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Encyclopedia > Davidian Revolution
Steel engraving and enhancement of the obverse side of the Great Seal of David I, portraying David in the "European" fashion the other wordly maintainer of peace and defender of jutice.

The Davidian Revolution is a term given by many scholars to the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of David I of Scotland. These included his foundation of burghs, implementation of the ideals of Gregorian Reform, foundation of monasteries, Normanization of the Scottish government, and the introduction of feudalism through immigrant French and Anglo-French knights. Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one strikes me with impunity) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the Crowns March 24, 1603  - Act of Union... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; also known as Saint David I or David I the Saint) (1084 – May 24, 1153), was King of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... Gregorian Reform is generally considered named after Pope Gregory VII(1073-1085), who personally denied this, and claimed it was named after Gregory the Great. ... Monastery of St. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Contents

Overview

Today King David I is still universally regarded as one of, if not the most significant ruler in Scotland's history. The reason is what Barrow and Lynch both call the "Davidian Revolution".[1] David's "revolution" is held to underpin the development of later medieval Scotland, whereby the changes inaugurated by King David grew into most of the the central non-native institutions of the later medieval kingdom. Barrow summarizes the many and varied goals of David I, all of which began and ended with his determination "to surround his fortified royal residence and its mercantile and ecclesiastical satellites with a ring of close friends and supporters, bound to him and his heirs by feudal obligation and capable of rendering him military service of the most up-to-date kind and filling administrative offices at the highest level".[2]


European Revolution: the wider context

Since Robert Bartlett's pioneering work, The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950-1350 (1993), reinforced by Moore's The First European Revolution, c.970–1215 (2000), it has become increasingly apparent that better understanding of David's "revolution" can be achieved by placing it under a wider European "revolution". The central idea is that from the late 10th century onwards the culture and institutions of the old Carolingian heartlands in northern France and western Germany spread to outlying areas, creating a more recognizable "Europe". In this model, the former areas constitute a "core" and the outlying areas a "periphery". The Norman conquest of England in the years after 1066 is considered to have made England more like if not part of this "core". In applying this model to Scotland, it would be considered that, as recently as the reign of David’s father Máel Coluim III, "peripheral" Scotland had lacked – in relation to the "core" cultural regions of northern France, western Germany and England – respectable Catholic religion, a truly centralized royal government, conventional written documents of any sort, native coins, a single merchant town, as well as the essential castle-building cavalry elite. After David’s reign, it had gained all of these.[3] As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ...


During the reign of king David I, then, comparatively straightforward evidence of "Europeanization" was produced in Scotland – that adoption of the homogenized political, economic, social and cultural modes of medieval civilization, suitably modified for the distinctive Scottish milieu, which in tandem with similar adoptions elsewhere led to the creation of "Europe" as an identifiable entity for the first time.[4] This is not to say that the Gaelic matrix into which these additions were disseminated was somehow destroyed or swept away; that was not the way in which the paradigm or "blueprint" of medieval Europe functioned – it was only a guide, one that specialized in amelioration, and not (usually) demolition.[5]


European revolution: the Gaelic context

Yet, David's life as a "reformer" also has a context in the Gaelic-speaking world. This is particularly true in understanding David's enthusiasm for the Gregorian Reform. The latter was a revolutionary movement within the western church partly pioneered in the papacy of Pope Gregory VII which sought renewed spiritual rigour, ecclesiastical discipline and doctrinal obedience to the papacy and its sponsored theologians.[6] The Normans who came to England adopted this ideology, and soon began attacking the Scottish and Irish Gaelic world as spiritually backward - a mindset which even underlay the hagiography of David's mother Margaret, written by her confessor Thurgot at the instigation of the English royal court.[7] Yet up until this period, Gaelic monks (often called Céli Dé) from Ireland and Scotland had been pioneering their own kind of ascetic reform both in Great Britain and in continental Europe, where they founded many of their own monastic houses.[8] Since the end of the 11th century various Gaelic princes had themselves been attempting to accomodate Gregorian reform, examples being Muirchertach Ua Briain, Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair, Edgar of Scotland and Alexander I of Scotland.[9] Benjamin Hudson stresses the cultural unity of Scotland and Ireland in this period, and uses the example of cooperation between David I, the Scottish reformer, and his Irish counterpart St Malachy, to show at least partly that David's actions can be understood in the Gaelic context as much as the Anglo-Norman one.[10] Indeed, the Gaelic world had never been closed off from its neighbours in England or continental Europe. Gaelic warriors and holymen had been travelling regularly through England and the continent for centuries. David's predecessor Mac Bethad mac Findlaích (King, 1040-57) had employed Norman mercenaries even before the conquest of England,[11] and English exiles after the conquest fled to the courts of both Máel Coluim III, King of Scotland, and Toirdelbach Ua Briain, King of Ireland.[12] Gregorian Reform is generally considered named after Pope Gregory VII(1073-1085), who personally denied this, and claimed it was named after Gregory the Great. ... Pope Gregory VII (c. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Turgot (or Thurgot) was the first Norman Bishop of Saint Andrews (then called Cell Rígmonaid, and Kilrymont by Scoto-Normans). ... The Culdees formed an ancient monastic order with settlements in Ireland and Scotland. ... Muircheartach Ua Briain was a high king of Ireland (1101-1118 AD). ... Tairrdelbach mac Ruaidri Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, born 1088, died 1156. ... Edgar of Scotland (Etgair mac Maíl Coluim) (1074 – January 8, 1107 ), was king of Scotland from 1097 to 1107. ... Alexander I (Alasdair mac Maíl Coluim) (c. ... St. ... For other uses, see Macbeth (disambiguation). ...


Government and feudalism

The widespread infeftment of foreign knights and the processes by which land ownership was converted from a matter of customary tenure into a matter of feudal or otherwise legally-defined relationships would revolutionize the way the Kingdom of Scotland was governed, as did the dispersal and installation of royal agents in the new mottes that were proliferating throughout the realm to staff newly-created sherriffdoms and judiciaries for the twin purposes of law-enforcement and taxation, bringing Scotland further into the "European" model.[13]


Military feudalism

Duffus Castle, possibly begun by Freskin, one of David's most successful small scale military immigrants.
Duffus Castle, possibly begun by Freskin, one of David's most successful small scale military immigrants.
A detail from the Bayeux Tapestry illustrating Norman knights in combat half a century before David's reign.

Scotland in this period experienced innovations in governmental practices and the importation of foreign, generally French, knights. It is to David's reign that the beginnings of feudalism are generally assigned. Geoffrey Barrow wrote that David's reign witnessed "a revolution in Scots dynastic law" as well as "fundamental innovations in military organization" and "in the composition and dominant characteristics of its ruling class".[14] This is defined as "castle-building, the regular use of professional cavalry, the knight's fee" as well as "homage and fealty". David established large scale feudal lordships in the west of his Cumbrian principality for the leading members of the French military entourage who kept him in power. Additionally, many smaller scale feudal lordships were created. One example would be Freskin. The latter's name occurs in a charter by David's grandson King William to Freskin's son, William, granting Strathbrock in West Lothian and Duffus, Kintrae, and other lands in Moray, "which his father held in the time of King David".[15] The name Freskin is Flemish,[16] and in the words of Geoffrey Barrow "it is virtually certain that Freskin belonged to a large group of Flemish settlers who came to Scotland in the middle decades of the 12th century and were chiefly to be found in West Lothian and the valley of the Clyde".[17] Freskin was responsible for building a castle in the distant territory of Moray, and because Freskin had no kinship ties to the locality, his position was dependent entirely on the king, thus brining the territory more firmly under royal control. Freskin's land acquisition does not appear to be unique, and may have been part of a royal policy in the aftermath of the defeat of king Óengus of Moray.[18] Duffus Castle Duffus Castle, near Elgin, Moray, Scotland, was a motte-and-bailey castle and served as a fortress-residence from c. ... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts scenes commemorating the Battle of Hastings in 1066, with annotations in Latin. ... William I the Lion ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. ... West Lothian or Linlithgowshire (Lodainn an Iar in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and a Lieutenancy area. ... Duffus is a village in Moray, Scotland, centred on a Mercat Cross. ... Geoffrey W.S. Barrow is a Scottish historian and academic. ... Óengus of Moray is the last Mormaer or King of Moray, which he ruled from some unknown date until his death in 1130. ...


Anglo-Normanizing government

Steps were taken during David's reigns to make the government of Scotland, or that part of Scotland David I adminstered, more like the government of Anglo-Norman England. New sheriffdoms enabled the King to effectively administer royal demesne land. During David I's reign, royal sheriffs had been established in the king's core personal territories; namely, in rough chronological order, at Roxburgh, Scone, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Stirling and Perth.[19] The Justiciarship too was created in David's reign. Two Justiciarships were created, one for Scotland-proper and one for Lothian, i.e. for Scotland north of the river Forth and Scotland south of the Forth and east of Galloway. Although this institution had Anglo-Norman origins, in Scotland north of the Forth at least it represented some form of continuity with an older office. For instance, Mormaer Causantín of Fife is styled judex magnus (i.e. great Brehon); the Justiciarship of Scotia hence was just as much a Gaelic office modified Normanisation as it was an import, illustrating Barrow's "balance of New and Old" argument.[20] Historically, the Royal Burgh of Roxburgh (Gaelic: Rosbrog), in the Scottish Borders, was an important trading burgh in the economy of Scotland. ... For the foodstuff see Scone (bread). ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ... Broad St at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area (called Top of the Town by locals) on a rare snowy day Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ... The Royal Burgh of Perth (Peairt in Scottish Gaelic) is a large burgh in central Scotland. ... In the medieval England and Scotland, a justiciar was an important legal and political figure. ... Lothian (Lowden in Scots, Lodainn in Gaelic) forms a traditional region of Scotland, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills. ... The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-ghaidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) today refers to the former counties of Wigtownshire and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright in southwest Scotland, but has fluctuated greatly in size over history. ... Mormaer Causantín of Fife is the first man we know for certain to have been Mormaer of Fife. ... The Justiciar of Scotia (in Norman-Latin, Justiciarus Scotie) was the most senior legal office in the High Medieval Kingdom of Scotland. ...


David I and the economy

‎Silver penny of David I.

Alston mines

An important source of David's wealth during his career came from the revenue of his English earldom and the proceeds of the silver mines at Alston. Alston silver allowed David to indulge in the "regalian gratification" of his own coinage, and to continue his project of attempting to link royal power and economic expansion.[21] Building programmes depended to a large degree on disposable income; consumption of foreign and exotic commodities broadened; men of ability and ambition found their way to court and entered the service of the king. What is more, no less than the written word, the coin acted upon the culture and mental categories of people who made use of it. Like a seal displaying the king in majesty, the coin broadcast the image of the ruler to his people and, more fundamentally, altered the simple nature of trade.[22] Though coins were not absent from Scotland before David, these were by definition foreign objects, unseen and unused by most of the population. The arrival of a native coinage – no less than the arrival of towns, laws and charters – marked the penetration of the "Europeanizing" concepts of European culture into ever less "non-European" Scotland.


Creation of burghs

Burghs established in Scotland before the accession of David's successor and grandson, Máel Coluim IV; these were essentially Scotland-proper's first towns.

David was also a great town builder. In part, David made use of the "English" income secured for him by his marriage to Matilda de Senlis in order to finance the construction of the first true towns in Scotland, and these in turn allowed the establishment of several more.[23] As Prince of the Cumbrians, David founded the first two burghs of "Scotland", at Roxburgh and Berwick.[24] These were settlements with defined boundaries and guaranteed trading rights, locations where the king could collect and sell the products of his cain and conveth (a payment made in lieu of providing the king hospitality) rendered to him. These burghs were essentially Scotland's first towns.[25] David would found more of these burghs when he became King of Scots. Before 1135, David laid the foundations of four more burghs, this time in the new territory he had acquired as King of Scots; burghs were founded at Stirling, Dunfermline and Edinburgh, three of David's favoured residences.[26] Around 15 burghs have their foundations traced to the reign of David I, although because of the sparsity of some of the evidence, this exact number is uncertain.[27] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (599x1111, 97 KB)Map of burghs probably founded before the death of David I of Scotland (Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (599x1111, 97 KB)Map of burghs probably founded before the death of David I of Scotland (Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim). ... Image of the young Máel Coluim IV, called Cenn Mór in the Gaelic annals of Ireland. ... Scotia was originally the Latin name for Ireland (also known to the Romans as Hibernia). ... Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon (1074-1130) was the daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria, the last of the major Anglo-Saxon earls to remain powerful after the Norman conquest in 1066. ... A burgh (pronounced burruh) is the Scots language equivalent of the English language borough. ... Historically, the Royal Burgh of Roxburgh (Gaelic: Rosbrog), in the Scottish Borders, was an important trading burgh in the economy of Scotland. ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ... Illustration by Arthur Rackham, Hunding and Sieglinde offering hospitality to Siegmund The act or practice of being hospitable, that is, the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers, with liberality and goodwill. ... Broad St at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area (called Top of the Town by locals) on a rare snowy day Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ... Dunfermline Abbey, main entrance. ... Edinburgh (pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ...


Effect of the burghs

Perhaps nothing in David's reign compares in importance to this. No institution would do more to reshape the long-term economic and ethnic shape of Scotland than the burgh. These planned towns were or became English in culture and language; as William of Newburgh would write in the reign of King William the Lion, describing the persecution of English-speakers in Scotland, "the towns and burghs of the Scottish realm are known o be inhabited by English"[28] and the failure of these towns to go native would in the long term undermine the position of the native Scottish language and give birth to the idea of the Scottish Lowlands.[29] William of Newburgh (1136?-1198?), also known as Nubrigensis, was a 12th century English historian, and monk, from Yorkshire. ... William I the Lion ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. ... The Scottish Lowlands ( an Galldachd in Gaelic ), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due south and east of a line (the Highland Boundary...


The thesis that the "rise of towns" was indirectly responsible for the medieval efflorescence of Europe has been accepted, at least in a circumscribed form, from the time Henri Pirenne, a century ago.[30] Commerce generated by and the economic privileges granted to merchant towns across northern Europe in the eleventh and twelfth centuries paid for, in new revenues, the increasing diversification of society and ensured that further growth would occur. What was of great importance for the future of Scotland was the creation by David of perhaps seven such jurisdictionally licensed communities at ancient royal centers and even at new sites, the latter mainly along his eastern seaboard.[31] While this could not, at first, have amounted to much more than the nucleus of an immigrant merchant class making use of the established marketplace for the purpose of disposing of the purely local harvest, in both crop and chattels, there is a sense of profound expectation inherent in such foundations. Regional trade and international trade never lagged far behind the opening of the royal burgh to the world, and that most such burghs were kept in royal demesne meant that the king reserved the right to an excise on all transactions occurring within their bounds and to charge custom dues on those vessels taking berth in their harbours.[32] Henri Pirenne (December 23, 1862, Verviers - October 25, 1935, Uccle) was a leading Belgian historian. ...


Religion

The changes that David was most noted for at the time, however, were his religious changes. The reason for this is that practically all our sources were Reform-minded monks or clerics, grateful to David for his efforts. David's changes, or alleged changes, can be divided into two parts: monastic patronage and ecclesiastical restructuring.


Monastic patronage

The modern ruins of Kelso Abbey. This establishment was originally at Selkirk from 1113, but was moved to Kelso in 1128 to better serve David's southern "capital" at Roxburgh.
The modern ruins of Kelso Abbey. This establishment was originally at Selkirk from 1113, but was moved to Kelso in 1128 to better serve David's southern "capital" at Roxburgh.

David was certainly at least one of medieval Scotland's greatest monastic patrons. In 1113, in perhaps David's first act as Prince of the Cumbrians, he founded Selkirk Abbey for the Tironensian Order. Several years later, perhaps in 1116, David visited Tiron itself, probably to acquire more monks; in 1128 he transferred Selkirk Abbey to Kelso, nearer Roxburgh, at this point his chief residence.[33] In 1144, David and Bishop John of Glasgow prompted Kelso Abbey to found a daughter house, Lesmahagow Priory.[34] David also continued his predecessor Alexander's patronage of the Augustinians, founding Holyrood Abbey with monks from Merton Priory. David and Bishop John, moreover, established Jedburgh Abbey with canons from Beauvais in 1138.[35] Other Augustinian foundations included St Andrew's Cathedral Priory, established by David and Bishop Robert of St Andrews in 1140, which in turn founded an establishment at Loch Leven (1150x1153); an Augustinian abbey, whose canons were taken from Arrouaise in France, was established by the year 1147 at Cambuskenneth near Stirling, another prominent royal centre.[36] However, by March 23 1137, David had also turned his patronage towards the Cistercian Order, founding the famous Melrose Abbey from monks of Rievaulx.[37] Melrose would become the the greatest medieval monastic establishment in Scotland south of the river Forth. It was from Melrose that David established Newbattle Abbey in Midlothian, Kinloss Abbey in Moray, and Holmcultram Abbey in Cumberland.[38] David also, like Alexander, patronized Benedictines, introducing monks to Coldingham (a non-monastic property of Durham Priory) in 1139 and having making it a priory by 1149.[39] David's activities were paralleled by other "Scottish" magnates. For instance, the Premonstratensian house of Dryburgh Abbey was founded in 1150 by monks from Alnwick Abbey with the patronage of Hugh de Morville, Lord of Lauderdale.[40] Moreover, six years after the foundation of Melrose Abbey, King Fergus of Galloway likewise founded a Cistercian abbey from Rievaulx, Dundrennan Abbey, which would become a powerful landowner in both Galloway and Ireland and was known to Francesco Pegolotti as Scotland's richest abbey.[41] Download high resolution version (650x865, 52 KB)Photo taken by Mick Knapton on holiday on 24/8/04 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (650x865, 52 KB)Photo taken by Mick Knapton on holiday on 24/8/04 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tironensian monks, of the Order of Tiron, also spelled Thiron - apparently from Latin thironium, a high hill (Guillemin, 1999)- so called after the location of the mother abbey (established in 1109) in the woods of Tiron, Perche (some 35 miles west of Chartres, France). ... The centre of Kelso with its cobbled square. ... Historically, the Royal Burgh of Roxburgh (Gaelic: Rosbrog), in the Scottish Borders, was an important trading burgh in the economy of Scotland. ... Kelso Abbey Kelso Abbey is a Scottish abbey built in the 12th century by a community of Tironensian monks (originally from Tiron, near Chartres, in France) who had moved from the nearby Selkirk Abbey. ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... Image:Holrodab. ... Merton Priory was founded in 1114 by Gilbert a sheriff of Henry I. By 1117 the foundation was colonised by canons from the Augustinian priory at Huntingdon and re-sited close to the River Wandle. ... Jedburgh Abbey from the River, 1798-99 by Thomas Girtin Jedburgh Abbey is an extremely old but important abbey in a poor state of repair, situated in Jedburgh, in the Borders of Scotland. ... Beauvais is a town and commune of northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Oise département. ... The Abbey of Arrouaise was the centre of a form of the Augustinian monastic rule, the Arrouaisian Order, which was popular among the founders of abbeys during the decade of the 1130s. ... The campanile at Cambuskenneth Abbey Cambuskenneth Abbey is a ruined Augustinian monastery located on an area of land enclosed by a meander of the River Forth near Stirling in Scotland. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in leap years). ... Cistercians coat of arms The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... Melrose Abbey, June 2004 Melrose Abbey, located in Melrose, Scotland, was founded in 1136 by Cistercian monks, on the request of King David I of Scotland. ... The ruins of the abbey church Rievaulx Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey located in the small village of Rievaulx (pronounced Ree-voh), near Helmsley in North Yorkshire. ... Newbattle Abbey was a Cistercian monastic community founded in 1140 by monks from Melrose Abbey. ... The central portions of the old province of Lothian in Scotland, centred around Edinburgh, became known as Midlothian, Scotland. ... Kinloss Abbey. ... Cumberland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ... A Benedictine is a person who follows the Rule of St Benedict. ... Coldingham is a historic village in Berwickshire, southeast Scotland. ... The Norbertines, also known as the Premonstratensians and in England, as the White Canons (from the color of their habit), are a Christian religious order of Augustinian canons founded at Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Saint Norbert, afterwards archbishop of Magdeburg. ... Dryburgh Abbey was founded in 1152 by Premonstratensian monks, on a site perhaps made sacred by Saint Modan around 600. ... Dundrennan Abbey, in Dundrennan, Scotland, near to Kirkcudbright, was a Cistercian monastery, established in 1142 by Fergus of Galloway, King David I of Scotland, and monks from Rievaulx Abbey. ...

The modern ruins of Melrose Abbey. Founded in 1137, this Cistercian monastery became one of David's greatest legacies.
The modern ruins of Melrose Abbey. Founded in 1137, this Cistercian monastery became one of David's greatest legacies.

Not only were such monasteries an expression of David's undoubted piety, but they also fuctioned to transform Scottish society. Monasteries became centres of foreign influence, being founded by French or English monks. They provided sources of literate men, able to serve the crown's growing administrative needs. This was particularly the case with the Augustinians.[42] Moreover, these new monasteries, and the Cistercian ones in particular, introduced new agricultural practices. In the words of one historian, the Cistercians were "pioneers or frontiersmen ... cultural revolutionaries, who carried new techniques of land management and new attitudes towards land exploitation".[43] Duncan calls Scotland's new Cistercian establishments "the largest and most significant contribution by David I to the religious life of the kingdom".[44] Cistercians equated spiritual health with economic achievement and environmental exploitation.[45] Cistercian labour transformed southern Scotland into one of northern Europe's main source of sheep wool.[46] Image File history File links MelroseAbbey01. ... Image File history File links MelroseAbbey01. ... Melrose Abbey, June 2004 Melrose Abbey, located in Melrose, Scotland, was founded in 1136 by Cistercian monks, on the request of King David I of Scotland. ... World literacy rates by country The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language–to read, write, listen, and speak. ...


Bishopric of Glasgow

Almost as soon as he was in charge of the Cumbrian principality, David placed the bishopric of Glasgow under his chaplain, John, whom David may have met for the first time during his participation in Henry's conquest of Normandy after 1106.[47] John himself was closely associated with the Tironensian Order, and presumably commited to the new Gregorian ideas regarding episcopal organization. David carried out an inquest, afterwards assigned to the bishopric all the lands of his principality, except those in the east of his principality which were already governed by the Scotland-proper based bishop of St Andrews.[48] David was responsible for assigning to Glasgow enough lands directly to make the bishopric self-sufficient and for ensuring that in the longer term Glasgow would become the second most important bishopric in the Kingdom of Scotland. By the 1120s, work also began on building a proper cathedral for the diocese.[49] David would also try to ensure that his reinvigorated episcopal see would retain independence from other bishoprics, an aspiration which would generate a great deal of tension with the English church, where both the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Archbishop of York claimed overlordship.[50] The Archbishop of Glasgow is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Glasgow. ... Tironensian monks, of the Order of Tiron, also spelled Thiron - apparently from Latin thironium, a high hill (Guillemin, 1999)- so called after the location of the mother abbey (established in 1109) in the woods of Tiron, Perche (some 35 miles west of Chartres, France). ... An inquest is a formal process of state investigation. ... The Bishop of St. ... A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ...


Church organization

It was once held that the Scotland's episcopal sees and entire parochial system owed its origins to the innovations of David I. Today, scholars have moderated this view. Although David moved the bishopric of Mortlach east to his new burgh of Aberdeen, and arranged the creation of the diocese of Caithness, no other bishoprics can be safely called David's creation.[51] The bishopric of Glasgow was restored rather than resurrected.[52] In the case of the Bishop of Whithorn, the resurrection of that see was the work of Thurstan, Archbishop of York, with King Fergus of Galloway and the cleric Gille Aldan.[53] That aside, Ailred of Rievaulx wrote in David's eulogy that when David came to power, "he found three or four bishops in the whole Scottish kingdom [north of the Forth], and the others wavering without a pastor to the loss of both morals and property; when he died, he left nine, both of ancient bishoprics which he himself restored, and new ones which he erected".[54] What is very likely is that, as well as preventing the long vacancies in bishoprics which had hitherto been common, David was at least partly responsible for forcing semi-monastic "bishoprics" like Brechin, Dunkeld, Mortlach (Aberdeen) and Dublane to become fully episcopal and firmly integrated into a national diocesan system.[55] As for the development of the parochial system, David's traditional role as its creator can not be sustained.[56] Scotland already had an ancient system of parish churches dating to the Early Middle Ages, and the kind of system introduced by David's Normanizing tendencies can more accurately be seen as mild refashioning, rather than creation; he made the Scottish system as a whole more like that of France and England, but he did not create it.[57] The Archbishop of Glasgow is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Glasgow. ... Thurstan, or Turstin (d. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Fergus of Galloway was King, or Lord, of Galloway from an unknown date (probably in the 1110s), until his death in 1161. ... Gilla Aldan of Whithorn, was a native Galwegian who was the first Bishop of the resurrected Bishopric of Whithorn or Galloway. ... Aelred of Hexham, Abbot of Rievaulx, hence also known as Ailred of Rievaulx (b. ... The Bishop of Brechin is the Ordinary of the Scottish Episcopal Diocese of Brechin. ... The Bishop of Dunkeld is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dunkeld in the Province of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. ... The Bishop of Dunblane or Bishop of Strathearn was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Dunblane/Strathearn, one of medieval Scotlands thirteen bishoprics. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Barrow, "The Balance of New and Old", pp. 9-11; Lynch, Scotland: A New History, p. 80.
  2. ^ Barrow, "The Balance of New and Old", p. 13.
  3. ^ Bartlett, The Making of Europe, pp. 24-59; Moore, The First European Revolution, c.970–1215, p. 30ff; see also Barrow, "The Balance of New and Old", passim, esp. 9; this idea of "Europe" seems in practice to mean "Western Europe".
  4. ^ Moore, The First European Revolution, c.970–1215, p. 30 ff; Haidu, The Subject Medieval/Modern, p. 156ff.; Bartlett, The Making of Europe, pp. 24-59, esp. 51-59. The idea of "Europe" would have been available to contemporaries of David, though the concept of "Christendom" would have been more familiar. This usage of "Europe" in the sense of a unified cultural entity is identified only by modern historians.
  5. ^ Moore, The First European Revolution, c.970–1215, pp. 38-45; Bartlett, The Making of Europe, p. 104.
  6. ^ G. Ladner, "Terms and ideas of renewal", pp. 1-33; C. H. Lawrence, Medieval Monasticism, pp. 86, 92, 94-5, 149-50, 163-4; Bartlett, Making of Europe, pp. 243-68; Malcolm Barber, Two Cities, pp. 85-99
  7. ^ Robert Bartlett, "Turgot (c.1050–1115)", in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 , accessed 11 Feb 2007; William Forbes-Leith, Turgot, Life of St Margaret, Queen of Scotland, passim; Baker, "'A Nursery of Saints", pp. 129-132.
  8. ^ See, for instance, Dumville, "St Cathróe of Metz", pp. 172–188; Follett, Céli Dé in Ireland, pp. 1-8, 89-99.
  9. ^ John Watt, Church in Medieval Ireland, pp. 1-27; Veitch, "Replanting Paradise", pp. 136-66
  10. ^ Hudson, "Gaelic Princes and Gregorian Reform", pp. 61-82.
  11. ^ Barrow, "Beginnings of Military Feudalism", p. 250.
  12. ^ Ó Cróinín, Early Medieval Ireland, p. 277.
  13. ^ Haidu, The Subject Medieval/Modern, p. 181; Moore, The First European Revolution, p. 57: "The requirement of tithe…defined the community dependent on each church, and endowed it with clear, universally known borders".
  14. ^ Barrow, ‘Balance’, 9-11.
  15. ^ G.W.S. Barrow, The Acts of William I King of Scots 1165-1214 in Regesta Regum Scottorum, Volume II, (Edinburgh, 1971), no. 116, pp. 198-9; trs. of quote, "The Beginnings of Military Feudalism" in Barrow (ed.) The Kingdom of the Scots, 2nd Ed. (2003), p. 252.
  16. ^ See Barrow, "The Beginnings of Military Feudalism", p. 252, n. 16, citing T. Forssner, Continental Germanic Personal Names in England, (Uppsala, 1916), p. 95; J. Mansion, Oud-Gentsche Naamkunde, (1924), p. 217; and G. White (ed.), Complete Peerage, vol. xii, pt. I, p. 537, n. d.
  17. ^ G.W.S. Barrow, "Badenoch and Strathspey, 1130-1312: 1. Secular and Political" in Northern Scotland, 8 (1988), p. 3.
  18. ^ See Richard Oram, "David I and the Conquest of Moray", p. & n. 43; see also, L. Toorians, "Twelfth-century Flemish Settlement in Scotland", pp. 1-14.
  19. ^ McNeill & MacQueen, Atlas of Scottish History p. 193
  20. ^ See Barrow, G.W.S., "The Judex", in Barrow (ed.) The Kingdom of the Scots, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 57-67 and "The Justiciar", also in Barrow (ed.) The Kingdom of the Scots, pp. 68–111.
  21. ^ Norman Davies, The Isles: A History, Sec. 4, p.85 [photo]; Oram, David I: The King Who Made Scotland, p. 193ff; Bartlett, The Making of Europe, p. 287. To put the true importance of David’s silver in perspective, consider this comment of Ian Blanchard, "Lothian and Beyond: The Economy of the ‘English Empire’ of David I", p.29: "The discovery of [silver at Alston in] 1133 marked the beginnings of the first great regional mining boom which was at its height in c.1136-8 yielded an output of some three or four tones of silver a year, or some ten times more than had been produced in the whole of Europe during any year of the past three-quarters of a millennium". Gold was essentially reserved for religion.
  22. ^ Oram, David I: The King Who Made Scotland, pp. 193, 195; Bartlett, The Making of Europe, p. 287: "The minting of coins and the issue of written dispositions changed the political culture of the societies in which the new practices appeared".
  23. ^ Oram, 192.
  24. ^ Duncan, Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom, p. 465.
  25. ^ See G.W.S. Barrow, Kingship and Unity: Scotland, 1000-1306, (Edinburgh. 1981), pp. 84-104; see also, Keith J. Stringer, "The Emergence of a Nation-State, 1100-1300", in Jenny Wormald (ed.), Scotland: A History, (Oxford, 2005), pp. 66-9.
  26. ^ Duncan, p. 265.
  27. ^ Stringer, "The Emergence of a Nation-State", p. 67. Regarding the uncertainty of numbers, Perth may date to the reign of Alexander I; Inverness is a case were the foundation may date later, but may date to the period of David I: see for instance the blanket statement that Inverness dates to David I's reign in Derek Hall, Burgess, Merchant and Priest: Burgh Life in the Medieval Scottish Town, (Edinburgh, 2002), compare Richard Oram, David I: The King Who Made Scotland, p. 93, where it is acknowledged that this is merely a possibility, to A.A.M. Duncan, Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom, p. 480, who quotes a charter indicating that the burgh dates to the reign of William the Lion.
  28. ^ A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 256.
  29. ^ Stringer, "The Emergence of a Nation-State", 1100-1300", p. 67; Michael Lynch, Scotland: A New History, pp. 64-6; Thomas Owen Clancy, "History of Gaelic", here
  30. ^ Henri Pirenne, Medieval cities : their origins and the revival of trade, trans. F.D. Halsey, (Princeton, 1925); Barrow, "The Balance of New and Old", p. 6.
  31. ^ Oram, David I', p. 80-82; Bartlett, The Making of Europe, pp. 176-177: "Scottish urban law originally derived from Newcastle upon Tyne". Early Scottish towns (p. 181) had mainly English immigrant populations.
  32. ^ Bartlett, The Making of Europe, p. 176: "Princes wanted towns, because they were profitable..."
  33. ^ Oram, David I: The King Who Made Scotland, p. 62; Duncan, Scotland: The Making of a Kingdom, pp. 145.
  34. ^ Duncan, Scotland: The Making of a Kingdom, pp. 145, 150.
  35. ^ Duncan, Scotland: The Making of a Kingdom, p. 150.
  36. ^ A.A.M. Duncan, "The Foundation of St Andrews Cathedral Priory, 1140", pp. 25, 27-8.
  37. ^ Richard Fawcett & Richard Oram, Melrose Abbey, p. 20.
  38. ^ Fawcett & Oram, Melrose Abbey, illus 1, p. 15.
  39. ^ Duncan, Scotland: The Making of a Kingdom, pp. 146-7.
  40. ^ Duncan, Scotland: The Making of a Kingdom, pp. 150-1.
  41. ^ Keith J. Stringer, "Reform Monasticism and Celtic Scotland", .pp. 128-9; Keith J. Stringer, The Reformed Church in Medieval Galloway and Cumbria, pp. 11, 35.
  42. ^ Peter Yeoman, Medieval Scotland, p. 15.
  43. ^ Fawcett & Oram, Melrose Abbey, p. 17.
  44. ^ Duncan, Scotland: The Making of a Kingdom, p. 148.
  45. ^ Fawcett & Oram, Melrose Abbey, p. 17.
  46. ^ See, for instance, Stringer, The Reformed Church in Medieval Galloway and Cumbria, pp. 9-11.
  47. ^ Oram, David: The King Who Made Scotland, p. 62.
  48. ^ To a certain extent, the boundaries of David's Cumbrian Principality are conjecture on the basis of the boundaries of the diocese of Glasgow; Oram, David: The King Who Made Scotland, pp. 67-8.
  49. ^ G. W. S. Barrow, "King David I and Glasgow", pp. 208-9.
  50. ^ Duncan, Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom, pp. 257-9.
  51. ^ Oram, p. 158; Duncan, Making, p. 257-60; see also Gordon Donaldson, "Scottish Bishop's Sees", pp. 106-17.
  52. ^ Shead, "Origins of the Medieval Diocese of Glasgow", pp. 220-5.
  53. ^ Oram, Lordship of Galloway, p. 173.
  54. ^ A. O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 233.
  55. ^ Barrow, Kingship and Unity, pp. 67-8
  56. ^ Ian B. Cowan wrote that "the principle steps were taken during the reign of David I": Ian B. Cowan, "Development of the Parochial System", p. 44.
  57. ^ Thomas Owen Clancy, "Annat and the Origins of the Parish", in the Innes Review, vol. 46, no. 2 (1995), pp. 91-115.

References

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