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Encyclopedia > David I of Scotland
David I
Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim
'King of Scotland (Rí Alban)
King of the Scots (rex Scotorum)
Reign April or May 1124–May 24, 1153
Coronation Scone, in April or May 1124
Titles King of the Scots
Earl (comes) and Prince of the Cumbrians
Born 1083x1085
Scotland
Died May 24, 1153
Carlisle
Buried Dunfermline Abbey
Predecessor Alexander I
Successor Máel Coluim IV
Consort Matilda de Senlis
Issue Henry, Earl of Northumberland, Hodierna, Claricia
Father Máel Coluim mac Donnchada
Mother Margaret of England
Linguistic division in early twelfth century Scotland.     Gaelic speaking     Norse-Gaelic zone, characterized by the use of both languages     English-speaking zone     Cumbric may have survived in this zone; more realistically a mixture of Cumbric, Gaelic (west) and English (east)
Linguistic division in early twelfth century Scotland.     Gaelic speaking     Norse-Gaelic zone, characterized by the use of both languages     English-speaking zone     Cumbric may have survived in this zone; more realistically a mixture of Cumbric, Gaelic (west) and English (east)

David I or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim (Modern: Daibhidh I mac [Mhaoil] Chaluim;[1] b. 1083 x 1085, d. May 24, 1153) was a 12th century ruler who was in succession Prince of the Cumbrians (x 1113–1124) and King of the Scots (1124–1153). The youngest son of Máel Coluim mac Donnchada and Margaret, David spent most of his childhood in Scotland, but was exiled to England in 1093. At some point, perhaps after 1100, he became a hanger-on at the court of King Henry I and experienced long exposure to Norman and Anglo-French culture. Image File history File linksMetadata DavidIofScotland. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Henry of Anjou arrives in England. ... For the foodstuff see Scone (bread). ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... The list of the Kings of Strathclyde concerns the kings of Alt Clut, later Strathclyde, a Brythonic kingdom. ... Events Sancho I of Aragon conqueres Graus. ... April 2 - Emperor Zhezong became emperor of Song Dynasty. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Henry of Anjou arrives in England. ... , Carlisle is a city in the far north-west of England, and is the largest urban area in Cumbria. ... Dunfermline Abbey and Church - illustration from Cassells History of England circa 1902 Dunfermline Abbey is the remains of a great Benedictine abbey founded in 1070 by Queen Margaret, wife of Malcolm Canmore and granddaughter of Edmund Ironside, King of England. ... Alexander I (Alasdair mac Maíl Coluim) (c. ... Malcolm IV (or Máel Coluim mac Eanric) (April 23 x May 24, 1141–9 December 1165), King of Scots, was the eldest son of Earl Henry (d. ... Maud of Northumbria (1074-1130), countess for the Honour of Huntingdon, was the daughter of Waltheof II, Earl of Northumbria and Judith of Lens, the last of the major Anglo-Saxon earls to remain powerful after the Norman conquest of England in 1066. ... Henry of Scotland (Eanric mac Dabíd, b. ... Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... Stained glass window image of Saint Margaret of Scotland in the small chapel at Edinburgh Castle Saint Margaret of Scotland, also known by her Anglo-Saxon name Margaret Ætheling (c. ... Image File history File links Scots_lang-en. ... Image File history File links Scots_lang-en. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Henry of Anjou arrives in England. ... The list of the Kings of Strathclyde concerns the kings of Alt Clut, later Strathclyde, a Brythonic kingdom. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... Stained glass window image of Saint Margaret of Scotland in the small chapel at Edinburgh Castle Saint Margaret of Scotland, also known by her Anglo-Saxon name Margaret Ætheling (c. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Henry I (c. ...


When David's brother Alexander I of Scotland died in 1124, David chose, with the backing of Henry I, to take the Kingdom of Scotland (Alba) for himself. He was forced to engage in warfare against his rival and nephew, Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair. Subduing the latter took David ten years, and involved the destruction of Óengus, Mormaer of Moray. David's victory allowed him to expand his control over more distant regions theoretically part of his Kingdom. After the death of his former patron Henry I, David supported the claims of Henry's daughter and his own niece, the former Empress-consort, Matilda, to the throne of England; in the process, he came into conflict with King Stephen and was able to expand his power in northern England, despite his defeat at the Battle of the Standard in 1138. Alexander I (Alasdair mac Maíl Coluim) (c. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... The Kingdom of Alba (Gaelic : Rìoghachd na h-Alba) for the purposes of this article pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ... Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair or Máel Coluim mac Alasdair (Malcolm, Alexanders son) was the son of King Alexander I of Scotland and enemy of King David I of Scotland, his uncle. ... Óengus of Moray is the last Mormaer or King of Moray, which he ruled from some unknown date until his death in 1130. ... The Mormaerdom or Kingdom of Moray (Middle Irish: Muireb or Moreb; Medieval Latin: Muref or Moravia; Modern Gaelic:Moireabh) was a lordship in High Medieval Scotland that was destroyed by King David I of Scotland in 1130. ... Empress Matilda (February 1102 – September 10, 1167; sometimes Maud or Maude), also called Matilda, Countess of Anjou or Matilda, Lady of the English, was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ... Stephen (c. ... The monument on the battlefield at Grid reference SE360977 The Battle of the Standard took place on 22 August 1138 near Northallerton in Yorkshire. ...


The term "Davidian Revolution" is used by many scholars to summarise the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during his reign. These included his foundation of burghs, implementation of the ideals of Gregorian Reform, foundation of monasteries, Normanisation of the Scottish government, and the introduction of feudalism through immigrant French and Anglo-French knights. Steel engraving and enhancement of the obverse side of the Great Seal of David I, portraying David in the European fashion the other wordly maintainer of peace and defender of jutice. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... The Gregorian Reform was a series of reforms initiated by Pope Gregory VII and the circle he formed in the papal curia, circa 1050–1080, which dealt with the moral integrity and independence of the clergy. ... Monastery of St. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Contents

Early years

Main article: Early life of David I
A modern depiction of David's father, King Máel Coluim III.
A modern depiction of David's father, King Máel Coluim III.

The early years of David I are the most obscure of his life. Historians can only guess at most of David's activities in this period because of the sparsity of the evidence. Steel engraving and enhancement of the reverse side of the Great Seal of David I, a picture in the Anglo-Continental style depicting David as a warrior leader. ... Image File history File links MalcolmIII.jpg Summary Rampant Scotland, http://www. ... Image File history File links MalcolmIII.jpg Summary Rampant Scotland, http://www. ...


Childhood and flight to England

David was born at an unknown point between 1083 and 1085.[2] He was probably the eighth son of King Máel Coluim III, and certainly the sixth and youngest produced by Máel Coluim's second marriage to Queen Margaret.[3] Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... Stained glass window image of Saint Margaret of Scotland in the small chapel at Edinburgh Castle Saint Margaret of Scotland, also known by her Anglo-Saxon name Margaret Ætheling (c. ...


In 1093 King Máel Coluim and David's brother Edward were killed at the river Aln during an invasion of Northumberland.[4] David and his two brothers Alexander and Edgar, both future kings of Scotland, were probably present when their mother died as well.[5] According to later medieval tradition, the three brothers were in Edinburgh when they were besieged by their uncle, Domnall Bán.[6] The River Aln runs through the Alnwick district of the County of Northumberland in England, discharging into the North Sea on the east coast of England. ... Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. ... Alexander I (Alasdair mac Maíl Coluim) (c. ... Edgar of Scotland (Etgair mac Maíl Coluim) (1074 – January 8, 1107 ), was king of Scotland from 1097 to 1107. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Domnall mac Donnchada or Domnall Bán (anglicised Donald III) (Donald Bain) (before 1040–1097 or later) was King of Scots. ...

William "Rufus", the Red, King of the English, and partial instigator of the Scottish civil war, 1093–1097.

It is likely that Domnall had travelled down to Edinburgh to prevent Margaret initiating a claim to the throne on behalf of one of her surviving sons, and it is probable that Domnall had been crowned king at Scone already.[7] It is not certain what happened next, but an insertion in the Chronicle of Melrose states that Domnall forced his three nephews into exile, though Domnall was allied to another, Edmund.[8] John of Fordun wrote, centuries later, that an escort into England was arranged for them by their maternal uncle Edgar Ætheling.[9] ImageMetadata File history File links William2. ... ImageMetadata File history File links William2. ... William II (c. ... For the foodstuff see Scone (bread). ... The Chronicle of Melrose is a medieval chronicle from the Cottonian Manuscript, Faustina B. ix within the British Museum. ... Edmund of Scotland (Etmond mac Maíl Choluim) was king of Scotland between 1094 and 1097, in a joint rule with his uncle Donald III. He was the son of Malcolm III and his second wife St Margaret. ... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ...


Intervention of William Rufus and English exile

William Rufus, King of the English, opposed Domnall's accession to the northerly kingdom. He sent the eldest son of King Máel Coluim, David's half-brother Donnchad, into Scotland with an army at his disposal. Donnchad was killed within the year,[10] and so in 1097 William sent Donnchad's half-brother Edgar into Scotland. The latter was more successful, and was crowned King by the end of 1097.[11] William II (called Rufus, perhaps because of his red-faced appearance, or maybe his bloody reign) (c. ... Duncan II (1060?- November 12, 1094) was king of Scotland and a son of Malcolm III and his first wife Ingibiorg and therefore a grandson of Duncan I. For a time he lived as a hostage in England and became king of the Scots after driving out his uncle, Donald...


During the power struggle of 1093–97, David was in England. In 1093, he may have been about nine years old.[12] From 1093 until 1103 David's presence cannot be accounted for in detail, but he appears to have been in Scotland for some part of the 1090s. When William Rufus was killed and Henry Beauclerc seized power, and Henry married David's sister, Matilda. The marriage made David the brother-in-law of the ruler of England. From that point onwards David was probably an important figure at the English court.[13] Despite his Gaelic background, by the end of his stay in England, David had become a fully fledged Normanised prince. William of Malmesbury wrote that it was in this period that David "rubbed off all tarnish of Scottish barbarity through being polished by intercourse and friendship with us".[14] Henry I of England, depicted in Cassells History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902 Henry I (c. ... Edith of Scotland, (c. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ...


Prince of the Cumbrians, 1113–1124

Main article: David, Prince of the Cumbrians
Map of David's principality of "the Cumbrians".
Map of David's principality of "the Cumbrians".
The modern ruins of Kelso Abbey. This establishment was originally at Selkirk from 1113 while David was Prince of the Cumbrians; it was moved to Kelso in 1128 to better serve David's southern "capital" at Roxburgh.

David's time as Prince of the Cumbrians marks the beginning of his life as a great territorial lord. The year of these beginnings was probably 1113, when Henry I arranged his marriage to the heiress to the Huntingdon-Northampton lordship and when for the first time David can be found in possession of territory in what is now Scotland. Map of Davids principality of the Cumbrians. Before David I of Scotland became King of Scotland in 1124, he was David, Prince of the Cumbrians and earl of a great territory in the middle of England acquired by marriage. ... Image File history File links DavidianCumbria-en. ... Image File history File links DavidianCumbria-en. ... Download high resolution version (650x865, 52 KB)Photo taken by Mick Knapton on holiday on 24/8/04 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (650x865, 52 KB)Photo taken by Mick Knapton on holiday on 24/8/04 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Obtaining the inheritance

David's brother, King Edgar, had visited William Rufus in May 1099 and bequeathed to David extensive territory to the south of the river Forth.[15] On January 8, 1107, Edgar died. It has been assumed that David took control of his inheritance, the southern lands bequeathed by Edgar, soon after the latter's death.[16] However, it cannot be shown that he possessed his inheritance until his foundation of Selkirk Abbey late in 1113.[17] According to Richard Oram, it was only in 1113, when Henry returned to England from Normandy, that David was at last in a position to claim his inheritance in southern "Scotland".[18] The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events William Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Kelso Abbey Kelso Abbey is a Scottish abbey built in the 12th century by a community of Tironensian monks (originally from Tiron, near Chartres, in France) who had moved from the nearby Selkirk Abbey. ... Richard Oram is a Scottish historian and freelance author. ...


King Henry's backing was enough to force King Alexander to recognise his younger brother's claims. This probably occurred without bloodshed, but through threat of force nonetheless.[19] David's aggression seems to have inspired resentment amongst some native Scots. A Gaelic quatrain from this period complains that: Middle Irish is the name given by historical philologists to the form of the Irish language from the 10th to 16th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of Middle English. ...

Olc a ndearna mac Mael Colaim,   It's bad what Máel Coluim's son has done;,  
ar cosaid re hAlaxandir,   dividing us from Alexander;  
do-ní le gach mac rígh romhaind,   he causes, like each king's son before;  
foghail ar faras Albain.   the plunder of stable Alba.  [20]

If "divided from" is anything to go by, this quatrain may have been written in David's new territories in southern "Scotland".[21]


The lands in question consisted of the pre-1994 counties of Roxburghshire, Selkirkshire, Berwickshire, Peeblesshire and Lanarkshire. David, moreover, gained the title princeps Cumbrensis, "Prince of the Cumbrians", as attested in David's charters from this era.[22] Although this was a large slice of Scotland south of the river Forth, the region of Galloway-proper was entirely outside David's control.[23] Roxburghshire (Siorrachd Rosbroig in Gaelic) is a traditional county of Scotland. ... Selkirkshire or the County of Selkirk is a registration county of Scotland. ... Berwickshire (Siorrachd Bhearaig in Gaelic) is a committee area of the Scottish Borders Council and a Lieutenancy area of Scotland, on the border with England. ... Peeblesshire (Siorrachd nam Pùballan in Gaelic) is a traditional county in Scotland. ... Lanarkshire (Siorrachd Lannraig in Gaelic) is a traditional county of Scotland. ... Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ...


David may perhaps have had varying degrees of overlordship in parts of Dumfriesshire, Ayrshire, Dunbartonshire and Renfrewshire.[24] In the lands between Galloway and the Principality of Cumbria, David eventually set up large-scale marcher lordships, such as Annandale for Robert de Brus, Cunningham for Hugh de Morville, and possibly Strathgryfe for Walter fitz Alan.[25] Dumfriesshire or the County of Dumfries (Siorrachd Dhùn Phris in Gaelic) is a registration county of Scotland. ... Ayrshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Àir in Scottish Gaelic) is a region of south-west Scotland, located on the shores of the Firth of Clyde. ... Dunbartonshire is one of the Traditional counties of Scotland, in that part of the country formerly called Lennox (which was a title of nobility). ... Renfrewshire was a county of Scotland until their abolition in 1975. ... The name Annandale refers firstly to Annandale, Scotland in the valley of the River Annan. ... Cunninghame (Coineagan in Scottish Gaelic) is one of three traditional districts of Ayrshire. ...


David in England

King Henry I of England. Henry's policy in northern Britain and the Irish Sea region essentially made David's political life.

In the later part of 1113, King Henry gave David the hand of Matilda de Senlis, daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland. The marriage brought with it the "Honour of Huntingdon", a lordship scattered through the shires of Northampton, Huntingdon, and Bedford. Within a few years, Matilda de Senlis bore to him a son, whom David named Henry after his patron.[26] Image File history File links Henry1. ... Image File history File links Henry1. ... Henry I (c. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon (1074-1130) was the daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria, the last of the major Anglo-Saxon earls to remain powerful after the Norman conquest in 1066. ... Waltheof, 1st Earl of Northampton (d. ... Northampton is a large market town and a local government district in the English East Midlands region. ... Huntingdon is a town in the county of Cambridgeshire in East Anglia, England. ... This article is about the English county town. ... Henry of Scotland (Eanric mac Dabíd, b. ...


The new territories David gained control of were a valuable supplement to his income and manpower, increasing his status as one of the most powerful magnates in the Kingdom of the English. Moreover, Matilda's father Waltheof had been Earl of Northumberland, a defunct lordship which had covered the far north of England and included Cumberland and Westmorland, Northumberland-proper, as well as overlordship of the bishopric of Durham. After King Henry's death David would revive the claim to this earldom for his son Henry.[27] The title of Earl of Northumberland was created several times in the Peerages of England and Great Britain. ... Cumberland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ... Westmorland (formerly also spelt Westmoreland, an even older spelling is Westmerland) is an area of north west England and one of the 39 historic counties of England. ... Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. ...


David's activities and whereabouts after 1114 are not always easy to trace. He spent much of his time outside his principality, in England and in Normandy. Despite the death of his sister on May 1, 1118, David still possessed the favour of King Henry when, in 1124, his brother Alexander died, leaving Scotland without a king.[28] is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185...


Political and military events in Scotland during David's kingship

Main article: Political and military events in Scotland during the reign of David I

Michael Lynch and Richard Oram portray David as having little initial connection with the culture and society of the Scots;[29] but both likewise argue that David became increasingly re-Gaelicised in the later stages of his reign.[30] Whatever the case, David's claim to be heir to the Scottish kingdom was doubtful. David was the youngest of eight sons of the fifth from last king. Two more recent kings had produced sons. William fitz Duncan, son of King Donnchad II, and Máel Coluim, son of the last king Alexander, both preceded David in terms of the slowly emerging principles of primogeniture. However, unlike David, neither William nor Máel Coluim had the support of Henry. So when Alexander died in 1124, the aristocracy of Scotland could either accept David as King, or face war with both David and Henry I.[31] Steel engraving and enhancement of the reverse side of the Great Seal of David I, a picture in the Anglo-Continental style depicting David as a warrior leader. ... William fitz Duncan is a modern anglicisation of either the Old French Guillaume fils de Duncan or the Middle Irish Uilleam mac Donnchada. ... Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair or Máel Coluim mac Alasdair (Malcolm, Alexanders son) was the son of King Alexander I of Scotland and enemy of King David I of Scotland, his uncle. ... Primogeniture is the common law right of the first born son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings. ...


First war against Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair and coronation

This illustration from a late medieval MS of Walter Bower's Scotichronicon depicts the royal inauguration of David's great-great grandson Alexander III of Scotland, Scone, 1249.
This illustration from a late medieval MS of Walter Bower's Scotichronicon depicts the royal inauguration of David's great-great grandson Alexander III of Scotland, Scone, 1249.
Another similar inauguration, this time the late 16th century inauguration of Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone, at Tullyhogue.
Another similar inauguration, this time the late 16th century inauguration of Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone, at Tullyhogue.

Alexander's son Máel Coluim chose war. Orderic Vitalis reported that Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair "affected to snatch the kingdom from [David], and fought against him two sufficiently fierce battles; but David, who was loftier in understanding and in power and wealth, conquered him and his followers".[32] Máel Coluim escaped unharmed into areas of Scotland not yet under David's control, and in those areas gained shelter and aid.[33] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (887x779, 222 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexander III of Scotland Scotland Coronation Kingdom of Scotland Scone, Perth and Kinross List of monarchs of Scotland... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (887x779, 222 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexander III of Scotland Scotland Coronation Kingdom of Scotland Scone, Perth and Kinross List of monarchs of Scotland... Walter Bower or Bowmaker (1385-1449), Scottish chronicler, was born about 1385 at Haddington, East Lothian. ... Coronation of King Alexander on Moot Hill, Scone. ... For the foodstuff see Scone (bread). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 545 × 465 pixelsFull resolution (545 × 465 pixel, file size: 74 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): David I of Scotland Hugh O... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 545 × 465 pixelsFull resolution (545 × 465 pixel, file size: 74 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): David I of Scotland Hugh O... The inauguration of Hugh at Tullyhogue (Tulach Óg). ... Tullyhogue is a small village in Co Tyrone, Northern Ireland. ... Orderic Vitalis (1075 – c. ...


In either April or May of the same year David was crowned King of Scotland (Gaelic: rí(gh) Alban; Latin: rex Scottorum) at Scone. If later Scottish and Irish evidence can be taken as evidence, the ceremony of coronation was a series of elaborate traditional rituals,[34] of the kind infamous in the Anglo-French world of the 12th century for their "unchristian" elements.[35] Ailred of Rievaulx, friend and one time member of David's court, reported that David "so abhorred those acts of homage which are offered by the Scottish nation in the manner of their fathers upon the recent promotion of their kings, that he was with difficulty compelled by the bishops to receive them".[36] The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... For the foodstuff see Scone (bread). ...


Second war against Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair

Outside his "Cumbrian" principality and the southern fringe of Scotland-proper, David exercised little power in the 1120s, and in the words of Richard Oram, was "king of Scots in little more than name".[37] He was probably in that part of Scotland he did rule for most of the time between late 1127 and 1130.[38] However, he was at the court of Henry in 1126 and in early 1127,[39] and returned to Henry's court in 1130, serving as a judge at Woodstock for the treason trial of Geoffrey de Clinton.[40] It was in this year that David's wife, Matilda de Senlis, died. Possibly as a result of this,[41] and while David was still in southern England,[42] Scotland-proper rose up in arms against him. Woodstock Palace was a royal residence in the Oxfordshire town of Woodstock. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... Geoffrey de Clinton was a Norman noble, prominent in the reign of King Henry II of England. ...


The instigator was his half-brother Máel Coluim, who now had the support of Óengus of Moray. King Óengus was David's most powerful "vassal", a man who, as grandson of King Lulach of Scotland, even had his own claim to the kingdom. The rebel Scots had advanced into Angus, where they were met by David's Mercian constable, Edward; a battle took place at Stracathro near Brechin. According to the Annals of Ulster, 1000 of Edward's army, and 4000 of Óengus' army, including Óengus himself, died.[43] Óengus of Moray is the last Mormaer or King of Moray, which he ruled from some unknown date until his death in 1130. ... Lulach (Lulach mac Gilla Comgain) (c. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 10th  - Total 2,182 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Forfar ISO 3166-2 GB-ANS ONS code 00QC Demographics Population Ranked 19th  - Total (2005) 109,170  - Density 50 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Angus Council http://www. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... For the painter, see John Constable. ... Stracatho (Gaelic: Srath Catharach) is a small place in Angus, Scotland, to the north east of Brechin on the A90. ... For other uses, see Brechin (disambiguation). ... The Annals of Ulster are a chronicle of medieval Ireland. ...


According to Orderic Vitalis, Edward followed up the killing of Óengus by marching north into Moray itself, which, in Orderic's words, "lacked a defender and lord"; and so Edward, "with God's help obtained the entire duchy of that extensive district".[44] However, this was far from the end of it. Máel Coluim escaped, and four years of continuing "civil war" followed; for David this period was quite simply a "struggle for survival".[45]


It appears that David asked for and obtained extensive military aid from his patron, King Henry. Ailred of Rievaulx related that at this point a large fleet and a large army of Norman knights, including Walter l'Espec, were sent by Henry to Carlisle in order to assist David's attempt to root out his Scottish enemies.[46] The fleet seems to have been used in the Irish Sea, the Firth of Clyde and the entire Argyll coast, where Máel Coluim was probably at large among supporters. In 1134 Máel Coluim was captured and imprisoned in Roxburgh Castle.[47] Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... Map of the Firth of Clyde and area The Firth of Clyde forms a large area of coastal water, sheltered from the Atlantic ocean by the Kintyre peninsula which encloses the outer firth in Argyll and Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Argyll, archaically Argyle (Airthir-Ghaidheal in Gaelic, translated as [the] East Gael, or [the] East Irish), sometimes called Argyllshire, is a traditional county of Scotland. ... Roxburgh Castle was a castle sited near modern Roxburgh, in the Borders region of Scotland. ...


Pacification of the west and north

Richard Oram puts forward the suggestion that it was during this period that David granted Walter fitz Alan the kadrez of Strathgryfe, with northern Kyle and the area around Renfrew, forming what would become the "Stewart" lordship of Strathgryfe; he also suggests that Hugh de Morville may have gained the kadrez of Cunningham and the settlement of "Strathyrewen" (i.e. Irvine). This would indicate that the 1130–34 campaign had resulted in the acquisition of these territories.[48] Strathgryffe or Gryffe Valley (both also spelled Gryfe) (Gaelic: Srath Ghriobhaidh) is the area in and surrounding the valley of the River Gryfe, extending over the counties of Renfrewshire and Inverclyde in the United Kingdom. ... The District of Kyle today forms part of East Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Renfrew (Rinn Friù in Scottish Gaelic) is a small town, located six miles west of Glasgow on the west coast of Scotland. ... Cunninghame (Coineagan in Scottish Gaelic) is one of three traditional districts of Ayrshire. ... , For the river of the same name see River Irvine. ...


How long it took to pacify Moray is not known, but in this period David appointed his nephew William fitz Duncan to succeed Óengus, perhaps in compensation for the exclusion from the succession to the Scottish throne caused by the coming of age of David's son Henry. William may have been given the daughter of Óengus in marriage, cementing his authority in the region. The burghs of Elgin and Forres may have been founded at this point, consolidating royal authority in Moray.[49] David also founded Urquhart Priory, possibly as a "victory monastery", and assigned to it a percentage of his cain (tribute) from Argyll.[50] William fitz Duncan is a modern anglicisation of either the Old French Guillaume fils de Duncan or the Middle Irish Uilleam mac Donnchada. ... Henry of Scotland (Eanric mac Dabíd, b. ... For other uses, see Elgin. ... Suenos Stone in Forres The Royal Burgh of Forres (Gaelic: Farrais), an ancient burgh, is situated in the north of Scotland on the Moray coast. ... Urquhart Priory was a Benedictine monastic community in Moray. ... In stories common to the Abrahamic religions, Cain or Káyin (קַיִן / קָיִן spear Standard Hebrew Qáyin, Tiberian Hebrew Qáyin / Qāyin; Arabic قايين QāyÄ«n in the Arabic Bible; قابيل QābÄ«l in Islam) is the eldest son of Adam and Eve, and the first man born in creation...


During this period too, a marriage was arranged between the son of Matad, Mormaer of Atholl, and the daughter of Haakon Paulsson, Earl of Orkney. The marriage temporarily secured the northern frontier of the Kingdom, and held out the prospect that a son of one of David's mormaers could gain Orkney and Caithness for the Kingdom of Scotland. Thus, by the time the man who made all this possible for David, Henry I, died on December 1, 1135, David had more of Scotland under his control than ever before.[51] Matad of Atholl was Mormaer of Atholl, 1130s-1153/9. ... Haakon Paulsson was joint Earl of Orkney 1103–1123 Categories: | | | ... Earl of Orkney - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ...


Dominating the north

The ruins of Kinloss Abbey in Moray, founded by David in 1150 for a colony of Melrose Cistercians.
The ruins of Kinloss Abbey in Moray, founded by David in 1150 for a colony of Melrose Cistercians.

While fighting King Stephen and attempting to dominate northern England in the years following 1136, David was continuing his drive for control of the far north of Scotland. In 1139, his cousin, the five year old Harald Maddadsson, was given the title of "Earl" and half the lands of the earldom of Orkney, in addition to Scottish Caithness. Throughout the 1140s Caithness and Sutherland were brought back under the Scottish zone of control.[52] Sometime before 1146 David appointed a native Scot called Aindréas to be the first Bishop of Caithness, a bishopric which was based at Halkirk, near Thurso, in an area which was ethnically Scandinavian.[53] Image File history File links Kinloss_Abbey. ... Image File history File links Kinloss_Abbey. ... Kinloss Abbey. ... Stephen (c. ... The Lewis chessmen an iconic image of Scandinavian Scotland in Harald Maddadssons time. ... The Orkney Isles, along with the Shetland Isles to their immediate north, lie off the northernmost tip of Caithness Scotland. ... Andreas or Aindréas of Caithness († 1184) is the first known bishop of Caithness and a source for the author of de Situ Albanie. ... The Bishop of Caithness was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Caithness, one of Scotlands 13 medieval bishoprics. ... Halkirk is a town in Caithness, Scotland. ... This article refers to the town in Scotland. ...


In 1150, it looked like Caithness and the whole earldom of Orkney were going to come under permanent Scottish control. However, David's plans for the north soon began to encounter problems. In 1151, King Eystein II of Norway put a spanner in the works by sailing through the waterways of Orkney with a large fleet and catching the young Harald unawares in his residence at Thurso. Eystein forced Harald to pay fealty as a condition of his release. Later in the year David hastily responded by supporting the claims to the Orkney earldom of Harald's rival Erlend Haraldsson, granting him half of Caithness in opposition to Harald. King Eystein responded in turn by making a similar grant to this same Erlend, cancelling the effect of David's grant. David's weakness in Orkney was that the Norwegian kings were not prepared to stand back and let him reduce their power.[54] Øystein Haraldson (died 1157), son of king Harald IV of Norway. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Erlend Haraldsson was joint Earl of Orkney 1151–1154 Categories: | | | ...


King David and England

Stephen, King of the English, or Étienne de Blois in French. It was Stephen's "usurpation" that David used as "an excuse" for warring with England, if it was not the actual reason.
Main article: England and King David I

David's relationship with England and the English crown in these years is usually interpreted in two ways. Firstly, his actions are understood in relation to his connections with the King of England. No historian is likely to deny that David's early career was largely manufactured by King Henry I of England. David was the latter's "greatest protégé",[55] one of Henry's "new men".[56] His hostility to Stephen can be interpreted as an effort to uphold the intended inheritance of Henry I, the succession of his daughter, the former empress-consort Matilda. David carried out his wars in her name, joined her when she arrived in England, and later knighted her son, the future Henry II.[57] Image File history File links Stephen. ... Image File history File links Stephen. ... Steel engraving and enhancement of the reverse side of the Great Seal of David I, a picture in the Anglo-Continental style depicting David as a warrior leader. ... Empress Matilda (February 1102 – September 10, 1167; sometimes Maud or Maude), also called Matilda, Countess of Anjou or Matilda, Lady of the English, was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ... Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ...


However, David's policy towards England can be interpreted in an additional way. David was the independence-loving king trying to build a "Scoto-Northumbrian" realm by seizing the most northerly parts of the English kingdom. In this perspective, David's support for Matilda is used as a pretext for land-grabbing. David's maternal descent from the House of Wessex and his son Henry's maternal descent from the Saxon Earls of Northumberland is thought to have further encouraged such a project, a project which only came to an end after Henry II ordered David's child successor Máel Coluim IV to hand over the most important of David's gains. It is clear that neither one of these interpretations can be taken without some weight being given to the other.[58] The House of Wessex refers to the family that ruled a kingdom in southwest England known as Wessex. ... Malcolm IV (or Máel Coluim mac Eanric) (April 23 x May 24, 1141–9 December 1165), King of Scots, was the eldest son of Earl Henry (d. ...


Usurpation of Stephen and First Treaty of Durham

Scottish atrocities depicted in the 14th century Luttrell Psalter.
Scottish atrocities depicted in the 14th century Luttrell Psalter.

Henry I had arranged his inheritance to pass to his daughter Empress Matilda. Instead, Stephen, younger brother of Theobald II, Count of Blois, seized the throne.[59] David had been the first lay person to take the oath to uphold the succession of Matilda in 1127, and when Stephen was crowned on December 22, 1135, David decided to make war.[60] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 82 × 596 pixelsFull resolution (242 × 1760 pixel, file size: 168 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 82 × 596 pixelsFull resolution (242 × 1760 pixel, file size: 168 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Sir Geoffrey Luttrell, mounted being assisted by his wife and daughter. ... Empress Matilda (February 1102 – September 10, 1167; sometimes Maud or Maude), also called Matilda, Countess of Anjou or Matilda, Lady of the English, was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ... Stephen (c. ... Original coat of arms of the county of Blois. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ...


Before December was over, David marched into northern England, and by the end of January he had occupied the castles of Carlisle, Wark, Alnwick, Norham and Newcastle. By February David was at Durham, but an army led by King Stephen met him there. Rather than fight a pitched battle, a treaty was agreed whereby David would retain Carlisle, while David's son Henry was re-granted the title and half the lands of the earldom of Huntingdon, territory which had been confiscated during David's revolt. On Stephen's side he received back the other castles; and while David would do no homage, Stephen was to receive the homage of Henry for both Carlisle and the other English territories. Stephen also gave the rather worthless but for David face-saving promise that if he ever chose to resurrect the defunct earldom of Northumberland, Henry would be given first consideration. Importantly, the issue of Matilda was not mentioned. However, the first Durham treaty quickly broke down after David took insult at the treatment of his son Henry at Stephen's court.[61] , Carlisle is a city in the far north-west of England, and is the largest urban area in Cumbria. ... For the parish in New Brunswick, see Alnwick, New Brunswick Alnwick (pronounced anick ) is a small market town in north Northumberland, in the north-east of England. ... Norham is a village in Northumberland, England, just south of the River Tweed and the border with Scotland. ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ...


Renewal of war and Clitheroe

When the winter of 1136–37 was over, David again invaded England. The King of the Scots confronted a northern English army waiting for him at Newcastle. Once more pitched battle was avoided, and instead a truce was agreed until November. When November fell, David demanded that Stephen hand over the whole of the old earldom of Northumberland. Stephen's refusal led to David's third invasion, this time in January 1138.[62]


The army which invaded England in the January and February 1138 shocked the English chroniclers. Richard of Hexham called it "an execrable army, savager than any race of heathen yielding honour to neither God nor man" and that it "harried the whole province and slaughtered everywhere folk of either sex, of every age and condition, destroying, pillaging and burning the vills, churches and houses".[63] Several doubtful stories of cannibalism were recorded by chroniclers, and these same chroniclers paint a picture of routine enslavings, as well as killings of churchmen, women and infants.[64] Richard of Hexham (H. 1141),English chronicler, became prior of Hexham about 1141, and died between 1163 and 1178. ...


By February King Stephen marched north to deal with David. The two armies avoided each other, and Stephen was soon on the road south. In the summer David split his army into two forces, sending William fitz Duncan to march into Lancashire, where he harried Furness and Craven. On June 10, William fitz Duncan met a force of knights and men-at-arms. A pitched battle took place, the battle of Clitheroe, and the English army was routed.[65] Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Furness (IPA: ) is a peninsula in the southern part of Cumbria, in north-west England. ... For other uses, see Craven (disambiguation). ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Clitheroe was a battle between a force of Scots and English knights and men at arms which took place on June 10, 1138. ...


Battle of the Standard and Second Treaty of Durham

By later July, 1138, the two Scottish armies had reunited in "St Cuthbert's land", that is, in the lands controlled by the Bishop of Durham, on the far side of the river Tyne. Another English army had mustered to meet the Scots, this time led by William, Earl of Aumale. The victory at Clitheroe was probably what inspired David to risk battle. David's force, apparently 26,000 strong and several times larger than the English army, met the English on August 22 at Cowdon Moor near Northallerton, North Yorkshire.[66] The Bishop of Durham is the officer of the Church of England responsible for the diocese of Durham, one of the oldest in the country. ... The Tyne looking west and upstream from the Newcastle bank towards the Gateshead Millennium Bridge The Tyne Bridge across the River Tyne between Newcastle and Gateshead. ... William, Count of Aumale, le Gros, Earl of Yorkshire, and Lord of Holderness (died August 20, 1179). ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... , Northallerton is a town in North Yorkshire, England. ... North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county, located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county in that region and also partly in North East England. ...


The Battle of the Standard, as the encounter came to be called, was unsuccessful for the Scots. Afterwards, David and his surviving notables retired to Carlisle. Although the result was a defeat, it was not by any means decisive. David retained the bulk of his army and thus the power to go on the offensive again. The siege of Wark, for instance, which had been going on since January, continued until it was captured in November. David continued to occupy Cumberland as well as much of Northumberland.[67] The monument on the battlefield at Grid reference SE360977 The Battle of the Standard took place on 22 August 1138 near Northallerton in Yorkshire. ... Cumberland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ... Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. ...


On September 26 Cardinal Alberic, Bishop of Ostia, arrived at Carlisle where David had called together his kingdom's nobles, abbots and bishops. Alberic was there to investigate the controversy over the issue of the Bishop of Glasgow's allegiance or non-allegiance to the Archbishop of York. Alberic played the role of peace-broker, and David agreed to a six week truce which excluded the siege of Wark. On April 9 David and Stephen's wife Matilda of Boulogne met each other at Durham and agreed a settlement. David's son Henry was given the earldom of Northumberland and was restored to the earldom of Huntingdon and lordship of Doncaster; David himself was allowed to keep Carlisle and Cumberland. King Stephen was to retain possession of the strategically vital castles of Bamburgh and Newcastle. This effectively fulfilled all of David's war aims.[68] is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alberic of Ostia was a Benedictine monk, and Cardinal Bishop of Ostia from 1138-47. ... The Bishop of Ostia was the ecclesiastical head of the Italian Catholic diocese of Ostia. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other places with the same name, see Doncaster (disambiguation). ... Bamburgh is a large village on the coast of Northumberland, England. ...


Arrival of Matilda and the renewal of conflict

The Empress Matilda, King Stephen's rival. She is often known by the title "Empress" because she was the wife of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor. David was one of her earliest and most powerful supporters in her struggle for the Kingdom of the English. His 1137–8 invasions of England were carried out in her name.

The settlement with Stephen was not set to last long. The arrival in England of the Empress Matilda gave David an opportunity to renew the conflict with Stephen. In either May or June, David travelled to the south of England and entered Matilda's company; he was present for her expected coronation at Westminster Abbey, though this never took place. David was there until September, when the Empress found herself surrounded at Winchester.[69] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Empress Matilda (February 1102 – September 10, 1167; sometimes Maud or Maude), also called Matilda, Countess of Anjou or Matilda, Lady of the English, was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ... Henry IV (left) and son Henry V (right). ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Winchester is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre. ...


This civil war, or "the Anarchy" as it was later called, enabled David to strengthen his own position in northern England. While David consolidated his hold on his own and his son's newly acquired lands, he also sought to expand his influence. The castles at Newcastle and Bamburgh were again brought under his control, and he attained dominion over all of England north-west of the river Ribble and Pennines, while holding the north-east as far south as the river Tyne, on the borders of the core territory of the bishopric of Durham. While his son brought all the senior barons of Northumberland into his entourage, David rebuilt the fortress of Carlisle. Carlisle quickly replaced Roxburgh as his favoured residence. David's acquisition of the mines at Alston on the South Tyne enabled him to begin minting the Kingdom of Scotland's first silver coinage. David, meanwhile, issued charters to Shrewsbury Abbey in respect to their lands in Lancashire.[70] The Anarchy in English history commonly names the period of civil war and unsettled government that occurred during the reign (1135–1154) of King Stephen of England. ... The River Ribble at Ribchester The River Ribble is a river that runs through North Yorkshire and Lancashire, in the North of England. ... Typical Pennine scenery. ... Statistics Population: 1,128 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: NY716462 Administration District: Eden Shire county: Cumbria Region: North West England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Cumbria Historic county: Cumberland Services Police force: Cumbria Constabulary Ambulance service: North West Post office and telephone Post town: ALSTON... The Tyne looking west and upstream from the Newcastle bank towards the Gateshead Millennium Bridge The Tyne Bridge across the River Tyne between Newcastle and Gateshead. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... Shrewsbury Abbey, now famous for its prominent role in the Brother Cadfael mysteries of Ellis Peters, is a medieval monastic foundation. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ...


Bishopric of Durham and the Archbishopric of York

However, David's successes were in many ways balanced by his failures. David's greatest disappointment during this time was his inability to ensure control of the bishopric of Durham and the archbishopric of York. David had attempted to appoint his chancellor, William Comyn, to the bishopric of Durham, which had been vacant since the death of Bishop Geoffrey Rufus in 1140. Between 1141 and 1143, Comyn was the de facto bishop, and had control of the bishop's castle; but he was resented by the chapter. Despite controlling the town of Durham, David's only hope of ensuring his election and consecration was gaining the support of the Papal legate, Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester and brother of King Stephen. Despite obtaining the support of the Empress Matilda, David was unsuccessful and had given up by the time William de St Barbara was elected to the see in 1143.[71] Geoffrey Rufus was the tenth Lord Chancellor and Lord Keeper of England, from 1123 to 1133. ... This article incorporates text from the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain. ... Henry of Blois (1111-1171) was bishop of Winchester from 1129 to his death. ... Arms of the Bishop of Winchester The diocese of Winchester is one of the oldest and most important in England. ... William of St. ...


David also attempted to interfere in the succession to the archbishopric of York. William FitzHerbert, nephew of King Stephen, found his position undermined by the collapsing political fortune of Stephen in the north of England, and was deposed by the Pope. David used his Cistercian connections to build a bond with Henry Murdac, the new archbishop. Despite the support of Pope Eugenius III, supporters of King Stephen and William FitzHerbert managed to prevent Henry taking up his post at York. In 1149, Henry had sought the support of David. David seized on the opportunity to bring the archdiocese under his control, and marched on the city. However, Stephen's supporters became aware of David's intentions, and informed King Stephen. Stephen therefore marched to the city and installed a new garrison. David decided not to risk such an engagement and withdrew.[72] Richard Oram has conjectured that David's ultimate aim was to bring the whole of the ancient kingdom of Northumbria into his dominion. For Oram, this event was the turning point, "the chance to radically redraw the political map of the British Isles lost forever".[73] Saint William of York, (d. ... Henry Murdac, abbot of Fountains Abbey (1144-1147) and archbishop of York (1147-1153), was a native of Yorkshire, but descended from a wealthy family from Compton Murdac (now Compton Verney), in Warwickshire. ... The Blessed Eugene III, né Bernardo Pignatelli (d. ... Northumbria is primarily the name of an Anglian or Anglo-Saxon kingdom which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, and of the earldom which succeeded the kingdom. ...


David and the Scottish Church

Main article: David I and the Scottish Church
Steel engraving and enhancement of the obverse side of the Great Seal of David I, portraying David in the "European" fashion the other-worldly maintainer of peace and defender of jutice.
Steel engraving and enhancement of the obverse side of the Great Seal of David I, portraying David in the "European" fashion the other-worldly maintainer of peace and defender of jutice.
The round tower at Abernethy; there is another such tower extant at Brechin Cathedral. They are one of the most conspicuous surviving traces of pre-Davidian Scottish church architecture.
The round tower at Abernethy; there is another such tower extant at Brechin Cathedral. They are one of the most conspicuous surviving traces of pre-Davidian Scottish church architecture.

Historical treatment of David I and the Scottish church usually emphasises David's pioneering role as the instrument of diocesan reorganisation and Norman penetration, beginning with the bishopric of Glasgow while David was Prince of the Cumbrians, and continuing further north after David acceded to the throne of Scotland. Focus too is usually given to his role as the defender of the Scottish church's independence from claims of overlordship by the Archbishop of York and the Archbishop of Canterbury. Steel engraving and enhancement of the obverse side of the Great Seal of David I, portraying David in the European fashion the other wordly maintainer of peace and defender of jutice. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 591 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (861 × 873 pixel, file size: 159 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 591 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (861 × 873 pixel, file size: 159 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The round tower at Glendalough, Ireland, is approximately thirty metres tall A round tower was primarily a bell tower, or belfry, as the Irish form of the name cloictheach clearly indicates, and as was proved by George Petrie as long ago as 1845 and never seriously challenged since. ... The Archbishop of Glasgow is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Glasgow. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...


Innovations in the church system

It was once held that the Scotland's episcopal sees and entire parochial system owed its origins to the innovations of David I. Today, scholars have moderated this view. Ailred of Rievaulx wrote in David's eulogy that when David came to power, "he found three or four bishops in the whole Scottish kingdom [north of the Forth], and the others wavering without a pastor to the loss of both morals and property; when he died, he left nine, both of ancient bishoprics which he himself restored, and new ones which he erected".[74] Although David moved the bishopric of Mortlach east to his new burgh of Aberdeen, and arranged the creation of the diocese of Caithness, no other bishoprics can be safely called David's creation.[75] Aelred or Ælred or Ailred of Rievaulx, Abbot of Rievaulx (b. ... Dufftown (Gaelic: Baile Bhainidh) is a burgh in Moray, Scotland. ...


The bishopric of Glasgow was restored rather than resurrected.[76] David appointed his reform-minded French chaplain John to the bishopric[77] and carried out an inquest, afterwards assigning to the bishopric all the lands of his principality, except those in the east which were already governed by the Bishop of St Andrews.[78] David was at least partly responsible for forcing semi-monastic "bishoprics" like Brechin, Dunkeld, Mortlach (Aberdeen) and Dublane to become fully episcopal and firmly integrated into a national diocesan system.[79] The Archbishop of Glasgow is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Glasgow. ... John († 1147) was an early 12th century tironensian cleric. ... An inquest is a formal process of state investigation. ... The Bishop of St. ... The Bishop of Brechin is the Ordinary of the Scottish Episcopal Diocese of Brechin. ... The Bishop of Dunkeld is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dunkeld in the Province of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. ... The Bishop of Dunblane or Bishop of Strathearn was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Dunblane/Strathearn, one of medieval Scotlands thirteen bishoprics. ...


As for the development of the parochial system, David's traditional role as its creator can not be sustained.[80] Scotland already had an ancient system of parish churches dating to the Early Middle Ages, and the kind of system introduced by David's Normanising tendencies can more accurately be seen as mild refashioning, rather than creation; he made the Scottish system as a whole more like that of France and England, but he did not create it.[81] Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ...


Ecclesiastical disputes

One of the first problems David had to deal with as king was an ecclesiastical dispute with the English church. The problem with the English church concerned the subordination of Scottish sees to the archbishops of York and/or Canterbury, an issue which since his election in 1124 had prevented Robert of Scone from being consecrated to the see of St Andrews (Cell Ríghmonaidh). It is likely that since the 11th century the bishopric of St Andrews functioned as a de facto archbishopric. The title of "Archbishop" is accorded in Scottish and Irish sources to Bishop Giric[82] and Bishop Fothad II.[83] Robert of Scone († 1159) was a 12th century bishop of Cell Rígmonaid (or Kilrymont, now St Andrews). ... For other uses, see St Andrews (disambiguation). ... Giric of Cennrígmonaid, if he is the Gregorius of Walter Bower,[1] is the eleventh alleged Bishop of Cennrígmonaid, equivalent to later day St. ... Fothad II, Bishop of Cennrígmonaid was the bishop of Cennrígmonaid, (1059–1093) equivalent to modern St. ...

The tower of St Riagal (Saint Regulus), at Cenn Ríghmonaidh (St Andrews); this part of the St Andrews church existed in David's era.
The tower of St Riagal (Saint Regulus), at Cenn Ríghmonaidh (St Andrews); this part of the St Andrews church existed in David's era.

The problem was that this archiepiscopal status had not been cleared with the papacy, opening the way for English archbishops to claim overlordship of the whole Scottish church. The man responsible was the new aggressively assertive Archbishop of York, Thurstan. His easiest targets were the bishoprics of Glasgow and Galloway, which being south of the river Forth were not regarded as part of Scotland nor the jurisdiction of St Andrews. In 1125, Pope Honorius II wrote to John, Bishop of Glasgow, and Gille Aldan, Bishop of Galloway, ordering them to submit to the archbishopric of York.[84] David ordered Bishop John of Glasgow to travel to the Apostolic See in order to secure a pallium which would elevate the bishopric of St Andrews to an archbishopric with jurisdiction over Glasgow.[85] Download high resolution version (600x800, 353 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (600x800, 353 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Saint Regulus or Saint Rule was a monk of the East who, in the 4th century, it is said, came to Scotland from the Greek island of Patmos with the bones of Saint Andrew, and deposited them at St Andrews. ... For other uses, see St Andrews (disambiguation). ... Thurstan, or Turstin (d. ... The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ... Pope Honorius II should not be confused with Antipope Honorius II, otherwise known as Peter Cadalus. ... Gilla Aldan of Whithorn, was a native Galwegian who was the first Bishop of the resurrected Bishopric of Whithorn or Galloway. ... While all episcopal sees can be referred to as holy sees, the term Holy See is normally used in international relations (as well as in the canon law of the Catholic Church) to refer to the central government of the Catholic Church, headed by the Bishop of Rome, commonly called... now. ... The Bishop of St. ...


Thurstan travelled to Rome, as did the Archbishop of Canterbury, William de Corbeil, and both presumably opposed David's request. David however gained the support of King Henry, and the Archbishop of York agreed to a year's postponement of the issue and to consecrate Robert of Scone without making an issue of subordination.[86] York's claim over bishops north of the Forth were in practice abandoned for the rest of David's reign, although York maintained her more credible claims over Glasgow.[87] William de Corbeil (d. ...


In 1151, David again requested a pallium for the Archbishop of St Andrews. Cardinal John Paparo met David at his residence of Carlisle in September 1151. Tantalisingly for David, the Cardinal was on his way to Ireland with four pallia to create four new Irish archbishoprics. When the Cardinal returned to Carlisle, David made the request. In David's plan, the new archdiocese would include all the bishoprics in David's Scottish territory, as well as bishopric of Orkney and the bishopric of the Isles. Unfortunately for David, the Cardinal does not appear to have brought the issue up with the papacy. In the following year the papacy dealt David another blow by creating the archbishopric of Trondheim, a new Norwegian archbishopric embracing the bishoprics of the Isles and Orkney.[88] The Romanesque interior of St. ... The Bishop of the Isles or Bishop of Sodor was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Sodor, one of Scotlands 13 medieval bishoprics. ...


Succession and death

David alongside his designated successor, Máel Coluim mac Eanric. Máel Coluim IV would reign for twelve years, in a reign marked for the young king's chastity and religious fervour.
David alongside his designated successor, Máel Coluim mac Eanric. Máel Coluim IV would reign for twelve years, in a reign marked for the young king's chastity and religious fervour.

Perhaps the greatest blow to David's plans came on July 12, 1152 when Henry, Earl of Northumberland, David's only son and successor, died. He had probably been suffering from some kind of illness for a long time. David had under a year to live, and he may have known that he was not going to be alive much longer. David quickly arranged for his grandson Máel Coluim to be made his successor, and for his younger grandson William to be made Earl of Northumberland. Donnchad I, Mormaer of Fife, the senior magnate in Scotland-proper, was appointed as rector, or regent, and took the 11 year-old Máel Coluim around Scotland-proper on a tour to meet and gain the homage of his future Gaelic subjects. David's health began to fail seriously in the Spring of 1153, and on May 24, 1153, David died.[89] In his obituary in the Annals of Tigernach, he is called Dabíd mac Mail Colaim, rí Alban & Saxan, "David, son of Máel Coluim, King of Scotland and England", a title which acknowledged the importance of the new English part of David's realm.[90] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Malcolm IV (or Máel Coluim mac Eanric) (April 23 x May 24, 1141–9 December 1165), King of Scots, was the eldest son of Earl Henry (d. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... Malcolm IV (c. ... William I the Lion ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. ... Mormaer Donnchad I , 1133 – 1154, anglicized as Duncan or Dunecan, was the first Gaelic magnate to have his territory regranted to him by feudal charter, by David I in 1136. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Henry of Anjou arrives in England. ... The Annals of Tigernach (abbr. ...


Historiography of David I

Medieval reputation of David I

The earliest assessments of David I portray him as a pious king, a reformer and a civilising agent in a barbarian nation. For William of Newburgh, David was a "King not barbarous of a barbarous nation", who "wisely tempered the fierceness of his barbarous nation". William praises David for his piety, noting that, among other saintly activities, "he was frequent in washing the feet of the poor".[91] Another of David's eulogists, his former courtier Ailred of Rievaulx, echoes Newburgh's assertions and praises David for his justice as well as his piety, commenting that David's rule of the Scots meant that "the whole barbarity of that nation was softened ... as if forgetting their natural fierceness they submitted their necks to the laws which the royal gentleness dictated".[92] Aelred or Ælred or Ailred of Rievaulx, Abbot of Rievaulx (b. ...


Although avoiding stress on 12th century Scottish "barbarity", the Lowland Scottish historians of the later Middle Ages tend to repeat the accounts of earlier chronicle tradition. Much that was written was either directly transcribed from the earlier medieval chronicles themselves or was modelled closely upon them, even in the significant works of John of Fordun, Andrew Wyntoun and Walter Bower.[93] For example, Bower includes in his text the eulogy written for David by Ailred of Rievaulx. This quotation extends to over twenty pages in the modern edition, and exerted a great deal of influence over what became the traditional view of David in later works about Scottish history.[94] Historical treatment of David developed in the writings of later Scottish historians, and the writings of men like John Mair, George Buchanan, Hector Boece, and Bishop John Leslie ensured that by the 18th century a picture of David as a pious, justice-loving state-builder and vigorous maintainer of Scottish independence had emerged.[95] John of Fordun (d. ... Andrew Wyntoun, known as Andrew of Wyntoun (c. ... Walter Bower or Bowmaker (1385-1449), Scottish chronicler, was born about 1385 at Haddington, East Lothian. ... John Mair, or John Major (1467-1550) was Scottish philosopher. ... George Buchanan (1506 - 1582) was a Sixteenth Century Scottish, Humanist theorist, see George Buchanan (humanist) Sir George Buchanan (1854 - 1924) was a United Kingdom, Diplomat who was British ambassador to Russia during the Russian Revolution in 1917, see George Buchanan (diplomat) Sir George Buchanan was a British civil engineer active... Hector Boece (or Hector Boyce) (1465-1536) was a Scottish philosopher. ... The name John Leslie may refer to several people: John Leslie (philosopher) Sir John Leslie (physicist) John Leslie (television presenter) John Leslie (rugby player) John Leslie (porn actor) Shane Leslie, Irish writer, born John Randolph Leslie This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that...


Modern treatment of David I

Steel engraving and enhancement of the reverse side of the Great Seal of David I, a picture in the Anglo-Continental style depicting David as a warrior leader.
Steel engraving and enhancement of the reverse side of the Great Seal of David I, a picture in the Anglo-Continental style depicting David as a warrior leader.

In the modern period there has been more of an emphasis on David's statebuilding and on the effects of his changes on Scottish cultural development. Lowland Scots tended to trace the origins of their culture to the marriage David's father Máel Coluim III to Saint Margaret, a myth which had its origins in the medieval period.[96] With the development of modern historical techniques in the mid-19th century, responsibility for these developments appeared to lie more with David than his father. David assumed a principle-place in the alleged destruction of the Celtic Kingdom of Scotland. Andrew Lang, in 1900, wrote that "with Alexander [I], Celtic domination ends; with David, Norman and English dominance is established".[97] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 594 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (831 × 838 pixel, file size: 163 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 594 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (831 × 838 pixel, file size: 163 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Stained glass window image of Saint Margaret of Scotland in the small chapel at Edinburgh Castle Saint Margaret of Scotland, also known by her Anglo-Saxon name Margaret Ætheling (c. ... The Kingdom of Alba (Gaelic : Rìoghachd na h-Alba) for the purposes of this article pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ...


The ages of Enlightenment and Romanticism had elevated the role of races and "ethnic packages" into mainstream history, and in this context David was portrayed as hostile to the native Scots, and his reforms were seen in the light of natural, perhaps even justified, civilised Teutonic aggression towards the backward Celts.[98] The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Romantics redirects here. ...


In the 20th century, several studies were devoted to Normanisation in 12th century Scotland, focusing upon and hence emphasising the changes brought about by the reign of David I. Græme Ritchie's The Normans in Scotland (1954), Archie Duncan's Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom (1974) and the many articles of G. W. S. Barrow all formed part of this historiographical trend.[99] Archibald Alexander McBeth Duncan (born 17 October 1926), FBA, FRHistS, FRSE, is a Scottish historian. ... Geoffrey Wallis Steuart Barrow DLitt FBA FRSE is a British historian and academic, born at Headingley in Leeds. ...


In the 1980s, Barrow sought a compromise between change and continuity, and argued that the reign of King David was in fact a "Balance of New and Old".[100] Such a conclusion was a natural incorporation of an underlying current in Scottish historiography which, since William F. Skene's monumental and revolutionary three-volume Celtic Scotland: A History of Ancient Alban (1876–80), had been forced to acknowledge that "Celtic Scotland" was alive and healthy for a long time after the reign of David I.[101] Michael Lynch followed and built upon Barrow's compromise solution, arguing that as David’s reign progressed, his kingship became more Celtic.[102] Despite its subtitle, in 2004 in the only full volume study of David I's reign yet produced, David I: The King Who Made Scotland, its author Richard Oram further builds upon Lynch's picture, stressing continuity while placing the changes of David's reign in their context.[103] William Forbes Skene (1809–1892), Scottish historian and antiquary, was the second son of Sir Walter Scotts friend, James Skene (1775–1864), of Rubislaw, near Aberdeen, and was born on June 7 1809. ... Richard Oram is a Scottish historian and freelance author. ...


Davidian Revolution

Main article: Davidian Revolution
‎Silver penny of David I.
‎Silver penny of David I.

However, while there may be debate about the importance or extent of the historical change in David I's era, no historian doubts that it was taking place. The reason is what Barrow and Lynch both call the "Davidian Revolution".[104] David's "revolution" is held to underpin the development of later medieval Scotland, whereby the changes he inaugurated grew into most of the central institutions of the later medieval kingdom.[105] Steel engraving and enhancement of the obverse side of the Great Seal of David I, portraying David in the European fashion the other wordly maintainer of peace and defender of jutice. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... History studies time in human terms. ...


Since Robert Bartlett's pioneering work, The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950–1350 (1993), reinforced by Moore's The First European Revolution, c.970–1215 (2000), it has become increasingly apparent that better understanding of David's "revolution" can be achieved by recognising the wider "European revolution" taking place during this period. The central idea is that from the late 10th century onwards the culture and institutions of the old Carolingian heartlands in northern France and western Germany were spreading to outlying areas, creating a more recognisable "Europe". Scotland was just one of many "outlying" areas.[106] Professor Robert Bartlett (b. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ...


Government and feudalism

Burghs established in Scotland before the accession of David's successor and grandson, Máel Coluim IV; these were essentially Scotland's first towns.
Burghs established in Scotland before the accession of David's successor and grandson, Máel Coluim IV; these were essentially Scotland's first towns.

The widespread enfeoffment of foreign knights and the processes by which land ownership was converted from customary tenures into feudal, or otherwise legally-defined relationships, would revolutionise the way the Kingdom of Scotland was governed, as did the dispersal and installation of royal agents in the new mottes that were proliferating throughout the realm to staff newly-created sheriffdoms and judiciaries for the twin purposes of law-enforcement and taxation, bringing Scotland further into the "European" model.[107] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (599x1111, 97 KB)Map of burghs probably founded before the death of David I of Scotland (Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (599x1111, 97 KB)Map of burghs probably founded before the death of David I of Scotland (Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim). ... Malcolm IV (or Máel Coluim mac Eanric) (April 23 x May 24, 1141–9 December 1165), King of Scots, was the eldest son of Earl Henry (d. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... In law, custom can be described as the established patterns of behavior that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting. ... Look up tenure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle. ... For the band, see The Police. ...


Scotland in this period experienced innovations in governmental practices and the importation of foreign, mostly French, knights. It is to David's reign that the beginnings of feudalism are generally assigned. This is defined as "castle-building, the regular use of professional cavalry, the knight's fee" as well as "homage and fealty".[108] David established large scale feudal lordships in the west of his Cumbrian principality for the leading members of the French military entourage who kept him in power. Additionally, many smaller scale feudal lordships were created.[109] The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...


Steps were taken during David's reign to make the government of that part of Scotland he administered more like the government of Anglo-Norman England. New sheriffdoms enabled the King to effectively administer royal demesne land. During his reign, royal sheriffs were established in the king's core personal territories; namely, in rough chronological order, at Roxburgh, Scone, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Stirling and Perth.[110] The Justiciarship too was created in David's reign. Although this institution had Anglo-Norman origins, in Scotland north of the Forth at least, it represented some form of continuity with an older office.[111] A sherrifdom is a judicial district in Scotland. ... The feudal concept of demesne is a form of manorial land tenure as conceived in Western Europe, initially in France but exported to England, during the Middle Ages. ... Historically, the Royal Burgh of Roxburgh (Gaelic: Rosbrog), in the Scottish Borders, was an important trading burgh in the economy of Scotland. ... For the foodstuff see Scone (bread). ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ... Broad Street at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area (called Top of the Town by locals) Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ... Perth (Scottish Gaelic: ) is a royal burgh in central Scotland. ... In medieval England and Scotland, the Chief Justiciar (latterly known simply as the Justiciar) was a rough equivalent to that of the modern Prime Minister: the Monarchs chief minister. ...


David I and the economy

The revenue of his English earldom and the proceeds of the silver mines at Alston allowed David to produce Scotland's first coinage. These altered the nature of trade and transformed his political image.[112] Statistics Population: 1,128 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: NY716462 Administration District: Eden Shire county: Cumbria Region: North West England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Cumbria Historic county: Cumberland Services Police force: Cumbria Constabulary Ambulance service: North West Post office and telephone Post town: ALSTON...


David was a great town builder. As Prince of the Cumbrians, David founded the first two burghs of "Scotland", at Roxburgh and Berwick.[113] Burghs were settlements with defined boundaries and guaranteed trading rights, locations where the king could collect and sell the products of his cain and conveth (a payment made in lieu of providing the king hospitality).[114] David founded around 15 burghs.[115] A burgh (pronounced burruh) is the Scots language equivalent of the English language borough. ... Historically, the Royal Burgh of Roxburgh (Gaelic: Rosbrog), in the Scottish Borders, was an important trading burgh in the economy of Scotland. ... For the Venetian Snares album, see Hospitality (album). ...

The modern ruins of Melrose Abbey. Founded in 1137, this Cistercian monastery became one of David's greatest legacies.
The modern ruins of Melrose Abbey. Founded in 1137, this Cistercian monastery became one of David's greatest legacies.

Perhaps nothing in David's reign compares in importance to burghs. While they could not, at first, have amounted to much more than the nucleus of an immigrant merchant class, nothing would do more to reshape the long-term economic and ethnic shape of Scotland than the burgh. These planned towns were or became English in culture and language; William of Newburgh wrote in the reign of King William the Lion, that "the towns and burghs of the Scottish realm are known to be inhabited by English";[116] as well as transforming the economy, the failure of these towns to go native would in the long term undermine the position of the native Scottish language and give birth to the idea of the Scottish Lowlands.[117] Image File history File links MelroseAbbey01. ... Image File history File links MelroseAbbey01. ... Melrose Abbey, June 2004 Melrose Abbey, located in Melrose, Scotland, was founded in 1136 by Cistercian monks, on the request of King David I of Scotland. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... William of Newburgh (1136?-1198?), also known as Nubrigensis, was a 12th century English historian, and monk, from Yorkshire. ... William I the Lion ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. ... Middle Irish is the name given by historical philologists to the form of the Irish language from the 10th to 16th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of Middle English. ... Lowland-Highland divide The Scottish Lowlands (a Ghalldachd, meaning roughly the non-Gaelic region, in Gaelic), although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands (or Gàidhealtachd), that is, everywhere due...


Monastic patronage

David was one of medieval Scotland's greatest monastic patrons. In 1113, in perhaps David's first act as Prince of the Cumbrians, he founded Selkirk Abbey for the Tironensians.[118] David founded more than a dozen new monasteries in his reign, patronising various new monastic orders.[119] Kelso Abbey Kelso Abbey is a Scottish abbey built in the 12th century by a community of Tironensian monks (originally from Tiron, near Chartres, in France) who had moved from the nearby Selkirk Abbey. ... Tironensian monks, of the Order of Tiron, also spelled Thiron - apparently from Latin thironium, a high hill (Guillemin, 1999)- so called after the location of the mother abbey (established in 1109) in the woods of Tiron, Perche (some 35 miles west of Chartres, France). ...


Not only were such monasteries an expression of David's undoubted piety, but they also functioned to transform Scottish society. Monasteries became centres of foreign influence,, and provided sources of literate men, able to serve the crown's growing administrative needs.[120] These new monasteries, and the Cistercian ones in particular, introduced new agricultural practices.[121] Cistercian labour, for instance, transformed southern Scotland into one of northern Europe's most important sources of sheep wool.[122] This article is about the ability to read and write. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Modern Scottish Gaelic has effectively dropped the Máel in Máel Coluim (meaning "tonsured devotee of Columba"), so that the name is just Colum or Calum (meaning "Columba"); the name was borrowed into non Gaelic languages before this change occurred.
  2. ^ Oram, David: The King Who Made Scotland, p. 49.
  3. ^ Máel Coluim seems to have had two sons before he married Margaret, presumably by Ingibiorg Finnsdottir. King Donnchad II was one, and there was another called Domnall who died in 1085, see Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1085.2, here; see also Oram, David, p. 23; and Duncan, The Kingship of the Scots, p. 55; the possibility that Máel Coluim had another son, also named Máel Coluim, is open, G. W. S. Barrow, "Malcolm III (d. 1093)".
  4. ^ Duncan, Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom, p. 121.
  5. ^ See A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 114, n. 1.
  6. ^ E.g. John Fordun, Chronica gentis Scotorum, II. 209.
  7. ^ Oram, David, p. 40.
  8. ^ A.O. Anderson, Early Sources, vol. ii, p. 89.
  9. ^ John Fordun, Chronica gentis Scotorum, II. 209–10.
  10. ^ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, MS. E, s.a. 1094; A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 118; see also A.O. Anderson, Early Sources, vol. ii, pp. 90–1.
  11. ^ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, MS. E, s.a. 1097; A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 119.
  12. ^ Oram, David, p. 49.
  13. ^ For David's upbringing and transformation of fortune at the Anglo-Norman court, see the partially hypothetical accout in Oram, David, pp. 59–72.
  14. ^ William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum Anglorum, W. Stubbs (ed.), Rolls Series, no. 90, vol. ii, p. 476; trans. A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, (1908), p. 157.
  15. ^ Oram, David: The King Who Made Scotland, pp. 59–60.
  16. ^ Judith Green, "David I and Henry I", p. 3. She cites the gap in knowledge about David's whereabouts as evidence; for a brief outline of David's itinerary, see Barrow, The Charters of David I, pp. 38–41
  17. ^ See Oram, David, pp. 60–2; Duncan, The Kingship of the Scots, pp. 60–4.
  18. ^ For all this, see Oram, David, pp. 59–63.
  19. ^ A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, (1908), p. 193.
  20. ^ Thomas Owen Clancy, The Triumph Tree, p.184; full treatment of this is given in Clancy, "A Gaelic Polemic Quatrain from the Reign of Alexander I, ca. 1113" in: Scottish Gaelic Studies vol.20 (2000), pp. 88–96.
  21. ^ Clancy, "A Gaelic Polemic Quatrain", p. 88.
  22. ^ For all this, see Oram, David, pp. 62–64; for Princeps Cumbrensis, see Archibald Lawrie, Early Scottish Charters Prior to A.D. 1153, (Glasgow, 1905), no. 46.
  23. ^ Richard Oram, The Lordship of Galloway, (Edinburgh, 2000), pp. 54–61; see also following references.
  24. ^ See, for instance, Dauvit Broun, "The Welsh Identity of the Kingdom of Strathclyde", in The Innes Review, Vol. 55, no. 2 (Autumn, 2004), pp. 138–40, n. 117; see also Forte, Oram, & Pedersen, The Viking Empires, (Cambridge, 2005), pp. 96–7.
  25. ^ E.g., Oram, David, p. 113, also n. 7.
  26. ^ G. W. S. Barrow, "David I (c. 1085–1153)".
  27. ^ For all this, see Duncan, Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom, pp. 134, 217–8, 223; see also, for Durham and part of the earldom of Northumberland in the eyes of Earl Henry, Paul Dalton, "Scottish Influence on Durham, 1066–1214", in David Rollason, Margaret Harvey & Michael Prestwich (eds.), Anglo-Norman Durham, 1093–1193, pp. 349–351; see also G. W. S. Barrow, "The Kings of Scotland and Durham", in Rollason et al. (eds.), Anglo-Norman Durham, p. 318.
  28. ^ Oram, David, pp. 69–72.
  29. ^ Lynch, Scotland: A New History, p. 79; Oram, David, pp. 75–6.
  30. ^ Lynch, Scotland: A New History, p. 83; Oram, David, esp. for instance, pp. 96, 126.
  31. ^ Oram, David, pp. 70–2.
  32. ^ A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 158.
  33. ^ Oram, David, pp. 84–5.
  34. ^ John Bannerman, "The Kings Poet", pp. 120–49.
  35. ^ John J. O'Meara (ed.), Gerald of Wales: The History and Topography of Ireland, (London, 1951), p. 110.
  36. ^ A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 232.
  37. ^ Oram, David, p. 87.
  38. ^ Oram, David, p. 83.
  39. ^ A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, pp. 163–3.
  40. ^ Oram, David, p. 83.
  41. ^ Oram, David, p. 84.
  42. ^ A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 167.
  43. ^ Annals of Ulster, s.a. U1130.4, here (trans)
  44. ^ A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 167; Anderson uses the word "earldom", but Orderic used the word ducatum, duchy.
  45. ^ Oram, David, p. 88.
  46. ^ A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, pp. 193–4; see also Oram, David, p. 86.
  47. ^ A.O. Anderson, Early Sources, vol. ii, p. 183.
  48. ^ For all this, see Oram, David, pp. 93–6.
  49. ^ For all this, see Oram, David, pp. 93–6; Oram also believes that the burghs of Auldearn and Inverness may also have been founded at this time, but it is more usual to ascribe these to the reign of David's grandson William the Lion; see, for instance, McNeill, Peter & MacQueen, Hector (eds), Atlas of Scottish History to 1707, (Edinburgh, 1996), pp. 196–8.
  50. ^ Oram, David, pp. 91–3.
  51. ^ Oram, David, p. 119.
  52. ^ Richard Oram, "David I and the Conquest of Moray", p. 11.
  53. ^ John Dowden, The Bishops of Scotland, ed. J. Maitland Thomson, (Glasgow, 1912), p. 232; Kenneth Jackson, The Gaelic Notes in the Book of Deer: The Osborn Bergin Memorial Lecture 1970, (Cambridge, 1972), p. 80.
  54. ^ Oram, David, p. 199–200.
  55. ^ Oram, Lordship of Galloway, pp. 59, 63.
  56. ^ Kapelle, Norman Conquest, pp. 202–3.
  57. ^ Stringer, Reign of Stephen, 28–37; Stringer, "State-Building in Twelfth-Century Britain", pp. 40–62; Green, "Anglo-Scottish Relations", pp. 53–72; Kapelle, Norman Conquest of the North, pp. 141ff; Blanchard, "Lothian and Beyond", pp. 23–46.
  58. ^ Historians such as Stringer, Kapelle, Green and Blanchard (see previous note), emphasize David's role as an English magnate, while not denying his ambition; a middle line is perhaps Oram's supposed quest for a "Scoto-Northumbrian realm", David, pp. 121–44, 167–89.
  59. ^ M.T. Clancy, England and its Rulers, pp. 84–5; Robert Bartlett, England under the Norman and Angevin Kings, p. 10.
  60. ^ Oram, David, pp. 121–3.
  61. ^ Oram, David, pp. 122–5.
  62. ^ Oram, David, pp. 126–7.
  63. ^ e.g. accounts of Richard of Hexham and Ailred of Rievaulx in A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 180, & n. 4.
  64. ^ e.g. Richard of Hexham, John of Worcester and John of Hexham at A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 181.
  65. ^ Oram, David, pp. 132–3.
  66. ^ Oram, David, pp. 136–7; A. O. Anderson, Early Sources, p. 190.
  67. ^ Oram, David, pp. 140–4.
  68. ^ Oram, David, pp. 140–4.
  69. ^ Oram, David, pp. 170–2.
  70. ^ Oram, David, p. 179.
  71. ^ For David's struggle for control over Durham see Oram, David, pp. 169–75.
  72. ^ For David's struggle for control over York, see pp. 186–9.
  73. ^ Oram, David, p. 189.
  74. ^ A. O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 233.
  75. ^ Oram, David, p. 158; Duncan, Making of the Kingdom, pp. 257–60; see also Gordon Donaldson, "Scottish Bishop's Sees", pp. 106–17.
  76. ^ Shead, "Origins of the Medieval Diocese of Glasgow", pp. 220–5.
  77. ^ Oram, David, p. 62.
  78. ^ To a certain extent, the boundaries of David's Cumbrian Principality are conjecture on the basis of the boundaries of the diocese of Glasgow; Oram, David, pp. 67–8.
  79. ^ Barrow, Kingship and Unity, pp. 67–8
  80. ^ Ian B. Cowan wrote that "the principle steps were taken during the reign of David I": Ian B. Cowan, "Development of the Parochial System", p. 44.
  81. ^ Thomas Owen Clancy, "Annat and the Origins of the Parish", pp. 91–115.
  82. ^ Dauvit Broun, "Recovering the Full Text of Version A of the Foundation Legend", pp. 108–14.
  83. ^ AU 1093.2, text & English translation; see also Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources , p. 49
  84. ^ A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, pp. 160–1.
  85. ^ Duncan, Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom, p. 259; Oram, David, p. 49.
  86. ^ Duncan, p. 260; John Dowden, Bishops of Scotland, (Glasgow, ), ed. J. Maitland Thomson, (Glasgow, 1912) pp. 4–5.
  87. ^ Duncan, Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom, pp. 60–1.
  88. ^ Oram, David, p. 155.
  89. ^ Oram, David, pp. 200–2; G. W. S. Barrow, "David I (c.1085–1153)", gives date as May 24.
  90. ^ Annals of Tigernach, s.a. 1153.4, here.
  91. ^ A. O. Anderson, Early Sources, p. 231.
  92. ^ A. O. Anderson, Early Sources, pp. 232–3
  93. ^ Felix J. H. Skene & William Forbes Skene (ed.), John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish Nation, (Edinburgh, 1872), 200ff.; Donaldson, The Sources of Scottish History, p. 34: "...at what point its information about Scotland should receive credence is far from clear". Though Wyntoun, Fordun and Bower may have had access to documents which are no longer extant, much of their information is either duplicated in other records or cannot be corroborated; for a survey of David's historical reputation, see Oram, David, pp. 203–25.
  94. ^ John MacQueen, Winnifred MacQueen and D. E. R. Watt (eds.), Scotichronicon by Walter Bower, vol. 3, (Aberdeen, 1995), 139ff.
  95. ^ Oram, David, pp. 213–7.
  96. ^ See, for instance, Steve Boardman, "Late Medieval Scotland and the Matter of Britain", in Edward J. Cowan and Richard J. Finlay (eds.), Scottish History: The Power of the Past, (Edinburgh, 2002), pp. 65–71.
  97. ^ Quoted in Oram, David, p. 219, citing Lang, A History of Scotland, vol. 1, pp. 102–9; Lang did not neglect the old myth about Margaret, writing of the Northumbrian refugees arriving in Scotland "where they became the sires of the sturdy Lowland race", Lang, A History of Scotland, vol. 1, p. 91.
  98. ^ See Matthew H. Hammond, "Ethnicity and the Writing of Medieval Scottish history", pp. 1–27.; see also, Murray G.H. Pittock's work, Celtic Identity and the British Image, (Manchester, 1999), and Oram, David, pp. 219–20.
  99. ^ Græme Ritchie, The Normans in Scotland, (Edinburgh, 1954); Duncan, Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom, pp. 133–73; most of Barrow's most important essays have been collected in two volumes, Scotland and Its Neighbours In the Middle Ages, (London, 1992) and The Kingdom of the Scots: Government, Church and Society from the eleventh century to the fourteenth century, 2nd edn. (Edinburgh, 2003).
  100. ^ Barrow, "The Balance of New and Old", passim.
  101. ^ William Forbes Skene, Celtic Scotland: A History of Ancient Alban, 3 vols. (Edinburgh, 1876–80); see also, Edward J. Cowan, "The Invention of Celtic Scotland", pp. 1–23.
  102. ^ Lynch, Scotland: A New Hitory, pp. 82–83.
  103. ^ Oram, David I, (Stroud, 2004).
  104. ^ Barrow, "The Balance of New and Old", pp. 9–11; Lynch, Scotland: A New History, p. 80.
  105. ^ Barrow, "The Balance of New and Old", p. 13.
  106. ^ Bartlett, The Making of Europe, pp. 24–59; Moore, The First European Revolution, c.970–1215, p. 30ff; see also Barrow, "The Balance of New and Old", passim, esp. 9; this idea of "Europe" seems in practice to mean "Western Europe".
  107. ^ Haidu, The Subject Medieval/Modern, p. 181; Moore, The First European Revolution, p. 57.
  108. ^ Barrow, "Balance of New and Old", pp. 9–11.
  109. ^ "The Beginnings of Military Feudalism"; Oram, "David I and the Conquest of Moray", p. & n. 43; see also, L. Toorians, "Twelfth-century Flemish Settlement in Scotland", pp. 1–14.
  110. ^ McNeill & MacQueen, Atlas of Scottish History p. 193
  111. ^ See Barrow, G.W.S., "The Judex", pp. 57–67 and "The Justiciar", pp. 68–111.
  112. ^ Oram, David I: The King Who Made Scotland, pp. 193, 195; Bartlett, The Making of Europe, p. 287: "The minting of coins and the issue of written dispositions changed the political culture of the societies in which the new practices appeared".
  113. ^ Duncan, Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom, p. 465.
  114. ^ See G.W.S. Barrow, Kingship and Unity, pp. 84–104; see also, Stringer, "The Emergence of a Nation-State", pp. 66–9.
  115. ^ Stringer, "The Emergence of a Nation-State", p. 67. Numbering is uncertain; Perth may date to the reign of Alexander I; Inverness is a case were the foundation may date later, but may date to the period of David I: see for instance the blanket statement that Inverness dates to David I's reign in Derek Hall, Burgess, Merchant and Priest, compare Richard Oram, David, p. 93, where it is acknowledged that this is merely a possibility, to A.A.M. Duncan, The Making of the Kingdom, p. 480, who quotes a charter indicating that the burgh dates to the reign of William the Lion.
  116. ^ A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 256.
  117. ^ Stringer, "The Emergence of a Nation-State", 1100–1300", p. 67; Michael Lynch, Scotland: A New History, pp. 64–6; Thomas Owen Clancy, "History of Gaelic", here
  118. ^ Oram, David, p. 62; Duncan, Making of a Kingdom, p. 145.
  119. ^ Duncan, Scotland: The Making of a Kingdom, pp. 145–150; Duncan, "The Foundation of St Andrews Cathedral Priory", pp. 25, 27–8; Fawcett & Oram, Melrose Abbey, pp. 15–20
  120. ^ Peter Yeoman, Medieval Scotland, p. 15.
  121. ^ Fawcett & Oram, Melrose Abbey, p. 17.
  122. ^ See, for instance, Stringer, The Reformed Church in Medieval Galloway and Cumbria, pp. 9–11; Fawcett & Oram, Melrose Abbey, p. 17; Duncan, The Making of a Kingdom, p. 148.

// Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ... See Columba (disambiguation) and St Columb for other uses. ... Ingibiorg Finnsdottir (Standard Old Norse: Ingibjörg Finnsdóttir) was a daughter of Earl Finn Arnesson and Bergljot Halvdansdottir, a niece of Kings of Norway Olaf Haraldsson (Saint Olaf) and Harald Sigurdsson (Harald Hardraade). ... The Annals of Ulster are a chronicle of medieval Ireland. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... Auldearn is a village just outside Nairn in the Highland council area of Scotland. ... This article is about the city in Scotland. ... William I (William the Lion, William Leo, William Dunkeld or William Canmore), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scotland from 1165 to 1214. ... King Henry Is Dream in the Chronicle. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Annals of Tigernach (abbr. ...

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Alan Orr Anderson (1879-1958) was a Scottish historian and compiler. ... Marjorie Ogilvie Anderson (9 February 1909–27 May 2002) was a Scottish historian and paleographer. ... Geoffrey Wallis Steuart Barrow DLitt FBA FRSE is a British historian and academic, born at Headingley in Leeds. ... Dr. Thomas Owen Clancy is an American academic and historian who specializes in the literature of the Celtic Dark Ages, especially that of Scotland. ... William Forbes Skene (1809–1892), Scottish historian and antiquary, was the second son of Sir Walter Scotts friend, James Skene (1775–1864), of Rubislaw, near Aberdeen, and was born on June 7 1809. ... Professor Robert Bartlett (b. ... Dauvit Broun (David Brown) is a Scottish historian based at the University of Glasgow, and one of the most prominent and influential scholars in the field of medieval Scottish or Celtic studies. ... Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ... Sir Robert Rees Davies (August 6, 1938 - May 16, 2005), was a noted Welsh historian. ... John Dowden (1840-1910) was an Irish cleric and ecclesiastical historian. ... Professor David Norman Dumville (b. ... Archibald Alexander McBeth Duncan, FBA, FRHistS, FRSE (born 17 October 1926) is a Scottish historian. ... Richard Oram is a Scottish historian and freelance author. ... Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson was a linguist and phonologist and a translator who specialized in the Brythonic languages. ...

External links

  • Thomas Owen Clancy, "History of Gaelic"
  • Richard of Hexham's account of the 1138 Scottish invasion of England

See also

Reign of King David I of Scotland
Mormaers, Earls and Kinglets
Angus Argyll Atholl Buchan Caithness
Gille Brígte Somairle mac Gille Brígte Máel Muire, Matad Garnait Harald Maddadsson
Fife Galloway Lennox Lothian Mann
Causantín, Gille Míchéil, Donnchad Fergus none known Cospatric II, Cospatric III Amlaíb mac Gofraid
Mar Menteith Moray Ross Strathearn
Ruadrí, Gille Chlerig, Morggán none known Óengus, William fitz Duncan Áed Máel Ísu
Neighbouring Rulers
England Emperor France Ireland Norway
Henry I (1100-35),
Stephen (1135-54)
Henry V (1099-1125)
Lothair III (1125-37)
Conrad III (113852)
Frederick I Barbarossa (1152-90)
Louis VI, (1108-37)
Louis VII, (1137-80)
Toirdelbach (1119-56) Sigurd I Jorsalfar,(1103-30)
Harald IV Gille, (1130-6)
Sigurd II Munn, (1136-55)
Bishops in Scotland
Aberdeen Brechin Caithness Dunkeld Galloway
Nechtán Samson Aindréas Cormac, Gregoir Gilla Aldan
Glasgow Moray Ross St Andrews Sodor
John, Herbert Gregoir Mac Bethad, Symeon Robert -
Neighbouring Bishops
Papacy York Armagh Carlisle Durham
Callixtus II,
Honorius II,
Innocent II,
Celestine II,
Lucius II,
Eugenius III
Thurstan,
William FitzHerbert,
Henry Murdac

Celsus
(Cellach mac Áeda),
Malachy
(Máel Máedóc Ua Morgair),
Gelasius
(Gilla Meic Laic mac Diarmata)
Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. ... The Mormaer or Mormaerdom of Angus was the third Mormaerdom in the High Medieval Kingdom of the Scots to pass into the hands of a foreign famlily. ... Arms of the Duke of Argyll since 1406 The title Duke of Argyll was created in the peerage of Scotland in 1701 and in the peerage of the United Kingdom in 1892. ... The Mormaer of Mormaerdom of Atholl refers to a medieval comital Gaelic lordship straddling the highland and lowland district of northern Perthshire . ... The Mormaer or Mormaerdom of Buchan was the first Mormaerdom in the High Medieval Kingdom of the Scots to pass into the hands of a foreign famlily. ... The Mormaer of Caithness ruled a distinct mormaerdom in medieval Scotland in that it generally was held by a foreign prince, the Norse Earl of Orkney, the ruler of neighboring Norwegian province. ... Gille Brigte of Angus is the one of the earliest attested Mormaers of Angus. ... Somerled (Old Norse Sumarliði, Scottish Gaelic Somhairle) was a military and political leader of the Scottish Isles in the 12th century who was known in Gaelic as ri Innse Gall (King of the Hebrides). Somerled first appears in historical chronicles in the year 1140 as the regulus, or King... Máel Muire of Atholl was Mormaer of Atholl at the beginning of the 12th century, until sometime perhaps in the 1130s. ... Matad of Atholl was Mormaer of Atholl, 1130s-1153/9. ... Gartnait of Buchan is the first Mormaer of Buchan to be known by name as Mormaer. ... The Lewis chessmen an iconic image of Scandinavian Scotland in Harald Maddadssons time. ... The Mormaer or Mormaerdom of Fife refers to the Gaelic lordship of Fife which existed in Scotland until 1371, and continued as a non-Gaelic Earldom/County thereafter. ... The Lords, or Kings of Galloway ruled over Galloway, in south west Scotland, for a large part of the High Middle Ages. ... The Mormaer or Mormaerdom of Lennox was the long-lasting native Mormaerdom in the High Medieval Kingdom of the Scots. ... The title Earl of Dunbar has been created twice in the Peerage of Scotland, first in 1075, then again in 1605. ... Beginning in 1237, the Kingdom of Man and the Isles was divided. ... Causantín of Fife is the first man we know for certain to have been Mormaer of Fife. ... Mormaer Gille Míchéil, (d bef Jul 1136) is the second man we know for certain to have been Mormaer of Fife from 1130 to 1133, although it is unlikely he actually was the second. ... Mormaer Donnchad I , 1133 – 1154, (anglicized as Duncan or Dunecan), was the first Gaelic magnate to have his territory regranted to him by feudal charter, by David I in 1136. ... Fergus of Galloway was King, or Lord, of Galloway from an unknown date (probably in the 1110s), until his death in 1161. ... Gospatric II, Earl of Lothian or (later) Earl of Dunbar, (possibly died 1138), was an Anglo-Saxon noble from the early 12th century. ... Gospatric III was a twelfth century Anglo-Saxon noble, who was Earl of Lothian (later, Dunbar) and lord of Beanley. ... Olaf I the Isle of Man ... The Mormaer or Mormaerdom of Mar was a comparatively long-lasting Mormaerdom in the north-eastern part of the High Medieval Kingdom of the Scots. ... The Mormaer or Mormaerdom of Menteith was, after the Mormaerdom of Buchan, the first Mormaerdom in the High Medieval Kingdom of the Scots to pass into the hands of a foreign famlily, likewise the Comyns. ... The Mormaerdom or Kingdom of Moray (Middle Irish: Muireb or Moreb; Medieval Latin: Muref or Moravia; Modern Gaelic:Moireabh) was a lordship in High Medieval Scotland that was destroyed by King David I of Scotland in 1130. ... The Mormaer or Mormaerdom of Fife refers to a medieval Gaelic lordship in northern Scotland, roughly between the Oykell and the Beauly. ... The Mormaer or Mormaerdom of Strathearn was the most important Mormaerdom in the High Medieval Kingdom of the Scots after the Mormaerdom of Fife. ... Ruadrí of Mar is the first known Mormaer of Mar from the 12th century, although that the mormaerdom was much older. ... Gille Chlerig,1 also Gillocheri 2 or Gillocher, Gillocher or Gylocher is a Gaelic name attested only in a Latin source, a 13th century forgery designed to advance the cause of Scottish independence. ... Morggán of Mar, is the first Mormaer of Mar to appear in history as more than a characterless name in a witness-list. ... Óengus of Moray is the last Mormaer or King of Moray, which he ruled from some unknown date until his death in 1130. ... William fitz Duncan is a modern anglicisation of either the Old French Guillaume fils de Duncan or the Middle Irish Uilleam mac Donnchada. ... Mormaer Beth is a name of a Mormaer mentioned in a unreliable charter granted to Scone Priory, later Scone Abbey, by king Alexander I of Scotland. ... Mormaer Máel Ísu I (also Maol Íosa, Máel Íosa, Mallus or Mallisse or Malise, tonsured devotee of Jesus), (fl. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Henry I (c. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Stephen (c. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... Henry IV (left) and son Henry V (right). ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... Events May 23 - Lothair of Saxony becomes Holy Roman Emperor on the death of Henry V. War ends between Toulouse and Provence. ... Seal of Lothair III. on a deed from 1131 Lothair III of Supplinburg (1075 – 1137), was Duke of Saxony (1106), King of Germany (1125), and Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 to 1137. ... Events May 23 - Lothair of Saxony becomes Holy Roman Emperor on the death of Henry V. War ends between Toulouse and Provence. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... King Conrad III (Cunradus rex) in a 13th-century miniature. ... Events Robert Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... Events March 4 - Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of the Germans Eleanor of Aquitaine has her marriage to Louis VII annulled May 18 - Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou Church of Ireland acknowledges Popes authority Almohad Dynasty conquers Algeria Establishment of the archbishopric of Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway... Events March 16 - Massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England prompted by Crusaders and Richard Malebys kill 150-500 Jews in Cliffords Tower June 10 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem. ... Louis VI the Fat (French: Louis VI le Gros) (December 1, 1081 – August 1, 1137) was King of France from 1108 to 1137. ... Events May - Battle of Ucles Consecration of Chichester cathedral Saint Magnus becomes the first earl of Orkney In Pistoia, Italy, Cathedral of San Zeno burned to the ground. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Tairrdelbach mac Ruaidri Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, born 1088, died 1156. ... Events February 2 - Callixtus II becomes Pope August 20 - Henry I of England routes Louis VI at the Battle of Bremule. ... Events Prince Yuriy Dolgorukiy fortifies Moscow, regarded as the date of the founding of the city Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi... Sigurd I Magnusson (1089?-1130), nicknamed Sigurd Jorsalfare (Old Norse Sigurðr Jórsalafari, translation: Sigurd the Crusader, literal translation: Sigurd, the one who went to Jerusalem) was king of Norway 1103-1130. ... Events April 27 - Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, goes into exile after falling out with Henry I of England Amadeus III becomes Count of Savoy Bohemund I of Antioch is released from imprisonment among the Turks The Scandinavian city of Lund becomes a see within the Roman Catholic Church Births February... Events February 13 - Innocent II is elected pope An antipope schism occurs when Roger II of Sicily supports Anacletus II as pope instead of Innocent II. Innocent flees to France and Anacletus crowns Roger King. ... Harald Gylle (1103–1136), king of Norway, was born in Ireland. ... Events February 13 - Innocent II is elected pope An antipope schism occurs when Roger II of Sicily supports Anacletus II as pope instead of Innocent II. Innocent flees to France and Anacletus crowns Roger King. ... Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III... Sigurd II (1133–1155) was the son of Harald Gille, king of Norway and his mistress Tora Guttormsdottir. ... Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III... Events Frederick I Barbarossa crowned Holy Roman Emperor. ... The Bishop of Aberdeen is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Aberdeen in the Province of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. ... The Bishop of Brechin is the Ordinary of the Scottish Episcopal Diocese of Brechin. ... The Bishop of Caithness was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Caithness, one of Scotlands 13 medieval bishoprics. ... The Bishop of Dunkeld is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dunkeld in the Province of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. ... The Bishop of Galloway is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Galloway in the Province of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. ... There are other historical or legendary persons called Nectan Nechtan of Aberdeen is the first Bishop of Aberdeen after the seat of the bishopric had been moved to Aberdeen from Mortlach. ... Samson of Brechin is the first known Bishop of Brechin. ... Andreas or Aindréas of Caithness († 1184) is the first known bishop of Caithness and a source for the author of de Situ Albanie. ... Cormac, Bishop of Dunkeld (fl. ... Gregoir, Bishop of Dunkeld (d. ... Gilla Aldan of Whithorn, was a native Galwegian who was the first Bishop of the resurrected Bishopric of Whithorn or Galloway. ... The Archbishop of Glasgow is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Glasgow. ... The Bishop of Moray or Bishop of Elgin was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Moray in northern Scotland, one of Scotlands 13 medieval bishoprics. ... The ruins of Fortrose Cathedral on the Black Isle. ... The Bishop of St. ... The Bishop of the Isles or Bishop of Sodor was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Sodor, one of Scotlands 13 medieval bishoprics. ... John († 1147) was an early 12th century tironensian cleric. ... Herbert of Selkirk was a 12th century Tironensian monk, who rose to become 3rd Abbot of Selkirk-Kelso and bishop of Glasgow. ... Gregoir of Moray [Giric, Gregory] is the first attested Bishop of Moray. ... Mac Bethad of Rosemarkie is the first recorded High Medieval Bishop of Ross, a See then located at Rosemarkie. ... Symeon (Middle Gaelic: Simón; fl. ... Robert of Scone († 1159) was a 12th century bishop of Cell Rígmonaid (or Kilrymont, now St Andrews). ... Popes buried in St. ... List of Archbishops of York. ... This page lists the Bishops and Archbishops of Armagh, according to the Roman Catholic succession, including the names of ancient Celtic leaders, medieaval Catholic ones, and the Roman Catholic prelates reinstituted after the Reformation. ... List of the bishops of Carlisle. ... List of Bishops of Durham. ... Callixtus II (or Calistus II), born Guido of Vienne (died December 13, 1124), the son of William I, Count of Burgundy (1057–87), was elected Pope on February 2, 1119, after the death of Pope Gelasius II (1118–19). ... Pope Honorius II should not be confused with Antipope Honorius II, otherwise known as Peter Cadalus. ... Pope Innocent II (died September 24, 1143), born Gregorio Papareschi, was Pope from 1130 to 1143, and was probably one of the clergy in personal attendance on the antipope Clement III (Guibert of Ravenna). ... Celestine II, born Guido di Castello (d. ... Lucius II, neé Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso (died February 15, 1145) was Pope from March 12, 1144 until his death. ... The Blessed Eugene III, né Bernardo Pignatelli (d. ... Thurstan, or Turstin (d. ... Saint William of York, (died 1154) also known as William FitzHerbert, William I FitzHerbert and William of Thwayt, was an English bishop and Archbishop of York. ... Henry Murdac, abbot of Fountains Abbey (1144-1147) and archbishop of York (1147-1153), was a native of Yorkshire, but descended from a wealthy family from Compton Murdac (now Compton Verney), in Warwickshire. ... Saint Ceallach (Celsus) was born in 1080. ... St. ...

Æthelwold Ranulf Flambard,
Geoffrey Rufus,
William Comyn,
William of St. Barbara
Preceded by
New Creation
Lands taken from Alexander
Prince of the Cumbrians
x 1113–1124
Succeeded by
Merged in crown
Preceded by
Alexander
King of Scots
1124–1153
Succeeded by
Máel Coluim IV
Persondata
NAME David I
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; Dauíd mac Máil Coluim; David fitz Malcolm
SHORT DESCRIPTION King of Scots, Prince of the Cumbrians
DATE OF BIRTH 1083-1085
PLACE OF BIRTH Scotland
DATE OF DEATH May 24, 1153
PLACE OF DEATH Carlisle, England

Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... Events Sancho I of Aragon conqueres Graus. ... April 2 - Emperor Zhezong became emperor of Song Dynasty. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Henry of Anjou arrives in England. ... , Carlisle is a city in the far north-west of England, and is the largest urban area in Cumbria. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
David I of Scotland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (619 words)
David I, known as "the Saint", (1084 May 24, 1153), king of Scotland, the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling), was born in 1084.
Alexander, together with the crown, received Scotland north of the Forth and Clyde, David the southern district with the title of earl of Cumbria.
David's attention was often focussed southwards, and had Carlisle as one of his national capitals.
David II of Scotland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (581 words)
Meanwhile his representatives had obtained the upper hand in Scotland, and David was thus enabled to return to his kingdom in June 1341, when he took the reins of government into his own hands.
David, who had possibly recognized Edward III as his feudal superior, returned at once to Scotland; but owing to the poverty of the kingdom it was found impossible to raise the ransom.
David was not one of the more successful monarchs in Scottish history, but he has suffered from comparison with his illustrious father, and he was king under difficult objective conditions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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