David made a covenant with them in Hebron before the Lord; and they anointed David king over Israel, according to the word of the Lord by the hand of Samuel..." (I Chronicles, 11:3), and
  • "...And these are the numbers of the heads of them that were armed for war, who came to David to Hebron, to turn the kingdom of Saul to him, according to the word of the Lord...All these, being men of war, that could order the battle array, came with a whole heart to Hebron, to make David king over all Israel; and all the rest also of Israel were of one heart to make David king." (I Chronicles, 12:24;39).

Thus all subsequent monarchs in both the ancient first united Kingdom of Israel and the later Kingdom of Judah needed to show their direct descent from King David to validate their claim to the throne in order to rule over the Israelite and Jewish people in perpetuity. Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah...


In cases where this rule was broken, the verdict of history has not been kind according to classical understandings within traditional Judaism. Two important examples are:

  • After the death of King Solomon son of David, the ten northern tribes of the Kingdom of Israel revolted against the Davidic line, refusing to accept Rehoboam son of Solomon and instead chose as king Jeroboam who was not a member of King David's family. The fate of this northern kingdom was sealed when they were eventually conquered by Assyria who exiled them completely until they became The Ten Lost Tribes.
  • The Hasmoneans, also known as the Maccabees, who were priests, (kohanim) from the Tribe of Levi, established a monarchy of their own in Judea following their revolt and war against the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty. The Hasmoneans were not connected to the Davidic line that is attached to the Tribe of Judah. The Levites had always been excluded from the Israelite monarchy. When the Maccabees assumed the throne in order to re-dedicate the defiled Second Temple, a cardinal rule was nevertheless broken, and it has been considered to be contributing to their own downfall, and part of the eventual downfall of Judea and when internal strife brought in Rome and resulted in the violent non-Jewish Herod the Great becoming king, and eventually ended with the destruction of the Second Temple by the Roman Empire according to scholars within Orthodox Judaism.

With the cessation of the Jewish monarchy following the destructions of both the Temple of Solomon and the Second Temple, the line of the monarchy was always carefully preserved and guarded even though no kings such as David and his immediate descendants were alive. It was from that supposed Davidic line though that many great rabbis and "princes" of the people were claimed descent. Thus men such as the editor of the Mishnah, Rabbi Judah haNasi and his heirs were considered to be from the Davidic line, hence also the title "Nasi" meaning prince. Many of the heads of the Jewish communities in Babylon, the Reish Galuta were also described as being of the Davidic line. It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ... Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Rehoboam was king of Judah, succeeding his father Solomon. ... Jeroboam (increase of the people), the son of Nebat an Ephrathite (1 Kings 11:26-39), was the first king of the break-away ten tribes or Kingdom of Israel, over whom he reigned twenty-two years. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Lost Ten Tribes, also referenced as the Ten Lost Tribes or the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel, usually refers to the tribes of the ancient Kingdom of Israel that disappear from the Biblical account after the Kingdom of Israel was totally destroyed, enslaved and exiled by ancient Assyria. ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (pronunciation) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BC to 37 BC was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BC. Origin of the Hasmonean dynasty The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is... Wojciech Stattlers Machabeusze (Maccabees), 1844 The Maccabees (Hebrew: מכבים or מקבים, Makabim) were Jewish rebels who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... It has been suggested that Aaronites be merged into this article or section. ... In the Jewish tradition, a Levite (לוי Attached, Standard Hebrew Levi, Tiberian Hebrew Lēwî) is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BC, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi(successors). ... The Tribe of Judah (Hebrew: יְהוּדָה, Praise; Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) is one of the Hebrew tribes, founded by Judah, son of Jacob(Israel). ... A stone (2. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Hordes (Hebrew: הוֹרְדוֹס, ; Greek: , ; trad. ... A stone (2. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts (The Oral Law) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Solomons Temple was the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem which functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. ... A stone (2. ... A Rabbi (Classical Hebrew רִבִּי ribbī; modern Ashkenazi and Israeli רַבִּי rabbī) is a religious Jewish scholar who is an expert in Jewish law. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... Judah haNasi, or more accurately in Hebrew, Yehudah HaNasi, was a key leader of the Jewish community of Judea under the Roman empire, toward the end of the 2nd century CE. He was reputedly from the Davidic line of the royal line from King David, hence his title Prince (Nasi...


Subsequently, great rabbis such as Rashi, who was a descendant of Judah haNasi, and the Maharal of Prague, were all considered to be from the Davidic line by Orthodox Judaism. Note, however, that according to Rav Sherira Gaon, in his iggeret, Hillel the Elder, great-great-great-grandfather of Rabbi Judah haNasi, was descended from David only on his mother's side, and was actually of the tribe of Benjamin. Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Judah Low ben Bezalel (1525 — 1609) was a Jewish scholar and rabbi, most of his life in Prague. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts (The Oral Law) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Judah haNasi, or more accurately in Hebrew, Yehudah HaNasi, was a key leader of the Jewish community of Judea under the Roman empire, toward the end of the 2nd century CE. He was reputedly from the Davidic line of the royal line from King David, hence his title Prince (Nasi...


The future Jewish Messiah is expected to be from the "Davidic line" (The Tree of Life), see Jewish eschatology. Many prayers in the Jewish prayer book, the Siddur make fervent mention for the restoration of King David's monarchy, and the long-awaited Messiah who is referred to as Mashiach ben David, "Messiah son of [King] David". In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... The Tree-of-Life is a fictional plant (the ancestor of yams, with similar appearance and taste) in Larry Nivens Known Space universe, for which all Hominids have an in-built genetic craving. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The siddur (plural siddurim) is the prayerbook used by Jews over the world, containing a set order of daily prayers. ...


Christian view

Main article: Genealogy of Jesus Lukes genealogy of Jesus, from the Book of Kells transcribed by Celtic monks circa 800 The genealogy of Jesus through either one or both of his earthly parents (Mary and Joseph) is given by two passages from the Gospels, Matthew 1:2–16 and Luke 3:23–38. ...

Tree of Jesse in an Illuminated manuscript by the Master of James IV of Scotland, Flemish, 1510-20, Getty.
Tree of Jesse in an Illuminated manuscript by the Master of James IV of Scotland, Flemish, 1510-20, Getty.

It is stated in the Christian Gospels that Jesus was descended from David and has been Head of his dynastic house since birth, and is thereby the lawful King of Israel.[citation needed] Although Christian faith has it that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary and, consequently, has no natural human father, he is nevertheless considered to be a Prince of Judah as though Mary's husband Joseph were in fact his father. According to Jewish law a man is presumed to be the natural father of every child his wife bears, unless the contrary is judicially proved. Alternatively he can unilaterally deny paternity, but not when he has already taken paternal responsibility for the child, such as by naming him. Image File history File links Master_of_James_IV_of_Scotland_getty_Ms_ludwig_IX_18_f65_1510-20. ... Image File history File links Master_of_James_IV_of_Scotland_getty_Ms_ludwig_IX_18_f65_1510-20. ... 13th representation of the Tree of Jesse, ivory panel, Louvre The Tree of Jesse, in traditional Christian art, is a visual representation of Jesus ancestry. ... In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Additionally, in many ancient cultures, including Israelites, genealogy was not considered the same as paternity. For instance, under the Mosaic law, if a man died without offspring and he had a brother, the brother was legally required to marry the widow and the dead brother was considered the father of their first child (Genesis 38). Under such broader views, Jesus could be the legal son of Joseph, and therefore be from the line of David, without being Joseph's biological son and without being adopted.


Also, the New Testament lists two different genealogies for Jesus, one at the beginning of Matthew and one in Luke 3:23-38. Matthew says "A was the father of B, B was the father of C", etc. Luke, however, uses a word that can mean either "biological son" or "descendant", in the form "C was the son of B, who was the son of A". Matthew shows a lineage from David, father of Solomon and Luke shows a lineage through Nathan, a son of David. A common explanation offered by Christian biblical scholars is that Matthew is stating Joseph's line and Luke is stating Mary's line. Under this interpretation, Jesus would be a biological descendant of David through his mother. It is often this descent that is depicted in the Tree of Jesse subject in art, which usually shows Mary but rarely Joseph. 13th representation of the Tree of Jesse, ivory panel, Louvre The Tree of Jesse, in traditional Christian art, is a visual representation of Jesus ancestry. ...


Bahá'í view

Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the Bahá'í Faith, referring to himself stated, "The Most Great Law is come, and the Ancient Beauty ruleth upon the throne of David. Thus hath My Pen spoken that which the histories of bygone ages have related." (Proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh p. 29) His followers believe him to be another prophet of God; Jesus, Moses, Buddha and other great religious leaders being prophets as well. Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: ‎ Glory of God) (1817 - 1892), born (Persian: ‎ ), was the founder and prophet of the Baháí Faith. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ...


The issue of Bahá'u'lláh being the heir of David is of substantial importance to a small group known as the Bahá'ís Under the Provisions of the Covenant (BUPC). This group holds that the Old Testament paints a picture of two different Messiah's from the House of David each coming on a separate occasion; not the same Messiah appearing twice. They believe Jesus was the "first" Messiah and Bahá'u'lláh is the "second" and the heir of David. The Baháís Under the Provisions of the Covenant (BUPC) is a Baháí division founded originally by Dr. Leland Jensen. ...


For the Bahá'í Faith this question is not of general interest, and most read the above reference to the throne of David as symbolic rather than literal. The Central Figures, the Guardian, and the Universal House of Justice, have taken no position on the matter and, therefore, members are free to hold their own personal interpretations. However, the Bahá'í writings use the term "Messiah" exclusively in reference to Jesus. Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... Following is a list of members of the Baháí Faith who are in some way prominent. ... The last photograph of Shoghi Effendi, taken a few months before he died. ... Seat of The Universal House of Justice For the building, see the Seat of the Universal House of Justice The Universal House of Justice is the supreme governing institution of the Baháí Faith. ... Baháí literature, like much religious text, covers a variety of topics and forms, including scripture and inspiration, interpretation, history and biography, introduction and study materials, and apologia. ...


The question of whether or not Bahá'u'lláh is the actual heir of David is difficult to resolve. A few historians have traced Bahá'u'lláh's descent back to Bostanai. References and documentation in English is scarce and there have been several claimants to the title over the centuries each with their own evidence of ancestry which adds to the difficulty. [1] First exilarch under Arabian rule; flourished about the middle of the seventh century. ...


This genealogy, attributed to Grover Gonzales and available on an online Bahá'í reference library, notes significant gaps in the line of descent from Bostanai to Bahá'u'lláh. A more complete genealogy and charts compiled by David Hughes, which discusses the various claims of Davidic ancestry, can be compared to the Gonzales chart and the genealogy prepared by the BUPC, and the various differences noted.


One distinction between the Hughes genealogy and the BUPC's is that Hughes notes several generations where Bahá'u'lláh's line of descent was through younger sons.


References

Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: ‎ Glory of God) (1817 - 1892), born (Persian: ‎ ), was the founder and prophet of the Baháí Faith. ...

See also

This article needs cleanup. ... The History of Ancient Israel and Judah provides an overview of the ancient history of the Land of Israel based on classical sources including the Judaisms Tanakh or Hebrew Bible (known to Christianity as the Old Testament), the Talmud, the Ethiopian Kebra Nagast, the writings of Nicolaus of Damascus... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Standard Hebrew Arabic: Al-Masih, المسيح), Tiberian Hebrew , Aramaic ) initially meant any person who was anointed by a prophet of God. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... The Tree-of-Life is a fictional plant (the ancestor of yams, with similar appearance and taste) in Larry Nivens Known Space universe, for which all Hominids have an in-built genetic craving. ... Y-chromosomal Aaron is the name given to the hypothesised most recent common ancestor of many of the patrilineal Jewish priestly caste known as Kohanim (singular Kohen, Cohen, or Kohane). ...

External links

Jewish Encyclopedia.com: "Exilarchs"


 
 

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