FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > David Lewis (politician)
David Lewis
David Lewis (politician)

David Lewis in 1970
(National Archives and Library of Canada)
David Lewis The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ...


Leader of the New Democratic Party
In office
1971 – 1975
Preceded by Tommy Douglas
Succeeded by Ed Broadbent
Constituency Canada

Federal Member of Parliament
In office
1962 – 1963
Preceded by William G. Beech, Progressive Conservative
Succeeded by Marvin Gelber, Liberal
Constituency York South
Majority 3,678 plurality

Federal Member of Parliament
In office
1965 – 1974
Preceded by Marvin Gelber, Liberal
Succeeded by Ursula Appolloni, Liberal
Constituency York South

Born June 23 or October, 1909[1]
Flag of Russia Svisloch, Russian Empire (now Belarus)
Died May 23, 1981
Flag of Canada Ottawa, Ontario
Political party Co-operative Commonwealth Federation
& New Democratic Party
Spouse Sophie Lewis (née Carson)
Children Stephen Lewis, Michael Lewis, Janet Solberg, Nina Libeskind
Residence Toronto/Ottawa, Ontario
Occupation Lawyer
Religion Jewish
  1. ^ Smith,p.93

David Lewis (born Losz),[1] CC, MA (June 23, or October 1909 -May 23, 1981)[1][2] was a Russian-born Canadian labour lawyer and social democratic politician. He was national secretary of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) from 1936 to 1950, and was one of the key architects of the New Democratic Party (NDP) in 1961. He was the NDP's national leader from 1971 to 1975. 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Clement Douglas, PC, CC, SOM, MA, LL.D (hc) (October 20, 1904 – February 24, 1986) was a Scottish-born Baptist minister who became a prominent Canadian social democratic politician. ... John Edward Ed Broadbent, PC, CC, Ph. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1962 election The Canadian federal election of 1962 was held on June 18, 1962 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Map of Canadas provinces and territories and which party won the most votes in each province and territory and their popular vote. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... York South was the name of an electoral district or riding used for electing members to the Canadian House of Commons and the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. ... In the Canadian federal election of 1965, the Liberal Party of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson was re-elected with a larger number of seats in the Canadian House of Commons. ... The House of Commons after the 1974 election The Canadian federal election of 1974 was held on July 8, 1974 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Ursula Appolloni (December 7, 1929 – December 29, 1994) was a Canadian Member of Parliament (MP). ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... York South was the name of an electoral district or riding used for electing members to the Canadian House of Commons and the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Svislach (Свiслач, Polish: Swisłocz, Russian: Свислочь, Svisloch) is a town in the South-West of Hrodna voblast, Belarus, the capital of Svislach raion. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS, October... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Location of the City of Ottawa in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Established 1850 as Town of Bytown Incorporated 1855 as City of Ottawa Amalgamated January 1, 2001 Government  - Mayor Larry OBrien  - City Council Ottawa City Council  - Representatives 8... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. ... The New Democratic Party (NPD; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... This article is about the Canadian politician and broadcaster. ... Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Location of the City of Ottawa in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Established 1850 as Town of Bytown Incorporated 1855 as City of Ottawa Amalgamated January 1, 2001 Government  - Mayor Larry OBrien  - City Council Ottawa City Council  - Representatives 8... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... A lawyer, according to Blacks Law Dictionary, is a person learned in the law; as an attorney, counsel or solicitor; a person licensed to practice law. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ... The degree of Master of Arts degree is an undergraduate degree awarded by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge as well as by the University of Dublin. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Democratic Party (NPD; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


His politics were heavily influenced by the Jewish Labour Bund and because of that, he was always an advocate of parliamentary democracy. He was an avowed anti-communist. He prevented the communist movement from being much of a force during his years at Oxford University. In Canada, he played a major role in the removal of communist influence from within the Labour Movement. A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... The labour movement (or labor movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labor relations. ...


In the CCF, he was the disciplinarian that had to deal with all the party's internal organizational problems. He helped draft the Winnipeg Declaration, which modernized the CCF's economic policies to include an acceptance of capitalism, though under the eye of government regulators. As the United Steelworkers of America's legal counsel in Canada, he helped them take over the Mine, Mill union. His involvement with the USW also meant he had a central role in uniting the labour movement with the creation of the Canadian Labour Congress in 1956. The United Steel Workers of America (USWA) claims over 1. ... The Western Federation of Miners (WFM) was a radical labor union that gained a reputation for militancy in the mine fields of the western United States. ... The Canadian Labour Congress, or CLC (in French le Congrès du travail du Canada or CTC) is the central labour body in Canada to which most Canadian labour unions are affiliated. ...


The Lewis family has been active in socialist politics since the turn of the twentieth century in Russia. His son, Stephen Lewis, continued the tradition and became the leader of the Ontario NDP in 1970. When David became the NDP's national leader, in 1971, they became one of the few father and son teams to simultaneously head political parties in Canada. In retirement, he was named to the Order of Canada for his political service. After a lengthy battle with cancer, he died in Ottawa in 1981. This article is about the Canadian politician and broadcaster. ... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ... Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Location of the City of Ottawa in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Established 1850 as Town of Bytown Incorporated 1855 as City of Ottawa Amalgamated January 1, 2001 Government  - Mayor Larry OBrien  - City Council Ottawa City Council  - Representatives 8...

Contents

Early life in Russia

David Lewis, his family's original name was Losz, was born sometime after Svisloch, Russia's, first snowfall in October 1909 (officially, he was born on June 23, 1909 because that was the date he gave the immigration officer in Halifax, Nova Scotia, when he arrived in Canada.).[1]His parents were Moishe and Rose Losz (née Lazarovitch). [3] His father was the leader of the Jewish Labour Bund in his hometown and worked in the Tanneries.[4] Svislach (Свiслач, Polish: Swisłocz, Russian: Свислочь, Svisloch) is a town in the South-West of Hrodna voblast, Belarus, the capital of Svislach raion. ... Halifax can refer to any of several things: // Australia Halifax Bay, North Queensland Canada Halifax Regional Municipality City of Halifax (dissolved city) Halifax County, Nova Scotia (dissolved county) Halifax (electoral district) Halifax International Airport Namibia Halifax Island United Kingdom Halifax, West Yorkshire Halifax (UK Parliament constituency) Halifax bank (formerly building... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area...


The Bund and Jewish life in the Pale

To understand David Lewis's political activism requires an examination of his roots in the Shtetl he lived in from 1909 until 1921. Svisloch was located in the Russian Empire's Pale of Settlement, near the Polish and Russian border in present-day Belarus.[5] The old market town was overwhelmingly Jewish, with 3500 of its 4500 residents being of that faith.[6] Unlike many of the other shtetls in the Pale, it had an industrial economy based on the tannery business.[6] The shtetl's semi-urban industrial population was receptive to social democratic politics and the labour movement, as embodied by the Jewish Labour Bund in the early twentieth century.[7] A shtetl or shtetele (Yiddish: , diminutive form of Yiddish shtot, town) was typically a small town or village with a large Jewish population in pre-Holocaust Central and Eastern Europe. ... Svislach (Свiслач, Polish: Swisłocz, Russian: Свислочь, Svisloch) is a town in the South-West of Hrodna voblast, Belarus, the capital of Svislach raion. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS, October... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: Черта оседлости - cherta osedlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to near the border with eastern/central Europe. ... Tanned leather in Marrakech This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... The labour movement (or labor movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labor relations. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the...


Moishe Losz was Svisloch's Bund Chairman.[6] David Lewis would spend his formative years immersed in the Bund's culture and philosophy. The Bund was an outlawed socialist party that called for overthrowing the Tsar, equality for all, and national rights for the Jewish community.[8] The Bund's membership, although mostly Jewish, was actually secular humanist in practice.[9] The Bund was both a working political party and a labour movement.[10] It was preoccupied in changing the system that was at the roots of low pay and dangerous, harsh working conditions.[10] At its beginning, the Bund realized that its project could only be successful if it were local in focus. A notion that is seen in one of its maxims, “a real revolutionary movement must have it roots... in its own environment.”[11] Another important maxim that would influence Moishe, David, and his son Stephen was: “It is better to go along with the masses in a not totally correct direction than to separate oneself from them and remain a purist.”[11] This philosophy of compromise, has been part of both the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) and New Democratic Party's (NDP) practices, and came into play between their “ideological missionaries and the power pragmatists when internal debates raged about policy or action.[11] As Cameron Smith puts it in his book Unfinished Journey: Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... ... The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. ... The New Democratic Party (NPD; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ...

The legacy of the Bund is their sense of social justice, the identification with workers, the focus on organization, the commitment to equality and democratic procedures, fierce anti-communism, secular humanism, multi-culturalism, the sense of international community, the anger with exploitation – in these things the genes of the Bund live on.[12]

When the Russian Civil War and the Polish-Soviet War were at their fiercest, in the summer of 1920, Poland invaded, and the Red Russian Bolshevik army counter-attacked. The Bolsheviks were on Svisloch's border in July 1920. Moishe Losz openly opposed the Bolsheviks and would later be jailed by them for his opposition.[13] He barely escaped with his life. When the Polish army recaptured Svisloch on August 25, 1920, they executed five Jewish citizens as “spies.”[14] This was a false charge and was more of a tactic to keep the locals scared and not to participate in counter insurgency. Seeing that he wasn't safe under either regime, and the prospects for the future of his family were bleak, he left for Canada in May 1921, to work in his brother-in law's clothing factory in Montreal. By August, he saved up enough money to send for his family, including David, Charlie, and Doris.[15] Combatants Red Army Latvian Riflemen White Army (Monarchists) Ukrainian Peoples Republic Green Army (Cossacks) Black Army (Anarchists) Blue Army (Peasants) Czechoslovak Legion Allied intervention Other anti-Bolshevik forces Commanders Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Sergei Kamenev, Semyon Budyonny, Mikhail Frunze Alexander Antonov, Anton Denikin, Alexander Kolchak, Lavr Kornilov, Pyotr Wrangel... Main article: Polish-Soviet War Soviet Forces in early 1920 Soviet forces has recently been very successful against the White Russians, defeating Denikin, and signed peace treaties with Latvia and Estonia. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (in unity, prosperity) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ...


David Lewis was a secular Jew – just like his father Moishe. However, his maternal grandfather, Usher Lazarovitch, was religious and in the brief period between May and August before David emigrated, gave his grandson the only real religious training he would ever receive.[16] Even though he wasn't yet thirteen, the age when Jewish boys have their Bar Mitzvah and complete their religious instruction, his grandfather proceeded to teach him how to wear the phylacteries. Other than attending morning services with his grandfather during this period, Lewis would not actively take part in a religious service again until his granddaughter Ilna's Bat Mitzvah in the late 1970s.[17] In practice the Lewis clan was atheist which includes David, his wife Sophie, and their children Janet, Stephen, and Michael.[18] Tefillin, also called phylacteries, are leather objects used in Jewish prayer, containing Biblical verses. ...


Early life in Canada

The family came to Canada by boat and landed in Halifax, Nova Scotia. They then went by rail to Montreal to meet-up with Moishe Lewis. David Lewis came to Canada as a native Yiddish speaker, understanding very little English. He learned the language by buying a copy of Charles Dickens' novel The Old Curiosity Shop, and a Yiddish - English dictionary. A teacher of Welsh descent, at Fairmont Public School where Lewis was a student, helped him learn the language. But he also passed on his Welsh accent to Lewis.[19] Motto: Template:Unhide = E Mari Merces (Wealth from the Sea) Logo: Location City Information Established: April 1, 1996 Area: (former city) 79. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Dickens redirects here. ... The Old Curiosity Shop is a novel by Charles Dickens. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... This article is about the sub-division of the United Kingdom. ...


He entered Baron Byng High School in September 1924. He soon became friends with A.M. (Abe) Klein, who was to become one of Canada's leading poets. He also met Irving Layton another giant of Canadian literature. Lewis played political mentor to Layton.[20] Irving Layton, poet. ... A.M. Klein (February 14, 1909-August 20, 1972) was a Canadian author. ... Irving Layton OC (March 12, 1912 – January 4, 2006) was a Canadian poet. ...


Baron Byng High School was predominately Jewish in population because, at the time, it was in the heart of Montreal's non-affluent Jewish community. It was ghetto-like because Jews from outside the school district were not allowed to go to other high schools, like Montreal High.[21]


Besides making friends with some of Canada's future literary stars, he met the woman that would eventually become his wife: Sophie Carson. Klein introduced them, as he was their mutual friend. She came from a second generation Jewish-Canadian family, that maintained a religious home. Her father did not approve of David due to him being a recent immigrant to Canada, with what originally looked like no prospects.[22]


David spent five years at McGill University in Montreal: four in arts, and one in Law. He helped found the Montreal branch of the Young People's Socialist League (YPSL).[23] While at McGill he lectured at this anti-communist socialist club, and was its nominal leader.[24] McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... YPSLs Logo The Young Peoples Socialist League (YPSL) is a democratic socialist youth group originally affiliated with the Socialist Party of America. ...


In his third year, Lewis founded The McGilliad campus magazine.[25] Many of his anti-communist views were printed in it during 1930-31. Even though he was an anti-communist, he published in the December 1930 issue his approval of the Russian Revolution and called for a greater understanding of the Soviet Union.[25] Throughout his career, he would attack communism, but would always have a sympathy for the grand experiment of 1917.[25] While at McGill, he met and worked with prominent Canadian socialists like F.R. Scott, Eugene Forsey, J. King Gordon, and Frank Underhill. He would later work with all of them in the CCF party in the 1940s and 1950s.[26] Francis Reginald Scott (Frank Scott, F.R. Scott) (August 1, 1899 - January 30, 1985) was a Canadian poet, intellectual and constitutional expert. ... Hon. ... J. King Gordon was the 1980 recipient of the Pearson Medal of Peace for his work in peacekeeping. ... Frank Hawkins Underhill (November 26, 1885 - September 16, 1971) was a Canadian historian, social critic and political thinker. ...


Lewis' Marxism

He rejected the need for both the necessity for violent revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat. These were rejected due to his Bundist roots. The Bund insisted, to the point of obsession, that the revolution should be sought through democratic means, as Marx had judged possible in the late 1860s, and that democratic procedures should continue to prevail for everyone after the revolution.[27] The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ...


Lewis rejected the views of followers of the Bolshevik revolution as Lenin called those who insisted on full democratic procedures "liquidationists," meaning that they had fallen prey to reformism and bourgeois tendencies.[28] Stalin referred to Lewis' type of social democratic Marxism as "social fascists."[29] It is not surprising that Lewis had an undying antagonism towards communists. The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... Reformism is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Fabian socialism influenced Lewis mainly because of its reach was so expert, its approach so humane, and its focus on issues so practical and immediate.[30] Fabianism mainly influenced him in terms of policies that could be implemented and in procedures that underlined democratic practices, not in his determination to lay siege to the power structure.[30] The British Labour Party, with its parliamentary approach to attaining power, and its organizational prowess, was similar to the Bund's approach.[30] As Lewis biographer Cameron Smith points out: "So what he ended up with was a modified Bundist interpretation of Marxism. Call it, if you will, Parliamentary Marxism. It was a Marxian analysis of economics and a parliamentary approach to politics. And if David were forced to choose, he would have chosen Parliamentary over Marxism."[30] Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... The Fabian Society is a British socialist intellectual movement best known for its initial ground-breaking work beginning in the late 19th century and then up to World War I. Similar societies exist in Australia and New Zealand. ... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in England, Scotland and Wales. ...


Rhodes Scholarship and Oxford

When David Lewis entered Lincoln College, at Oxford in 1932,[31] he immediately took up a leadership role in the university's socialist-labour circles. Michael Foot , the future leader of the British Labour Party in the 1980s reminicising about Lewis, College name Lincoln College Named after Richard Fleming, Bishop of Lincoln Established 1427 Sister college Downing College, Cambridge Rector Prof. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Michael Foot, see Michael Foot (disambiguation). ...

the most powerful socialist debater in the place. I don't think with any rival.... He had a very powerful influence indeed amongst students, partly because he had so much more experience than the rest of us but partly because he had brilliant debating powers. I mean one of the best I've ever heard. If you talk of tough political debates, well, he was absolutely unbeatable.... I knew him [at Oxford] when I was a Liberal [and] he played a part in converting me to socialism.[32]

Labour Club

When Lewis came to Oxford, the Labour Club was a tame organization adhering to Christian activism, or the not-quite-so-scrappy-socialist theories of people such as R.H.Tawney and his book The Acquisitive Society. David's modified Bundist interpretation of Marxism, that Smith labels "Parliamentary Marxism," ignited the renewed interest in the club after the disappointment with Ramsay MacDonald's Labour government.[30] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Richard Henry Tawney (R.H. Tawney) (1880 - 1962) was an English writer, economist, historian, social critic and university professor and a leading advocate of Christian Socialism. ... James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


The Oxford newspaper Isis noted Lewis' leadership ability at this early stage in his career in their February 7, 1934 issue: "The energy of these University Socialists is almost unbelievable. If the Socialist movement as a whole is anything like as active as they are, then a socialist victory at the next election is inevitable."[33]


In February 1934, British fascist William Joyce, (Lord Haw Haw), visited Oxford. Lewis and future Ontario CCF leader Ted Jolliffe , organized a noisy protest against the fascist, by simply planting Labour Club members, in the dance hall that Joyce was speaking in, and causing a commotion as groups of two and three, left making much noise on the creaking wooden floors. The speech was foiled. Afterwards, the Blackshirt contingent had a street battle in Oxford with members of the Labour Club and the townsfolk.[34] Joyce lies in an ambulance under armed guard before being taken from British Second Army Headquarters to hospital. ... Lord Haw-Haw was a propaganda radio program broadcast by Nazi German radio to audiences in Britain and Ireland on the mediumwave station Radio Hamburg and by shortwave to the United States. ... The Ontario New Democratic Party (formerly known as the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, Ontario Section) is a social democratic political party in Ontario, Canada. ... Edward (Ted) Bigelow Jolliffe (1909-1998) was a Canadian politician and lawyer and was the first leader of the Ontario Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. ... The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. Inspired by Garibaldis Redshirts, the Blackshirts were organized by Benito Mussolini due to his disgust with the corruption and apathy of the...


Lewis prevented the communists from really making inroads at Oxford. He increased membership by three quarters by the time he left.[35] Ted Jolliffe stated "there was a difference between his speeches at the Union and his speeches at the Labour Club. His speeches at th Union had more humour in them; the atmosphere was entirely different. But his speeches at the Labour Club were deadly serious.... His influence at the Labour Club, more than anyone else's, I think, explains the failure of the Communists to make headway there. Here were so many naive people around who could have been taken in.[36]


The Oxford Union

At the end of January 1933, Lewis made his first appearance at th Oxford Union, probably the most prestigious and important debating club in the English speaking world,[37] The debate was on the resolution "That the British Empire is a menace to International good will" and, Lewis was one of the participants for the "Aye" side.[37]Smith, p.180</ref> They lost. The Oxford Union Society, commonly referred to simply as the Oxford Union, is a private debating society in the city of Oxford, whose membership is drawn primarily but not exclusively from the University of Oxford. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


The debate that brought Lewis to some level of early prominence was the debate on February 9, 1933. The debate topic was so controversial, that it was news around the English Empire and beyond.[38] The resolution was, "That this House will under no circumstances fight for its King or Country." Lewis again spoke for the "Aye" side. They won overwhelmingly and this caused an uproar throughout the Empire's newspapers.[38] The Times of London entered the fray by poo-pooing those that took the Union and their motion seriously.[38] February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Lewis became a member of the Union's Library Committee on March 9, 1933. He would eventually progress to the treasurer's position in March 1934. After two attempts, he became the president of the Union by winning a close election in late November 1934. He was president during the Hilary Term, from the beginning of January until the end of April 1935.[39] The Isis commented that "... David Lewis... will be, beyond question, the least Oxonian person ever to the lead the Society. In appearance, background, and intellectual outlook he is a grim antithesis to all the suave, slightly delicate young men who for generations have sat on the Union rostrum...."[40]


British Labour Party

David Lewis was a very bright star in the British Labour Party. Upon his graduation, in 1935, the Labour Party offered him a safe seat in the British House of Commons.[41] At the time of his graduation, Lewis hit a proverbial fork-in-the-road: stay in England or go home to Canada. If he were to stay in England, he likely would have been a partner in a prominent London law firm associated with Stafford Cripps, and become a cabinet minister the next time Labour formed government. Cripps, then a prominent barrister and Labour Party official was grooming Lewis to be Prime Minister of England. Lewis' other choice, was to return to Montreal, and help build the fledgling Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF), with no financial nor political assuredness. In the end, he gave-up certain success in England and sailed back to Canada to the unpredictability of working for the CCF.[41] The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in England, Scotland and Wales. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Sir Richard Stafford Cripps, known as Stafford Cripps, (April 24, 1889 - April 21, 1952) was a British Labour politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer for several years following World War II. // Cripps was born in London. ... The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. ...


Back to Canada, marriage and the Social Gospel cohabits with Marx

After he and Sophie Carson returned to Montreal from Oxford, they wed. They were married on August 15, 1935 in his parents' home, with a rabbi performing a mostly civil law ceremony, as most traditional Jewish practices were not observed.[42] August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...


J.S. Woodsworth personally wrote a handwritten note on June 19, 1935 asking Lewis to come back to Canada and work for the CCF.[43] In 1935 David Lewis became the National Secretary. As Lewis biographer Cameron Smith put it: J.S. Woodsworth James Shaver Woodsworth (July 29, 1874 &#8211; March 21, 1942) was a pioneer in the Canadian social democratic movement. ...

Into this political whirlwind stepped David. A centralist in a nation that was decentralizing. A socialist in a country that voted solidly capitalist. A campaigner for a party with no money, facing two parties each of which was big, powerful, and affluent. A professional, in a party of amateurs who mostly thought of themselves as a movement, not a party. An anti-Communist at a time when Canadian Communists were about to enter their heyday. A publicist seeking a unified voice for a party riven with dissent. An organizer whose leader, J.S. Woodsworth, really didn't believe in organization, thinking that the CCF should remain a loosely knit, co-operative association and believed this so implicitly that when it came time to appoint Lewis full-time to the job of national secretary [in 1938] he resisted, fearing the CCF would lose its spontaneity. That Lewis not only survived, but prevailed is a testament to his skill and perseverance.[44]

Most of the founders of the CCF – J.S. Woodsworth, T.C. Douglas, M.J. Coldwell, Stanley Knowles, etc., were informed by the Social Gospel of the Christian Protestant-movement.[45] David Lewis' Marxist based socialism, balanced by the Bund's fundamentally democratic principles, felt an affinity to the Social Gospel. Both the Bund and the Social Gospel were focused on the here and now, not some reward in the afterlife. They both called on people to change their environment for the better, themselves. Social Justice, the brotherhood of man, the morality of striving to become a good person, were all in common to both projects.[45] Thomas Clement Douglas, PC, CC, SOM, MA, LL.D (hc) (October 20, 1904 – February 24, 1986) was a Scottish-born Baptist minister who became a prominent Canadian social democratic politician. ... M.J. Coldwell and David Lewis looking over some papers together Major James William Coldwell, PC, CC (December 2, 1888–August 25, 1974), usually known as M.J., was a Canadian socialist politician, and leader of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation party from 1942 to 1960. ... Stanley Howard Knowles, PC , OC , BA , BD , LL.D (June 18, 1908 - June 9, 1997) was a Canadian parliamentarian. ... The Social Gospel movement is a Protestant movement that was most prominent in the late 19th and early to mid-20th century. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


CCF National Secretary

Book cover of the 1943 book about the CCF's history and policies. This is a reproduction of the 2001 reprinted version.

It became obvious after the October 1937 Ontario election, that the party needed an image change. It was seen by the electorate as far too Left.[46] F.R. Scott wrote to Lewis to point this out.[47] He mentioned not only moderating some of the policies, but "... in the political arena we must find our friends among the near right."[48] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 386 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (824 × 1279 pixel, file size: 50 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned either by the artist who created the cover or the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 386 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (824 × 1279 pixel, file size: 50 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned either by the artist who created the cover or the... The Ontario general election, 1937 was the twentieth general election held in the Province of Ontario, Canada. ...


In August 1938, David Lewis quits the Ottawa law firm of Smart and Biggar to work full-time as CCF National Secretary. His starting salary was $1200 per year.[49] Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Make this your Canada

Make this YOUR CANADA was a book that Lewis co-wrote, with F.R. Scott – then the CCF's National Chairman, in 1943. Its basic tenants were that national economic planning had proven itself during wartime conditions, with the King government imposing wage and price controls by way of the Wartime Prices and Trade Board.[50] There was enough evidence, according to them, to indicated that since it worked in wartime, why not apply it to create peace-time prosperity in a mixed economy?[51] They also called for social ownership of key economic sectors, and have a company prove that it can work better in the private sector rather than the public.[52] The book also outlined the early history of the CCF up until that time and explained how the party made decisions. It was by Canadian standards a popular book, selling over 25,000 copies in its first year of publication.[49][53] Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This box:      A planned economy is an economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions about the production and allocation of goods and services. ... A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ...


Trying to create an organization

During his tenure as the National Secretary, he emphasized organization over ideology and forging links to unions.[54] From this point forward, Lewis worked to moderate the party's image and remove the more radical language of the Regina Manifesto that seemed to scare-off moderate voters. The offending lines in the Manifesto were: "[that] No CCF government will rest content until it has eradicated capitalism and put into operation the full programme of socialized planning...."[55] Lewis, Federal Party Leader M.J. Coldwell and Clarie Gillis would spend the next 19 years trying to modify this declaration, finally succeeding with the 1956 Winnipeg Declaration. A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... The cover page of an original edition of the Regina Manifesto. ... M.J. Coldwell and David Lewis looking over some papers together Major James William Coldwell, PC, CC (December 2, 1888–August 25, 1974), usually known as M.J., was a Canadian socialist politician, and leader of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation party from 1942 to 1960. ... Clarence (Clarie) Gillis, MP (October 3, 1895–December 17, 1960) was a Canadian social democratic politician and trade unionist from Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. ...


A key concession that Lewis won at the November 1944 convention was "that even large business could have a place in the party – if they behave."[56] The key concern was monopoly capitalism, and how to prevent it. Specifically, Lewis was able to pass the following resolution "The socialization of large-scale enterprise, however, does not mean taking over every private business. Where private business shows no signs of becoming a monopoly, operates efficiently under decent working conditions, and does not operate to the detriment of the Canadian people, it will be given every opportunity to function, to provide a fair rate of return and to make its contribution to the nation's wealth.[57] This allowed for a mixed-economy, that still left most jobs in the private sphere.[58] The theory of state monopoly capitalism (Stamocap or Stamokap theory) was initially a Marxist-Leninist doctrine popularised after World War II. Lenin had claimed in 1917 that World War I had transformed monopoly capitalism into state monopoly capitalism, but he did not publish any extensive theory about the topic. ...


If anything, Lewis was keenly aware that the struggle was to not remain "ideologically pure," and that the party had to watch what it said. As the old Bundists knew "it was better to go along with the masses in a not totally correct direction than to separate oneself from them and remain "purist".[59] The problem was that the CCF was as much a "movement" as it was a "political party." Members frequently undermined the party. Lewis criticized the B.C. CCF for recent comments published in their paper: "...what we say and do must be measured by the effect which it will have on our purpose of mobilizing people for action. If what we say and do will blunt or harm our purpose...then we are saying and doing a false thing even if, in the abstract, it is true... When, in heaven's name are we going to learn that working-class politics and the struggle for power are not a Sunday-school class where purity of godliness and the infallibility of the Bible must be held up without fear of consequences."[60]

Federal Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (C.C.F.) Party delegation attending the September 1944 Conference of Commonwealth Labour Parties in London, England . Pictured from left to right: Clarie Gillis, MP for Cape Breton South; David Lewis, National Secretary; M.J. Coldwell, National Leader, MP for Rosetown—Biggar, Percy E. Wright, MP for Melfort; and Frank Scott, National Chairman.

David Lewis was the party's heavy. He was the bearer of bad news. This did not help his popularity. But considering he witnessed first-hand the Left ripe itself apart in 1930s Europe, he was quick to end self-immolating tactics or policies.[61] He would satisfy party members criticizing the party, but when it evolved into self mutilation, he cut it down with a pitiless, decisively cut-throat urgency, before it could harm the CCF.[61] This was most apparent when Lewis attacked and discredited Frank Underhill and his handling of Woodsworth House. It didn't matter that Underhill was one of Lewis' mentors, when Woodsworth House was stricken with financial difficulties in the late 1940s, Lewis was quick to blame and then discharged Underhill and the rest of the Woodsworth executive of their responsibilities. It was an unfortunate event that cost the CCF in the academic and intellegensia world.[61] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate 50... Clarence (Clarie) Gillis, MP (October 3, 1895–December 17, 1960) was a Canadian social democratic politician and trade unionist from Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. ... Cape Breton South was a former federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Nova Scotia. ... M.J. Coldwell and David Lewis looking over some papers together Major James William Coldwell, PC, CC (December 2, 1888–August 25, 1974), usually known as M.J., was a Canadian socialist politician, and leader of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation party from 1942 to 1960. ... Rosetown—Biggar was a federal electoral district in Saskatchewan, Canada, that was represented in the Canadian House of Commons from 1935 to 1968. ... For the provincial electoral district, please see Melfort (provincial electoral district) Melfort was the name of a federal electoral district in Saskatchewan, Canada. ... Francis Reginald Scott (Frank Scott, F.R. Scott) (August 1, 1899 - January 30, 1985) was a Canadian poet, intellectual and constitutional expert. ...


To sum up Lewis' reign, discipline and solidarity were paramount. There had to be limits to discussion and tolerance of dissenting views.


1943-1945 defeated politician

The party asked Lewis to run in the 1943 by-election in the Montreal, Quebec federal riding of Cartier. It became vacant due to the death of its MP, Peter Bercovitch on Boxing Day 1942 (December 26). Lewis was up against fellow Jew, Fred Rose, the Communist Party candidate. It was a vicious campaign, that A.M. Klein immortalized in an uncompleted novel called Come the Revolution.[62] The novel was eventually broadcasted in the 1980s on Lister Sinclair's[63] Ideas programme on CBC Radio One.[62] If the Communist rhetoric could be believed: "Lewis was a Fascist done up in brown."[64] Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (in unity, prosperity) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water... Cartier was a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that was represented in the Canadian House of Commons from 1925 to 1968. ... Peter Bercovitch (September 17, 1879 – December 26, 1942) was a Canadian provincial and federal politician. ... Boxing Day is a public holiday observed in many Commonwealth countries on 26 December. ... Fred Rose is the name of a promotor of country music in the US, elected to the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1961 - see Fred Rose, country music (1898-1954) a polish-born Communist politician and trade union organiser in Canada - see Fred Rose, politician (1907-1983) This is... The Labour-Progressive Party was a Communist party in Canada. ... A.M. Klein (February 14, 1909-August 20, 1972) was a Canadian author. ... Lister S. Sinclair, OC, MA , LL.D (1921 - October 16, 2006) was a Canadian broadcaster and playwright. ... Ideas is a long running high-brow radio documentary show on CBC Radio One. ... CBC Radio One is the English language news and information radio network of the publicly-owned Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. ...


On election day, Lewis would experience something he wasn't accustomed to in his career to date: defeat and humiliation. It was a bitterly fought campaign, the likes of which could be traced back to Svilotch and the battles between the Red and White armies in the Russian Civil War.[62] Rose won and became the first, and only (as of 2007), Communist to sit in the House of Commons as a Member of Parliament. Lewis placed fourth. The sizable Jewish vote mostly went to Rose. The leftist "common front" punished Lewis, by supporting Rose who was seen to be of the community because Lewis was, at the time, living in Ottawa. It took Lewis many years to recover from this campaign, and in 1945, the reverberation of this campaign coloured Lewis' decision on where to run.[65]

By-election on 9 August 1943
Party Candidate Votes %
     Labour-Progressive Fred Rose 5,789 30.42
     Bloc populaire canadien Paul Masse 5,639 29.63
     Liberal Lazarus Phillips 4,180 21.97
     Co-operative Commonwealth David Lewis 3,313 17.41
     Independent Moses Miller 109 0.57



The Communist Party of Canada is a communist political party in Canada. ... Categories: 1907 births | 1983 deaths | Canadian historical figures | Members of the Canadian House of Commons | Canadian communist politicians | Soviet spies | People from Quebec | People stubs ... The Bloc populaire canadien was a political party in the Canadian province of Quebec founded on September 8, 1942 by opponents of conscription during World War II. In the April 27, 1942 national referendum held in Canada, a little more than 70% of Quebec voters refused to free the federal... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. ...


1945 elections: disappointment and defeat

M.J. Coldwell and David Lewis looking over some papers together

The federal and the Ontario elections of 1945 were possibly the most crucial to Canada in the 20th century.[65] Like in England, it was the time of the beginning of the Welfare State, and depending on which party got in, would literally set the course of political thought, for good or ill, to the end of the century and beyond.[65] 1945 would turn out to be a disaster for the CCF, both nationally and in Ontario, for the CCF would never fully recover from these defeats, and would, in 1961 be forced to dissolve and become the New Democratic Party.[65] As NDP strategist and historian Gerald Caplan put it: "June 4, and June 11, 1945, proved to be black days in CCF annuals: socialism was effectively removed from the Canadian political agenda."[65] Image File history File links David_Lewis. ... Image File history File links David_Lewis. ... Hon. ... The Ontario general election of 1945 was held to elect the 90 members of the Legislative Assembly (Members of Provincial Parliament, or MPPs) of the Province of Ontario, Canada. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... The New Democratic Party (NPD; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ...


The anti-socialist crusade by the Ontario Conservatives, mostly credited to the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) special investigative branch's agent D-208 (Captain William J. Osborne-Dempster), and the Conservative propagandists Gladstone Murray and Montague A. Sanderson,[66] were quite effective considering how high in the polls the CCF were in late 1943 and early 1944.[67] The Ontario Provincial Police (O.P.P.) is the provincial police force for the province of Ontario, Canada. ...


The other side of this 'perfect storm' for destroying the CCF's support was the unofficial coalition between the Liberal Party of Canada and the communist Labour-Progressive Party.[68] It guaranteed a split in the left-of-centre vote, with devastating effectiveness for both allies.[69] The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Labour-Progressive Party was a Communist party in Canada. ...


Why Lewis ran in a Hamiliton riding as opposed to a safe open Winnipeg riding that voted for the CCF since its inception and had a substantial Jewish population is not really known and is open to debate. Historians and activists disagree on the exact reason, but the shock of the Cartier election probably made Lewis gun-shy to run in another knock-down battle with another Jewish Communist candidate.[69] Lewis was soundly defeated, along with his party in the June 11 election.[69] June 11 is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Fighting Communist influence

The 1945 defeats were partially the result of an alliance between the Communist Party's representatives in Canada: the Labour-Progressive Party (LPP).[70] There was an unofficial alliance between the LLP and the Federal Liberals, and it cost the CCF seats in the House and Legislature. There is no question that the LPP focused in on CCF seats, and deliberately split the vote.[71] The LPP declared a 'Liberal–Labour" coalition on May 29, 1944.[72] The Labour-Progressive Party was a Communist party in Canada. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


The Communists, more or less, declared open warfare on the CCF in 1944, with spokesman John Weir stating in the LPP's Canadian Tribune newspaper that "a resounding defeat of the CCF at the polls must be [their] main objective.[73]


The Canadian Congress of Labour (CCL) supported the CCF, but the Trades and Labour Congress (TLC) refused to officially endorse them. This lack of unity between the two main Canadian umbrella Labour organizations, to give their endorsement, hurt the CCF. This disunity was part of the Liberal–Communist alliance plan and was manifested in the TLC's governing body: president Percey Berough was a Liberal, and the vice-president Pat Sullivan was a Communist.[74] They made sure that the CCF did not get the support it needed to fight the 1945 elections. The Canadian Congress of Labour(CCL) was founded in 1940 and merged with Trades and Labour Congress of Canada(TLC) to form the Canadian Labour Congress(CLC) in 1956. ... The Trades and Labour Congress of Canada was a Canada-wide central federation of trade unions from 1883 to 1956. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ...


In the Ontario provincial election, the communists then urged trade union members to vote for the right-wing Conservative , George Drew, rather than the CCF.[72] The Ontario Progressive Conservative Party (PC Party of Ontario, also known as Tories) is a right-of-centre political party in Ontario, Canada. ... Colonel The Honourable George Alexander Drew, PC , CC , QC (May 7, 1894 - January 4, 1973) was a Canadian conservative politician who founded a Progressive Conservative dynasty in Ontario that lasted 42 years. ...


David Lewis knew something had to be done. So he and Charles Millard of the Canadian Congress of Labour decided to root the communists out of organized labour's decision-making bodies.[75] Their first target was the Sudbury, Ontario CCF riding association and its affiliated Mine, Mill Local 598.[76] The only problem was that Local 598 was not under Communist control: out of 11,000 dues-paying members, very few were communists (less than 100).[77] Over the next twenty years, a fierce battle was waged to take over Local 598 by Millard's United Steel Workers of America. Steel won. Charles Hibbert (Charlie) Millard (August 25, 1896 - November 24, 1978) was a Canadian trade union activist and politician. ... Greater Sudbury (2001 census population 155,219) is a city in Northern Ontario. ... The Western Federation of Miners (WFM) was a radical labor union that gained a reputation for militancy in the mine fields of the western United States. ... The United Steel Workers of America (USWA) claims over 1. ...


The attacks on the Sudbury CCF were even more costly, at least in terms voter support. Sudbury's Bob Carlin was one of the few CCF MPPs to survive the Drew government's landslide victory in the 1945 Ontario election. He was part of Jolliffe's team that made the CCF's breakthrough in the 1943 Ontario provincial election. But first and foremost, he was a union man. He was a long-time labour organizer, going back to 1916 and the predecessor union to Mine, Mill: the Western Federation of Miners. Carlin was loyal to his union, Local 598, and he spent ten years building it up. That's where he would get into trouble with the CCF establishment in both Toronto and Ottawa.[78] Robert Carlin (1901 - 1991) was a Canadian labour union organizer and politician, who represented the electoral district of Sudbury in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1943 to 1948. ... Western Federation of Miners famous flyer entitled Is Colorado in America? The Western Federation of Miners (WFM) was a radical labor union that gained a reputation for militancy in the mine fields of the western United States. ...


Charles Millard, Ted Jolliffe, and David Lewis did not directly accuse Carlin of being a communist. Instead, they attacked him for not dealing with the perceived problem of communists in the Sudbury Mine Mill local. Local 598 was built by both Communists and CCFers, with the CCFers firmly in control of the executive. Carlin's first loyalty was to the men and women who helped build Local 598, regardless of their political affiliation. This is what got him in trouble with Lewis and Jolliffe. So Lewis and Jolliffe made the case to expel him from the Ontario CCF caucus at a special meeting of the CCF executive and the legislative caucus in Toronto on April 13, 1948.[79] In essence, Carlin became a causality of Steel's plans to raid Mine, Mill. The CCF lost the seat in the 1948 Ontario election, placing forth to the Conservatives and Carlin, as an independent, finished a heartbreakingly close second.[80] It wasn't until the CCF changed its name to the New Democratic Party (NDP) and the Mine Mill/Steelworkers war was over in 1967, that another social democrat — Elie Martel in Sudbury East — was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from the city.[81] Edward (Ted) Bigelow Jolliffe (1909-1998) was a Canadian politician and lawyer and was the first leader of the Ontario Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... The Ontario general election of 1948 was held to elect the 90 members of the Legislative Assembly (Members of Provincial Parliament, or MPPs) of the Province of Ontario, Canada. ... The New Democratic Party (NPD; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Elie Martel is a former Canadian politician, who represented the riding of Sudbury East in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1967 to 1987. ... Sudbury East was a provincial electoral riding in the Canadian province of Ontario, which existed from 1967 to 1999. ...


Lewis and Millard's crusade to limit and end communist influence in trade unions and politics received an unexpected boost from the Soviet Union. Notably in the denunciation of Stalinism by Nikita Khrushchev in February 1956. In his "Secret Speech", On the Personality Cult and its Consequences, delivered to a closed session of the 20th Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Khrushchev denounced Stalin for his cult of personality, and his regime for "violation of Leninist norms of legality". When the excesses of Stalin's reign were exposed, it caused a split in the communist movement in Canada. This permanently depleted it to a shadow of itself. By the end of 1956, the LPP's influence in the trade union movement and politics was spent.[82] Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... On the Personality Cult and its Consequences (Russian: ), commonly known as the Secret Speech was a report to the 20th Party Congress on February 25, 1956 by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, in which he denounced the actions of Joseph Stalin. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian... (Russian, in full: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин [Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin]; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953...


Private labour law practice

Lewis resigned as national secretary in 1950 and moved to Toronto to practise law in partnership with Ted Jolliffe. He became the chief legal advisor to the United Steel Workers of America's Canadian division, and assisted them in their organizing efforts and in their battles with the Mine, Mill union.[83] Lewis would mainly focus on his law practice for the next five years.[84] In his first year, he paid more in income taxes than he made on his yearly CCF National Secretary's salary.[84] Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward (Ted) Bigelow Jolliffe (1909-1998) was a Canadian politician and lawyer and was the first leader of the Ontario Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. ... The United Steel Workers of America (USWA) claims over 1. ... The Western Federation of Miners (WFM) was a radical labor union that gained a reputation for militancy in the mine fields of the western United States. ...


It was during this period that he finally bought his first house in the Bathurst StreetSt. Clair Avenue West area of Toronto. His father Moishe died in 1951 in Montreal. After his death, David's mother Rose moved into the 95 Burnside Drive Lewis home.[84] This is the home where his son Stephen Lewis would spend his teenage years, and the other three children would grow up. Bathurst Street is a north-south thoroughfare in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada and into York Region. ... St. ... This article is about the Canadian politician and broadcaster. ...


Winnipeg Declaration and the New Party

Politics was in David Lewis' soul, so after five years of little contact with CCF internal politics, he became one of the drafters of the 1956 Winnipeg Declaration, which replaced the Regina Manifesto.[85] The lead-up to the August 1956 CCF convention had Lewis working full-time in his labour practice, which included working on the merger of the Canadian Congress of Labour and the Trades and Labour Congress to form the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) and putting in long hours organizing the committee that wrote the Declaration. He worked so-hard that he collapsed in his office May 1956. After going through several tests for a possible cardiac condition, the doctors deduced Lewis collapsed of exhaustion.[86] He stayed in bed for a week and recovered enough to guarantee that the Manifesto's successor would pass ten weeks later. The convention was the last hurrah for the CCF. Even with the Declaration's modified tone that removed state-planning and nationalization of industry as central tenants of the party's platform, the CCF suffered a crippling defeat in the 1958 federal election that became known as the "Diefenbaker sweep".[87] It was obvious to Lewis, M.J. Coldwell and the rest of the CCF executive that the CCF could not continue as is, and with the co-operation of CLC, started exploring how to broaden its appeal.[88] The cover page of an original edition of the Regina Manifesto. ... The Canadian Labour Congress, or CLC (in French le Congrès du travail du Canada or CTC) is the central labour body in Canada to which most Canadian labour unions are affiliated. ... The 24th general election was held just nine months after the 23rd and transformed Prime Minister John Diefenbakers minority into the largest ever majority government in Canadian history. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... M.J. Coldwell and David Lewis looking over some papers together Major James William Coldwell, PC, CC (December 2, 1888–August 25, 1974), usually known as M.J., was a Canadian socialist politician, and leader of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation party from 1942 to 1960. ...


Lewis becomes CCF President

In 1958, Lewis worked closely with the CLC's president, Claude Jodoin, and the CLC's executive vice-president Stanley Knowles[89] to formally merge the labour and social democratic movements into a new party. Since Coldwell lost his seat, he did not want to continue on as the party's National Leader. Lewis persuaded him to stay on until the new party was formed.[90] Lewis was elected party president in Montreal at the party's July 1958 convention. The convention also endorsed a motion to have the executive and National Council "enter into discussions with Canadian Labour Congress" and other like-minded groups to prepare for a new party.[91] Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Claude Jodoin (May 25, 1913 – March 1, 1975) was a Canadian trade unionist and politician. ... Stanley Howard Knowles, PC , OC , BA , BD , LL.D (June 18, 1908 - June 9, 1997) was a Canadian parliamentarian. ...


Leadership succession crisis

By 1960, progress was being made in creating a new party, but Lewis had to play the heavy again, and try to keep the federal House of Commons leader from causing an open leadership crisis. Since Coldwell lost his seat, he constantly was thinking of resigning his post, but was asked by the party, many times, to stay on as National Leader. With Coldwell's defeat, the party needed someone to be its leader in the House. In 1958, the CCF caucus chose Hazen Argue as the new House leader.[90] During the lead-up to the 1960 CCF convention, Argue was pressing for Coldwell to step down. This leadership challenge would mean that plans for an orderly transition to the New Party would be in jeopardy, something that the CLC's and CCF's organizers, headed by Lewis, did not want. They wanted the most successful social democratic leader in Canada to be their leader, that meant Saskatchewan premier, Tommy Douglas. This meant that David Lewis had to try find a way to prevent Argue from complicating their plans. Lewis wasn't successful. There was a split between the caucus and the party's executive that made it to the convention floor. Coldwell quit and Argue became the National Leader.[92] 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Argues official portrait from the Senate of Canada. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: The Strength of Many Peoples) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area Ranked... Thomas Clement Douglas, PC, CC, SOM, MA, LL.D (hc) (October 20, 1904 – February 24, 1986) was a Scottish-born Baptist minister who became a prominent Canadian social democratic politician. ...


In the mid-1970s, David Lewis reflected on this incident and he realized that he did not handle the leadership transition well:

I as president of the CCF was very much in the wrong in trying to get a unanimous vote for Tommy. It arose out of a tradition we had had – no one opposed Woodsworth, no one had opposed Coldwell. They were chosen.

I met with Hazen and tried to dissuade him from being a candidate. It was wrong. This attitude produced bitterness around the Hazen-Douglas contest.[93]

July 1961 the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) became the New Democratic Party (NDP). They elected Tommy Douglas as their leader by a convincing 1391 to 380 victory over Hazen Argue. Six months later, Argue quit the party and crossed the floor to join the Liberal Party.[94] The New Democratic Party (NPD; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ...


1962-1971: Member of Parliament for York South

Just as David Lewis drafted Tommy Douglas for the top job of the NDP, Douglas returned the favour two days after the NDP's 1961 founding convention was over. He wrote a letter to Sophie Lewis, David's wife, telling her that David must run.[95] He decided to run in his home riding of York South, which at the time, the provincial riding seat was held by the NDP's Ontario leader, Donald C. MacDonald. York South was the name of an electoral district or riding used for electing members to the Canadian House of Commons and the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. ... Donald MacDonald at Queens Park. ...


Diefenbaker's government had to call an election sometime in 1962, so there was enough time to start planning Lewis' campaign. He had two campaign managers: his son Stephen Lewis, and Gerry Caplan.[96] One of their main strategies was to gain votes in the riding's affluent Jewish enclave in the Village of Forrest Hill. Lewis, however was not active in Toronto's Jewish community.[97] He was perceived as an outsider because he didn't partake in community events or belong to a synagogue. It was also known that his Bundist politics meant that he did not support the creation of the state of Israel, which did not sit well with the mostly Zionist community. It took extra effort on Stephen and Caplan's part to convince them to vote for David, both as a Jewish voice, and then as someone that would not harm their businesses.[97] Their work paid-off. On June 18, 1962 David Lewis won York South, and finally became an MP. Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Canadian politician and broadcaster. ... Forest Hill is an affluent neighbourhood in central Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Canadian federal election, 1962
Party Candidate Votes %
     New Democratic Party David Lewis 19,101 40.42
     Liberal Marvin Gelber 15,423 32.64
     Progressive Conservative William G. Beech 12,552 26.56
     Social Credit Reinald Nochakoff 179 0.38


Lewis didn't get a chance to serve for long, as the minority government of John Deifenbaker finally was defeated in the April 8, 1963 general election. In the anti-Social Credit Party backlash, a party that was perceived to be anti-Semitic, Lewis' new-found support in Forrest Hill evaporated and returned to the Liberals to guarantee that the Socreds were contained.[97] This would only be a temporary set-back for him though. The Canadian parliament after the 1962 election The Canadian federal election of 1962 was held on June 18, 1962 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The New Democratic Party (NPD; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Social Credit Party of Canada (French: Parti Crédit social du Canada), was a conservative - populist political party in Canada that promoted social credit theories of monetary reform. ... The Social Credit Party of Canada (French: Parti Crédit social du Canada), was a conservative - populist political party in Canada that promoted social credit theories of monetary reform. ...

Canadian federal election, 1963
Party Candidate Votes %
     Liberal Marvin Gelber 21,042 43.76
     New Democratic Party David Lewis 17,396 36.18
     Progressive Conservative William G. Beech 9,648 20.06


With Diefenbaker in opposition, and unlikely to resurrect the coalition in Quebec that gave him his majority in 1958, and the perceived anti-Jewish Social Credit were a diminished force, Lewis was able to regain the confidence of the voters in Forest Hill.[97] He won the 1965 general election and would do so through two more elections, becoming the House Leader when Tommy Douglas was defeated in the 1968 general election.[98]
Map of Canadas provinces and territories and which party won the most votes in each province and territory and their popular vote. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The New Democratic Party (NPD; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Canadian federal election, 1965
Party Candidate Votes %
     New Democratic Party David Lewis 21,693 46.94
     Liberal Marvin Gelber 18,098 39.16
     Progressive Conservative Maxwell Rotstein 6,427 13.91

In the Canadian federal election of 1965, the Liberal Party of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson was re-elected with a larger number of seats in the Canadian House of Commons. ... The New Democratic Party (NPD; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Leader of the NDP

David's son, Stephen Lewis, was coming into his own during this period. Starting in 1963, at the age of 26, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. Following the engineered 1970 resignation of Donald C. MacDonald,[99] Stephen was elected leader of the Ontario New Democratic Party. During the early to mid 1970s, the father and son team would lead the two largest sections of the NDP. The Provincial Parliament of Ontario, is the legislature of the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Donald MacDonald at Queens Park. ... The Ontario New Democratic Party (formerly known as the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, Ontario Section) is a social democratic political party in Ontario, Canada. ...


In 1971, David ran to succeed Tommy Douglas as National Leader, who was stepping down after ten years at the helm. He won the April 24, 1971 leadership convention in a surprisingly tight contested race that required four ballots before David could claim victory.[100] Part of the reason for the close race was James Laxer, one of the new generation of NDP activists known as The Waffle.[100] Lewis' perceived heavy-handed tactics with dealing with the Waffle in previous conventions had made him enough enemies to make the leadership race 'interesting'.[100] As well, Lewis was involved in most of the internal conflicts within the CCF/NDP during the previous 36 years, so many members that felt his wrath as party disciplinarian during this period, plotted their revenge against him.[101] April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (115th in leap years). ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... NDP leadership conventions are the process by which the Canadian New Democratic Party elects its leader. ... James Laxer (b. ... The Waffle (also known as the Movement for an Independent Socialist Canada) was a radical wing of Canadas New Democratic Party and later an independent political party. ...


He led the NDP through the 1972 federal election in which he uttered his best known quotation calling Canadian corporations "corporate welfare bums".[102] That election campaign returned a Liberal minority government and elected the greatest number of NDP MPs until the 1988 "Free Trade" general election, and left the NDP holding the balance of power until 1974. The NDP propped up the Liberal government of Pierre Trudeau in exchange for the implementation of NDP proposals such as the creation of Petro-Canada as a crown corporation. Although, Lewis really wanted to topple the government in a vote-of-no confidence as early as possible, because he saw no strategic advantage to propping up the Trudeau government: Trudeau would get the credit if the program was well received and the NDP would be vilified if it were unpopular.[103] In hindsight, Lewis' no-win evaluation of the situation was correct: the party would not be rewarded for its efforts by the electorate.[103] The House of Commons after the 1972 election The Canadian federal election of 1972 was held on October 30, 1972 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... For other uses, see Pierre Elliott Trudeau (disambiguation). ... Petro-Canada is a Canadian oil and gas firm headquartered in Calgary, Alberta. ... In Commonwealth countries a Crown corporation is a state-controlled company or enterprise (a public corporation). ...


Awards and death

In 1976, he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada. Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ...


David Lewis completed his memoirs, The Good Fight: Political Memoirs 1909–1958 in 1981. He died shortly thereafter on May 23, 1981. He is the father of Stephen Lewis, a former Ontario New Democratic Party leader and in the early and mid 2000s was the United Nations Special Envoy for HIV/AIDS in Africa. His other son, Michael Lewis, was a former Ontario New Democratic Party Secretary, and a leading organizer in the NDP. He is also the father of Janet Solberg, former president of the Ontario New Democratic Party in the 1980s. His other twin daughter is Nina Libeskind, the wife of architect Daniel Libeskind. Broadcaster Avram (Avi) Lewis is his grandson. Avi's parents are Stephen Lewis and Michele Landsberg. Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the Canadian politician and broadcaster. ... The Ontario New Democratic Party (formerly known as the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, Ontario Section) is a social democratic political party in Ontario, Canada. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The Ontario New Democratic Party (formerly known as the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, Ontario Section) is a social democratic political party in Ontario, Canada. ... Daniel Libeskind in front of his extension to the Denver Art Museum. ... Avi Lewis is documentary filmmaker, and is the son of two famous Canadians — Stephen Lewis (UN special envoy for HIV/AIDS in Africa) and Michele Landsberg (journalist). ... This article is about the Canadian politician and broadcaster. ... Michele Landsberg is an award-winning Canadian writer, social activist and feminist who wrote a major column for the Toronto Star newspaper. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d Smith,p.93
  2. ^ His actual date of birth is unknown. When he emigrated from Russia to Canada in 1921, he did not speak English, and according to David's daughter Janet Solberg, June 23 was the first date that popped into his head when the immigration officer asked him when he was born. (Smith,pp.93,542) As Smith points out in his book, October is a best guess, since the only specifics given were that he was born "right after the first snows in 1909". (Smith,pp.93,542)
  3. ^ Smith, p. 87
  4. ^ Smith, pp.17-19
  5. ^ Smith,pp.9-10
  6. ^ a b c Smith, p.11
  7. ^ Smith, p. 17
  8. ^ Smith, p. 1
  9. ^ Smith, p. 133
  10. ^ a b Smith,p.127
  11. ^ a b c Smith,p.63
  12. ^ Smith, pp.132-133
  13. ^ Smith. pp.17-19
  14. ^ Smith, pp. 114-15
  15. ^ Smith, p. 115
  16. ^ Lewis, p.12
  17. ^ Smith, p.152
  18. ^ Smith, p.396
  19. ^ Smith, p.125
  20. ^ Smith, p. 146, 148-149
  21. ^ Smith,p. 146
  22. ^ Smith, p. 150
  23. ^ Lewis, Memoirs, pp.29-30
  24. ^ Smith, p.155
  25. ^ a b c Smith, p.157
  26. ^ Smith, p.159
  27. ^ Smith, p.186
  28. ^ Ascher, p.28
  29. ^ Penner, Canadian Communism
  30. ^ a b c d e Smith, p.187
  31. ^ Smith, p. 178
  32. ^ Smith, p.161-162 interview with the author.
  33. ^ The Isis, February 7, 1934, p. 9
  34. ^ Smith, pp.194-195
  35. ^ Smith, p.196
  36. ^ Smith, p.196. Ted Jolliffe in an interview with the author.
  37. ^ a b Smith, p. 180
  38. ^ a b c Smith, p. 181
  39. ^ Smith, p. 183
  40. ^ The Isis, November 28, 1934, p. 7
  41. ^ a b Smith,p.197
  42. ^ Smith, p.199
  43. ^ Smith 198
  44. ^ Smith, 248
  45. ^ a b Smith, p.232
  46. ^ Smith, p.290
  47. ^ Scott, A New Endeavour, p.38
  48. ^ Scott, A New Endeavour, p.38
  49. ^ a b Caplan, p. 111
  50. ^ Lewis & Scott, pp. 5-16
  51. ^ Lewis & Scott, pp. 122-137
  52. ^ Lewis & Scott, pp. 126-132
  53. ^ make this YOUR CANADA was re-printed in 2001,by the Hybrid Publishers Co-operative Ltd. – in time for the Federal NDP Convention in Winnipeg that saw the battle to either disband the party and form a new party, or renew itself in other ways.
  54. ^ Smith, p.290
  55. ^ Stewart, M.J..p.103
  56. ^ Smith, 292
  57. ^ Lewis, Memoirs, p. 250
  58. ^ Smith, p. 293
  59. ^ Smith, p. 63
  60. ^ Smith, p. 293
  61. ^ a b c Smith, p. 295
  62. ^ a b c Smith, p. 299
  63. ^ The same Lister Sinclair that co-wrote Ontario CCF leader Ted Jolliffe's "Gestapo" speech during the 1945 Ontario general election.
  64. ^ Smith, 301
  65. ^ a b c d e Caplan, p. 191
  66. ^ Caplan, p. 168-169
  67. ^ Caplan, p. 193
  68. ^ Caplan, p. 148
  69. ^ a b c Caplan, 157-158
  70. ^ Caplan, p.133
  71. ^ Caplan, p.117
  72. ^ a b Caplan,p. 135
  73. ^ Canadian Tribune, December 16, 1944
  74. ^ Caplan, p. 116
  75. ^ Smith, p.305
  76. ^ Smith, p. 310
  77. ^ Smith, p. 317. From Mike Soliski's The Case for Sudbury, p.4
  78. ^ Smith,p. 316
  79. ^ Smith, p.318
  80. ^ Smith, pp.317-318
  81. ^ MacDonald, p. 145
  82. ^ Smith, p. 322
  83. ^ Smith, p. 308
  84. ^ a b c Smith, p.336
  85. ^ Stewart 2000,pp.195-196
  86. ^ Smith, p.361
  87. ^ Stewart 2000, pp.195-196
  88. ^ Stewart 2000, p.pp.196-197
  89. ^ Knowles lost his Winnipeg seat in the "Diefenbaker Sweep", but was very quickly ushered into the CLC's executive.
  90. ^ a b Stewart 2000,p.211
  91. ^ Stewart 2000, p. 210
  92. ^ Stewart 2000, pp.211-212
  93. ^ Shackleton, pp.256-257
  94. ^ Stewart 2000, pp.213-214
  95. ^ Smith, p. 391
  96. ^ Smith, p. 393
  97. ^ a b c d Smith, p.394
  98. ^ Smith, p. 416
  99. ^ MacDonald, pp.151-152
  100. ^ a b c Smith, p. 471
  101. ^ Smith, pp.471-472
  102. ^ Smith, pp.472-473
  103. ^ a b Smith, p.474

February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward (Ted) Bigelow Jolliffe (1909-1998) was a Canadian politician and lawyer and was the first leader of the Ontario Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. ... Edward (Ted) Bigelow Jolliffe (1909-1998) was a Canadian politician and lawyer and was the first leader of the Ontario Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

References

  • Ascher, Abraham; ed. (1976). The Mensheviks in the Russian Revolution: Documents of Revolution. London: Thames and Hudson. 
  • Caplan, Gerarld (1973). The Dilemma of Canadian Socialism: The CCF in Ontario. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart. 
  • Horowitz, Gad (1968). Canadian Labour in Politics. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 
  • Lewis, David (1981). The Good Fight: Political Memoirs 1909-1958. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada. ISBN 0771595980. 
  • Lewis, David; Frank Scott (1943/2001). Make this YOUR CANADA: A Review of CCF History and Policy. Canada: Hybrid Publishers Co-operative Ltd.. ISBN 0-9689709-0-7. 
  • MacDonald, Donald C. (1998). The Happy Warrior: Political Memoirs, 2nd Ed.. Toronto, ON, Canada: Dundurn Press. ISBN 1-55002-307-1. 
  • Normandin, Pierre G. (1969). Canadian Parliamentary Guide 1969. Ottawa, ON, Canada: Government of Canada. 
  • Shackelton, Doris French (1975). Tommy Douglas. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0771081162. 
  • Smith, Cameron (1989). Unfinished Journey: The Lewis Family. Toronto: Summerhill Press. ISBN 0-929091-04-3. 
  • Stewart, Walter (2003). Tommy: the life and politics of Tommy Douglas. Toronto: McArthur & Company. ISBN 1-55278-382-0. 
  • Stewart, Walter (2000). M.J.: The Life and Times of M.J. Coldwell. Toronto: Stoddart Publishing Co. Limited. ISBN 0773732322. 

Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the 1976 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Year 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. ... McClelland and Stewart is a Canadian publishing company. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1968 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Macmillan of Canada was a Canadian publishing house. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... McClelland and Stewart is a Canadian publishing company. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... The New Democratic Party (NPD; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... M.J. Coldwell and David Lewis looking over some papers together Major James William Coldwell, PC, CC (December 2, 1888–August 25, 1974), usually known as M.J., was a Canadian socialist politician, and leader of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation party from 1942 to 1960. ... For other persons named Michael Foot, see Michael Foot (disambiguation). ... Edward (Ted) Bigelow Jolliffe (1909-1998) was a Canadian politician and lawyer and was the first leader of the Ontario Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. ... Thomas Clement Douglas, PC , CC , SOM , MA , LL.D(hc) (October 20, 1904 – February 24, 1986) was a Scottish-born Canadian Baptist minister until becoming a democratic socialist politician. ... A.M. Klein (February 14, 1909-August 20, 1972) was a Canadian author. ... Sir Richard Stafford Cripps, known as Stafford Cripps, (April 24, 1889 - April 21, 1952) was a British Labour politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer for several years following World War II. // Cripps was born in London. ... Irving Layton OC (March 12, 1912 – January 4, 2006) was a Canadian poet. ... This article is about the Canadian politician and broadcaster. ... Francis Reginald Scott (Frank Scott, F.R. Scott) (August 1, 1899 - January 30, 1985) was a Canadian poet, intellectual and constitutional expert. ...

External links

  • David Lewis Memorial Scholarship
  • New Democratic Party of Canada



Leaders of the CCF/NDP
Woodsworth | Coldwell | Argue | Douglas | Lewis | Broadbent | McLaughlin | McDonough | Layton

  Results from FactBites:
 
David Lewis (politician) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (557 words)
David Lewis, CC, MA (June 23, 1909-May 23, 1981) was a Russian-born Canadian labour lawyer and politician.
Lewis was born in the town of Svisloch in Russia to a Jewish family active in the Bund.
Lewis was elected as a Member of Parliament from 1962 to 1963 and 1965 to 1974.
David Lewis (politician) - definition of David Lewis (politician) in Encyclopedia (487 words)
David Lewis (June 23, 1909-May 23, 1981) was a Russian-born Canadian labour lawyer and politician.
Lewis was elected as a Member of Parliament from 1962 to 1963 and 1965 to 1974 establishing himself as one of the leading debaters in the House of Commons.
Broadcaster Avi Lewis is David Lewis' grandson (and the son of Stephen).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m