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Encyclopedia > David Hume
Western Philosophy
18th-century philosophy
David Hume
Name
David Hume
Birth April 26, 1711 (Edinburgh, Scotland)
Death August 25, 1776 (Edinburgh, Scotland)
School/tradition Naturalism, Scepticism, Empiricism,
Scottish Enlightenment
Main interests Epistemology, Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Ethics, Political Philosophy, Aesthetics, Philosophy of Religion
Notable ideas Problem of causation, Induction, Is-ought problem
Influenced by Locke, Berkeley, Thomas Hobbes, Hutcheson, Newton, Cicero, Malebranche
Influenced Adam Smith, Adam Ferguson, Immanuel Kant, Jeremy Bentham, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Arthur Schopenhauer, Auguste Comte, John Stuart Mill, Baron d'Holbach, Darwin, Thomas Huxley, William James, Bertrand Russell, Einstein, Karl Popper, Alfred Ayer, J. L. Mackie, Noam Chomsky, Simon Blackburn, Iain King

David Hume (April 26, 1711August 25, 1776)[1] was an 18th-century Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian, considered among the most important figures in the history of Western philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment. (Redirected from 18th century philosophy) 17th-century Western philosophy is conventionally seen as being dominated by the coming of symbolic mathematics and rationalism to philosophy, many of the most noted philosophers were also mathematicians. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (825x1000, 91 KB) Found at Web Gallery of Art File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): David Hume Empiricism Allan Ramsay (1713-1784) Category talk:Philosophers User:Primalchaos... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about methodological naturalism. ... Skepticism (Commonwealth spelling: Scepticism) can mean: Philosophical skepticism - a philosophical position in which people choose to critically examine whether the knowledge and perceptions that they have are actually true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have absolutely true knowledge; or Scientific skepticism - a scientific, or practical... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... Philosophy of religion is the rational study of the meaning and justification ( or rebuttal) of fundamental religious claims, particularly about the nature and existence of God (or gods, or the divine). ... Causality or causation denotes the relationship between one event (called cause) and another event (called effect) which is the consequence (result) of the first. ... Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ... David Hume raised the is-ought problem in his Treatise of Human Nature. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... For the second husband of Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, see George Berkeley (MP). ... Hobbes redirects here. ... Francis Hutcheson (August 8, 1694–August 8, 1746) was an Irish philosopher and one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Malebranche redirects here. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Adam Ferguson, also known as Ferguson of Raith (June 20, 1723 (O.S.) - February 22, 1816) was a philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... Kant redirects here. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. ... Auguste Comte (full name: Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte; January 17, 1798 - September 5, 1857) was a French thinker who coined the term sociology. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Baron dHolbach Paul-Henri Thiry, baron dHolbach (1723 – 1789) was a German-French author, philosopher and encyclopedist. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Thomas Henry Huxley, FRS (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) [1] was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper (July 28, 1902 â€“ September 17, 1994) was an Austrian and British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... Ayer redirects here. ... For other people named John Mackie, see John Mackie. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... Simon Blackburn (born 1944) is a British academic philosopher also known for his efforts to popularise philosophy. ... Iain King (born 1971) is a contemporary British moral philosopher. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800 in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the country. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ...


He first gained recognition and respect as a historian; but interest in Hume's work in academia has in recent years centred on his philosophical writing. His History of England[2] was the standard work on English history for many years until Macaulay's.[3] England is the largest and most populous of the four main divisions of the United Kingdom. ... The History of England from the Accession of James the Second is the full title of the multi-volume work by Lord Macaulay more generally known as The History of England. The history is famous for its brilliant ringing prose and for its confident, sometimes dogmatic, emphasis on a progressive...


Hume was the first great philosopher of the modern era to carve out a thoroughly naturalistic philosophy. This philosophy partly consisted in the rejection of the historically prevalent conception of human minds as being miniature versions of the divine mind.[4] This doctrine was associated with a trust in the powers of human reason and insight into reality, which possessed God’s certification. Hume’s scepticism came in his rejection of this ‘insight ideal’,[5] and the (usually rationalistic) confidence derived from it that the world is as we represent it. Instead, the best we can do is to apply the strongest explanatory and empirical principles available to the investigation of human mental phenomena, issuing in a quasi-Newtonian project, Hume's ‘Science of Man’. This article is about methodological naturalism. ... The Image of God (often appearing in Latin as Imago Dei) is a concept and theological doctrine that asserts that human beings are created in Gods image and therefore have inherent value independent of their utility or function. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ...


Hume was heavily influenced by empiricists John Locke and George Berkeley, along with various Francophone writers such as Pierre Bayle, and various figures on the Anglophone intellectual landscape such as Isaac Newton, Samuel Clarke, Francis Hutcheson, Adam Smith, and Joseph Butler.[6] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... For the second husband of Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, see George Berkeley (MP). ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Pierre Bayle. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Samuel Clarke. ... Francis Hutcheson (August 8, 1694–August 8, 1746) was an Irish philosopher and one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Joseph Butler (May 18, 1692 O.S. – June 16, 1752) was an English bishop, theologian, apologist, and philosopher. ...

Contents

Life

David Home, son of Joseph Home of Chirnside, advocate, and Katherine Lady Falconer, was born on 26 April 1711 ([Style]) in a tenement on the North side of the Lawnmarket in Edinburgh. He changed his name to Hume in 1734 because the English had difficulty pronouncing 'Home' in the Scottish manner. Throughout his life Hume, who never married, spent time occasionally at his family home at Ninewells by Chirnside, Berwickshire. Chirnside is a hillside village in Berwickshire in Scotland, 9 miles west of Berwick-upon-Tweed and 7 miles east of Duns. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Categories: Stub | House types ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Chirnside is a hillside village in Berwickshire in Scotland, 9 miles west of Berwick-upon-Tweed and 7 miles east of Duns. ... Berwickshire (Siorrachd Bhearaig in Gaelic) is a committee area of the Scottish Borders Council and a Lieutenancy area of Scotland, on the border with England. ...


Education

Hume was sent by his family to the University of Edinburgh at the unusually early age of twelve, perhaps as young as ten (fourteen would have been more normal). At first he considered a career in law, but came to have, in his words, "an insurmountable aversion to everything but the pursuits of Philosophy and general Learning; and while [my family] fanceyed I was poring over Voet and Vinnius, Cicero and Vergil were the Authors which I was secretly devouring."[7] He had little respect for professors, telling a friend in 1735 that "there is nothing to be learned from a Professor, which is not to be met with in Books." The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... For other uses see Virgil (disambiguation). ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ...


At the age of eighteen, Hume made a philosophical discovery that opened up to him "a new Scene of Thought" which inspired him "to throw up every other Pleasure or Business to apply entirely to it".[8] He did not recount what this "Scene" was, and commentators have offered a variety of speculations.[9] Due to this inspiration, Hume set out to spend a minimum of ten years reading and writing. He came on the verge of nervous breakdown, after which he decided to have a more active life to better continue his learning.[10] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Career

As Hume's options lay between a travelling tutorship and a stool in a merchant's office, he chose the latter. In 1734, after a few months in commerce in Bristol, he went to La Flèche in Anjou, France. He had frequent discourses with the Jesuits of the famous college in which Descartes was educated. As he spent most of his savings during his four years there while writing A Treatise of Human Nature,[11] he resolved "to make a very rigid frugality supply my deficiency of fortune, to maintain unimpaired my independency, and to regard every object as contemptible except the improvements of my talents in literature."[12] He completed the Treatise at the age of twenty-six. This article is about the English city. ... La Flèche is a commune of the Sarthe département in France, on the banks of the Loir river. ... Modern département of Maine-et-Loire, which largely corresponds to Anjou Anjou is a former county (c. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The entrance gate of the Prytanee National Militaire The Prytanée National Militaire is a French school managed by the military, offering regular high-school education as well as special preparatory school classes, equivalent in level to the first years of university, for students who wish to enter French military... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... A Treatise of Human Nature is a book by philosopher David Hume, published in 1739–1740. ...


Although many scholars today consider the Treatise to be Hume's most important work and one of the most important books in the history of philosophy, the critics in Great Britain at the time did not agree, describing it as "abstract and unintelligible".[13] Despite the disappointment, Hume later wrote that "being naturally of a cheerful and sanguine temper, I soon recovered from the blow and prosecuted with great ardour my studies in the country".[14] There, he wrote the Abstract.[15] Without revealing his authorship, he aimed to make his larger work more intelligible by shortening it.


After the publication of Essays Moral and Political in 1744, Hume applied for the Chair of Pneumatics and Moral Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. However, the position was given to William Cleghorn, after the majority of Edinburgh ministers petitioned the town council not to appoint Hume due to his atheism.[16] The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... William Cleghorn, was born in 1718 to a successful brewer, Hugh Cleghorn, and Jean Hamilton, and died in 1754, aged 36. ... Atheist redirects here. ...


During the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745, Hume tutored the Marquise of Annandale (1720-92), who was officially described as a "lunatic".[17] This engagement ended in disarray after about a year. But it was then that Hume started his great historical work The History of Great Britain, which would take fifteen years and run to over a million words, to be published in six volumes in the period between 1754 and 1762. During this period, he was involved with the Canongate Theatre and in this context associated with Lord Monboddo and other Scottish Enlightenment luminaries in Edinburgh. From 1746, Hume served for three years as Secretary to Lieutenant-General St Clair, and wrote Philosophical Essays Concerning Human Understanding, later published as An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. The Enquiry proved little more successful than the Treatise. This article is not about the Jacobite Orthodox Church, nor is it about Jacobinism or the earlier Jacobean period. ... The History of Great Britain (volume 1) is a book by David Hume published in 1754. ... James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish judge, scholar and eccentric. ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is a book by philosopher David Hume, published in 1748. ...


Hume was charged with heresy, but he was defended by his young clerical friends who argued that as an atheist he laid outside the jurisdiction of the Church. Despite his acquittal—and possibly due to the opposition of Thomas Reid of Aberdeen, who that year launched a Christian critique of his metaphysics—Hume failed to gain the Chair of Philosophy at the University of Glasgow. Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... For the Scottish footballer, see Thomas Reid (footballer). ... For other uses, see Aberdeen (disambiguation). ... University of Glasgow The Nova Erectio of King James VI of Scotland shared the teaching of Moral Philosophy, Logic and Natural Philosophy among the Regents. ... Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group Universitas 21 Website http://www. ...


It was after returning to Edinburgh in 1752, as he wrote in My Own Life, that "the Faculty of Advocates chose me their Librarian, an office from which I received little or no emolument, but which gave me the command of a large library."[18] It was this resource that enabled him to continue his historical research for his book The History of Great Britain.


Hume would achieve great literary fame as a historian. His enormous History of Great Britain, tracing events from the Saxon kingdoms to the Glorious Revolution, was a best-seller in its day. In it, Hume presented political man as a creature of habit, with a disposition to submit quietly to established government unless confronted by uncertain circumstances. In his view, only religious difference could deflect men from their everyday lives to think about political matters. History of Great Britain (volume 1) is a book by David Hume published in 1754. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William...


However, a volume of Political Discourses (1752) was Hume's only work that was judged by him to be successful on first publication.[19]


Religion

Tomb of David Hume in Edinburgh
Tomb of David Hume in Edinburgh

Hume's early essay Of Superstition and Religion laid the foundations for nearly all subsequent secular thinking about the history of religion. Critics of religion during Hume's time were required to express themselves cautiously. Less than 15 years before Hume was born, 18-year-old college student Thomas Aikenhead was put on trial for saying openly that he thought Christianity was nonsense; he was later convicted and hanged for blasphemy. Hume followed the common practice of expressing his views obliquely, through characters in dialogues. He did not acknowledge authorship of Treatise until the year of his death, in 1776. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 439 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): David Hume User:Pschemp/Gallery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 439 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): David Hume User:Pschemp/Gallery ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Thomas Aikenhead (c. ... For the black metal band, see Blasphemy (band). ...


Hume's essays On Suicide and On the Immortality of the Soul along with his Dialogues concerning Natural Religion were held from publication until after his death (published 1778 and 1779, respectively), and they still bore neither author's nor publisher's name. So masterly was Hume in disguising his own views that debate continues to this day over whether Hume was actually a deist or an atheist. Regardless, in his own time Hume's alleged atheism caused him to be passed over for many positions. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion was written by skeptical philosopher David Hume. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... Atheist redirects here. ...


Hume told his friend Mure of Caldwell of an incident which occasioned his "conversion" to Christianity. Passing across the recently drained Nor’ Loch to the New Town of Edinburgh to supervise the masons building his new house, soon to become No. 1 St. David Street, he slipped and fell into the mire. Hume, being then of great bulk, could not regain his feet. Some passing Newhaven fishwives saw his plight but recognised him as the well-known atheist, and so refused to rescue him unless he became a Christian and recited The Lord’s Prayer and the Creed. This he did, and was rewarded by being set again on his feet by these brawny women. Hume asserted thereafter that Edinburgh fishwives were the "most acute theologians he had ever met".[20] Edinburghs New Town, viewed from Edinburgh Castle. ... The Lords Prayer (sometimes known by its first two Latin words as the Pater Noster, in Greek as the , or the English equivalent Our Father) is probably the best-known prayer in Christianity. ... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ...


Later life

From 1763 to 1765, Hume was Secretary to Lord Hertford in Paris, where he was admired by Voltaire and lionised by the ladies in society. He made friends, and later fell out, with Jean-Jacques Rousseau. He wrote of his Paris life, "I really wish often for the plain roughness of the The Poker Club of Edinburgh . . . to correct and qualify so much lusciousness." For a year from 1767, Hume held the appointment of Under Secretary of State for the Northern Department. In 1768, he settled in Edinburgh. This article is about the capital of France. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Rousseau redirects here. ... The Poker Club was one of several clubs at the heart of the Scottish Enlightenment where many associated with that movement met and exchanged views in a convivial atmosphere. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


James Boswell visited Hume a few weeks before his death. Hume told him that he sincerely believed it a "most unreasonable fancy" that there might be life after death.[21] This meeting was dramatized in semi-fictional form for the BBC by Michael Ignatieff as Dialogue in the Dark. Hume wrote his own epitaph: "Born 1711, Died [----]. Leaving it to posterity to add the rest." It is engraved with the year of his death 1776 on the "simple Roman tomb" which he prescribed, and which stands, as he wished it, on the Eastern slope of the Calton Hill overlooking his home in the New Town of Edinburgh at No. 1 St. David Street. James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck and 1st Baronet (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Michael Grant Ignatieff, M.P., Ph. ... The top of Calton Hill with the National Monument and Nelsons Monument View over Edinburgh, with the Dugald Stewart Monument in the foreground Calton Hill is a hill in Edinburgh, Scotland, just to the east of the city centre. ... The Edinburgh New Town is a neo-classical masterpiece. ...


Science of Man

Statue of David Hume in Edinburgh, Scotland
Statue of David Hume in Edinburgh, Scotland

In the introduction to A Treatise of Human Nature, Hume writes that “the science of man is the only solid foundation for the other sciences”, and that the correct method for this science is “experience and observation”;[22] i.e. the empirical method. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (898x1592, 215 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): David Hume Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (898x1592, 215 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): David Hume Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera...


However, there has been wide disagreement amongst commentators on the precise form of Hume’s enterprise, and, in particular, what sort of empiricism Hume favoured. The Logical Positivists took Hume’s project to be one of analysing sentences to find out the empirical conditions that make those sentences meaningful. According to the Logical Positivists, unless a statement could be verified or falsified by experience, or else was true or false by definition (i.e. either tautological or contradictory), then it was meaningless (this is their famous Verification Principle). Hume, on this view, was a proto-Positivist, who, in his philosophical writings, took to showing how ordinary sentences about objects, causal relations, the self, etc., were semantically equivalent to sentences about one’s experiences.[23] Logical positivism grew from the discussions of Moritz Schlicks Vienna Circle and Hans Reichenbachs Berlin Circle in the 1920s and 1930s. ... In logic, a tautology is a statement which is true by its own definition, and is therefore fundamentally uninformative. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In philosophy, epistemic theories of truth are attempts to analyse the notion of truth in terms of epistemic notions such as belief, acceptance, verification, justification, perspective and so on. ...


However, not all critics agree with Logical Positivist interpretation. A standard argument against it is that, whereas the Logical Positivists took the Verification Principle to lead to anti-Sceptical conclusions,[24] Hume described himself as a mitigated Sceptic.[25] Instead it has been argued that, rather than exploring the experiential conditions of the meaningfulness of sentences, Hume was giving an account of conditions under which we come to form certain ideas and beliefs; that is to say, he was giving a causal account of the origin of general concepts of the external world, causation, the self, and so on. On this view, our forming and using such concepts is the result of an in-built, natural disposition to deploy faculties of the mind such as custom, habit, and the imagination. Another way of expressing this is to say that he was not concerned with advancing a theory of semantics — i.e. what we mean when we talk about, say, physical objects or causal relations — but rather was carrying out an epistemological enquiry, asking in effect how the stimuli of the senses and our conceptual apparatus work together to compel us to form various sorts of judgements and to make claims to knowledge.[26] Look up argument in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In what follows, central philosophical concepts that Hume wrote about, and different interpretations that have been offered of his arguments, will be explored.


Psychology

In An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, Hume spends the first two sections developing a framework that accounts for the contents within the human mind. That is, Hume is interested as to how we come to form ideas. He describes our perceptions as falling into two categories: impressions and ideas. Impressions and ideas can be distinguished in two ways. Firstly, impressions are more vivid, because they appeal directly to the senses (e.g. placing one's hand on a hot stove top). Ideas are dull in comparison to impressions, because they "recall" impressions, while lacking their intensity and strength. The thought being that calling upon the idea of becoming burning is insignificantly as intense (painful) as actually being burnt. Secondly, ideas are always copies of impressions. It is important to note, as Hume does, that because of this every idea must have a root impressions. In other words, for an idea to be intelligible and have meaningfulness it must have an originating impression (or impressions) that it can be traced back to.


Causation

Hume’s views on the concept of causation are a subject of much dispute, and there are at least three different interpretations represented in the literature. These are:


(i) The logical positivist interpretation
(ii) The sceptical realist interpretation
(iii) The quasi-realist and projectivist interpretation Logical positivism (later referred to as logical empiricism) holds that philosophy should aspire to the same sort of rigor as science. ...


According to the positivist view, Hume is attempting to specify the semantic content of the concept of causation — i.e. what we mean when we deploy causal terms. The traditional analytical take on Hume’s answer is that it is to be found in the regular succession of certain of our impressions; their ‘constant conjunction’. On this interpretation, Hume is saying that statements such as "A caused B" are equivalent to propositions such as "Whenever A occurs, then B does", where "whenever" refers to all possible observations of A and B.[27] This article is about causality as it is used in many different fields. ...


This has been rejected, however, by Sceptical Realists, who argue that Hume was not discussing the meaning of causal terms, but rather their source, or their causal origin, in our experience. The major disagreement with the Positivist view is over Hume’s take on the idea of Necessary Connexion. According to the Positivists, as we have seen, causality consists only in regularities in perceptions, but the Sceptical Realists point out that Hume also thought there to be a Necessary Connexion between causes and effects that goes unperceived.[28] The reason Hume is called a Sceptical Realist on this take is that he did not think we could have perceptual access to the necessary connexion, and thus we have no reason to believe in it (hence Scepticism);[29] but at the same time we are compelled by natural instinct to believe there to be a necessary connexion when we observe a regularity or constancy in our perceptions, and this natural belief is of an external causal necessity (hence Realism).[30]


However, the Sceptical Realist reading has been rejected by Simon Blackburn, who instead proposes a Projectivist and Quasi-Realist interpretation.[31] According to this position, Hume was not arguing that we have a concept of a Real necessary connexion, where "Real" means that our idea represents something in the world, external to human minds. Instead, our concept of causation is composed of two elements (corresponding to Hume's two famous "definitions" of causation),[32] the first of which is the regular succession given in perception, but the second of which, the necessary connexion, is actually a product of a functional change in the human mind which allows us to anticipate and predict future events based on past regularities. So the Quasi-Realist denies that the necessary connexion is a property existing in the world (hence he denies straightforward Realism), and instead sees it as representative of a change in our mental states and practical attitudes. However, this does not amount to a full-on Anti-Realism about Causation, because the Quasi-Realist is also a Projectivist, who holds that it is perfectly legitimate to "project" our predictions by making statements which express the belief in a necessary connexion. It is not that we talk "as-if" there were a necessary connexion, when really there is not: rather, our talk of there being a necessary connexion is a way of voicing a distinctive mental set, which allows us to explain and predict the behaviour of objects, and hopefully come to control them too. Thus when Hume says that “nothing is more usual than to apply to external bodies every internal sensation which they occasion”,[33] he is not diagnosing an error in human thought, but merely giving a scientific explanation of how our concepts arise. Simon Blackburn (born 1944) is a British academic philosopher also known for his efforts to popularise philosophy. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Quasi-realism is an expressivist meta-ethical theory propounded by Simon Blackburn which asserts that whilst our moral claims are projectivist we understand them in realist terms as part of our ethical experience of the world. ...


Problem of induction

Main article: Problem of induction

The Problem of Induction has received a great deal of critical attention, and though Hume offered his own solution to the problem, many have since queried whether he was in fact successful.[34] As a result, many modern commentators have themselves attempted solutions, and in this section some of them will be explored. The problem of induction is the philosophical issue involved in deciding the place of induction in determining empirical truth. ...


Inductive inference is the ability to infer from past regularities - e.g. from the fact that B has always followed A - to future and presently unobserved instances of that regularity - e.g. that if A occurs, B will follow. For example, the fact that fire has always burnt us in the past leads us to believe that fire will continue to burn us in the future, and that if any person is currently touching fire, it is burning them. The problem of induction is the problem of explaining this ability: how can we know the way things will behave when they go "beyond the present testimony of the senses, and the records of our memory"?[35]


Hume argues that induction is founded on the persistence of regularities (sometimes called the Uniformity of Nature) and that we cannot know nature is uniform through reason, because reason only comes in two sorts, and both of these are inadequate. The two sorts are: For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ...


(i) Demonstrative reasoning (effectively, deductive reasoning)
(ii) Probable reasoning (effectively, inductive reasoning)[36]


With regards to (i), Hume argues that we cannot prove a priori that regularities will continue, as it is "consistent and conceivable" that the course of nature might change.[37] Coming to (ii), Hume argues that founding a regularity on the fact that regularity has always operated in the past (inductive reasoning) is arguing in a circle, because induction was the very process we were trying to explain in the first place. Hence no form of reason will sponsor inductive inference. The terms a priori and a posteriori are used in philosophy to distinguish between two different types of propositional knowledge. ...


This argument has been criticised in more than one area. For example, some have maintained that Kantian arguments can establish that nature is uniform.[38] It has been countered, however, that even if Kantian arguments can prove a priori that nature is uniform in general, this does not make inductive inference rational, because there is still the problem of working out which particular regularities will continue.[39]


A further criticism is that there are more types of reasoning than Hume allows (the two types of demonstrative and probabilistic), for one can give deductive reasons for probability distributions, and it might be that a demonstration of the high probability of success of an inductive policy can succeed in showing induction to be rational.[40] However, it could be argued that Nelson Goodman has shown that no purely formal treatment can work. Goodman identified certain regularities that cannot be successfully 'projected' into the future: for example, if we define a new predicate "grue", such that something is grue if it is green until the year 3000, and blue thereafter, we know that all emeralds thus far have been "grue", but we do not assume they will continue to be grue after 3000 AD, because that would be to assume they will turn blue at a random point in time.[41] Thus a non-formal distinction must be made between those predicates which can, and those which can't, be projected: Simon Blackburn, for example, has argued that the distinction is between observational predicates and non-observational predicates.[42] This seems to counter the idea that purely formal a priori probabilistic reasoning can show induction to be rational. Nelson Goodman (7 August 1906, Somerville, Maryland – 25 November 1998) was an American philosopher, known for his work on counterfactuals, mereology, the problem of induction, and aesthetics. ... Simon Blackburn (born 1944) is a British academic philosopher also known for his efforts to popularise philosophy. ...


Solutions to the Problem

Turning from Hume's problem, we will exhibit different solutions that have been given to the problem. There are three main categories of contemporary response to the problem, as follows:


(i) The Analytic Solution
(ii) The Inductive Solution
(iii) The Pragmatic Solution


The first analytic solution was argued for by P. F. Strawson.[43] Essentially, it contends that the question of whether induction is rational is nonsense, as when we say something is rational, we just mean it is inductive (or deductive). That is, any inductive inference is a ‘rational’ inference, because inductive inferences are the sort of things we take as defining the concept of ‘reason’, or ‘rational’ argumentation: “to call a particular belief reasonable or unreasonable is to apply inductive standards”.[44] The question, “is induction rational?” is, says Strawson, akin to the question, “is the law legal?” That is to say, induction is analytically a rational policy: to ask after its rationality is to misunderstand the definition of the concept. Strawson redirects here. ...


However, the analytic solution has been opposed on the grounds that the question now transfers to one of whether we should prefer to be 'rational' as defined. Brian Skyrms imagines a tribe who use a Shaman to make their predictions about the future, and calls this method 'brational'. The question is now, why should we prefer 'rationality' to 'brationality'?[45]


A possible answer might be found in the inductive solution, proposed by Max Black.[46] It might be thought that, as Hume argued, we cannot use induction to legitimate induction, for that would be circular. But Black argues that our justification of induction is a second-order appeal to the success not of individual predictions, but to rules of prediction. The question comes, what justifies the use of the rules of induction? Again, Black maintains, we must appeal to our past success. Furthermore, (and pre-empting anymore aimless probing), this third level of justification is justified by its past success, and so on, ad infinitum. Max Black (24 February 1909, Baku, Russian Empire [present-day Azerbaijan] – 27 August 1988, Ithaca, New York, United States) was a distinguished Anglo-American philosopher, who was a leading influence in analytic philosophy in the first half of the twentieth century. ...


Skyrms has, again, argued against this.[47] He asserts that we can imagine an Anti-Inductive policy which is just as justifiable as the Inductive one, according to Black's defence. An anti-inductive argument goes something like this: the sun has always risen in the past, therefore it will not rise tomorrow. When we ask what justifies making such an inference, the anti-inductivist appeals to a second-order anti-inductive rule: “Well, anti-inductive arguments have never worked in the past; therefore they will work this time”. If the anti-inductivist is pushed, he will respond in a like manner again and again: “The rules of anti-inductive arguments have never worked for me before, so they are sure to work this time”. Essentially the anti-inductivist is able to generate precisely the same chain of ‘justification’ as the inductivist, and there is no way now of choosing between an inductive and an anti-inductive policy: they are equally ‘justified’. Skyrms takes this as a reductio of Black's proposed solution. Brian Skyrms is a Distinguished Professor of Logic and Philosophy of Science and Economics at the University of California, Irvine. ...


The pragmatist hopes to justify induction by appeal to its tendency to be right if any policy will, because induction can factor in the successes of other predictive policies.[48] However, it has been argued that the fact that an inductive policy of prediction is as successful as, or more successful than any other does not show which particular regularities will persist, and this is what we need if we are to explain our ability to project the right regularities.[49] Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ...


Turning from contemporary attempts to justify induction, we can look at Hume's own response to the problem. Hume argued in effect that although Reason cannot explain our ability to make correct inductive inference, natural instinct can. Hume says that "Nature, by an absolute and uncountroulable necessity has determin'd us to judge as well as to breathe and feel".[50] Some modern commentators agree with Hume's solution; for example, Oxford Professor John Kenyon, who has argued: "Reason might manage to raise a doubt about the truth of a conclusion of natural inductive inference just for a moment in the study, but the forces of nature will soon overcome that artificial scepticism, and the sheer agreeableness of animal faith will protect us from excessive caution and sterile suspension of belief."[51]


The self: bundles and beliefs

There are at least two broadly different ways of interpreting Hume’s views on personal identity, and these will be presented here. According to the first view, Hume was a bundle theorist, who held that the self is nothing but a bundle of interconnected perceptions. This view is forwarded by, for example, Positivist interpreters, who saw Hume as attempting to specify the “sense-contents” (roughly, bits of sensory-experience) that we refer to when we talk about the self.[52] This account draws on Hume’s remarks that a person is “a bundle or collection of different perceptions”.[53] A modern day version of the bundle theory of the mind has been advanced by Derek Parfit.[54] In philosophy, the issue of personal identity concerns the conditions under which a person at one time is the same person at another time. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Derek Parfit (born December 11, 1942) is a British philosopher who specializes in problems of personal identity, rationality and ethics, and the relations between them. ...


However, some have criticised the bundle theory interpretation of Hume on personal identity. Some account for Hume’s talk of people being bundles of perceptions as figurative, and raise the problem for such a view (at least in its basic form) that it is difficult to specify what it is that makes a bundle of perceptions the perceptions of a distinct person; for it seems that we can have similar perceptions to one another, and that the interconnections between our own perceptions (such as causal connections) can be shared with others’ perceptual states too.[55]


An alternative theory is that Hume is answering an epistemological question about the cause of people forming judgements or beliefs about the existence of the self.[56] In support of this interpretation we can point to passages that use causal terminology: “What then gives us so great a propension to ascribe an identity to these successive perceptions, and to suppose ourselves possest of an invariable and uninterrupted existence thro' the whole course of our lives?”[57]


The problem on this way of reading Hume, then, is that experience is interrupted and ever-changing, but somehow causes us to form a concept of a constant self which is the subject of these experiences. And Hume’s answer on this account is that it is the same interconnections and relations between perceptions that force the imagination to believe in the existence of mind-independent objects. He effectively argues, we cannot make sense of the notion of objects existing independently of ourselves unless we have an idea of 'ourself' as something that occasionally becomes aware of these objects. So the human mind, or consciousness, is thus conceived of as a field of experience into which various different objects appear and then disappear: "the true idea of the human mind, is to consider it as a system of different perceptions or different existences, which are link'd together by the relation of cause and effect, and mutually produce, destroy, influence, and modify each other."[58]


Practical reason

Hume's most famous sentence occurs at Treatise, II, III, iii, Of the influencing motives of the will: "Reason is, and ought only to be, the slave of the passions, and can never pretend to any other office than to serve and obey them." Hume here extends his anti-rationalism from the epistemological sphere into that of the theory of action, and demonstrates that the faculty of reason cannot, of itself, move the will. He starts the section by going over the by now familiar distinction between demonstrative and probable reasoning (roughly, deductive and inductive reasoning). He then argues that neither can influence the will, as both simply provide information — deductive reasoning about correct mathematical or logical inference and inductive reasoning about causal connections — and it is always open to us as to how to act on this information. Hume then argues that in order to be moved to act on the information provided us by reason, my passions, desires and inclinations must play a role. To take a simple example: using causal reasoning I can discern that if I drink a lot of wine, I will get drunk, but the truth of this conditional will not motivate me to do anything unless I have some desire, in this case the desire to be drunk. As such, Hume forwards the basic folk psychological action-theory that a motive to action requires both a belief (ascertained by the understanding) and a desire (provided by the passions). This theory is still hotly contested, with Humean philosophers such as Simon Blackburn and Michael Smith on one side, and moral cognitivists, like John McDowell, and Kantians, like Christine Korsgaard, on the other. Simon Blackburn (born 1944) is a British academic philosopher also known for his efforts to popularise philosophy. ... Michael Andrew Smith (born in Melbourne, Australia on 23 July 1954) is an Australian philosopher who teaches at Princeton University. ... John Henry McDowell (born 1942) is a contemporary philosopher, formerly a fellow of University College, Oxford and now University Professor at the University of Pittsburgh. ... Chris Marion Korsgaard is a professor at Harvard University. ...


Sentiment-based ethical theory

Hume first discusses ethics in A Treatise of Human Nature. He later extracts and expounds upon the ideas he proposed in Treatise in a shorter essay entitled An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals. Hume's approach in Enquiry is fundamentally an empirical one. Instead of telling us how morality ought to operate, he tells us how we actually make moral judgments. After providing us with various examples, he comes to the conclusion that most, though not all, of the behaviors we approve of increase public utility. Does this mean then that we make moral judgments to serve self-interest alone? Unlike his fellow empiricist Thomas Hobbes, Hume argues that this is not the case, abandoning Hobbes' attachment to psychological egoism. In addition to considerations of self-interest, Hume maintains that we can be moved by our sympathy for others, which can provide a person with thoroughly non-selfish concerns and motivations; indeed, what contemporary theorists would call altruistic concern. Hume defends his sympathy-based, moral sentimentalism by claiming that we could never make moral judgments based on reason alone. Our reason deals with facts and draws conclusions from them, but, Ceteris paribus, it could not lead us to choose one option over the other; only our sentiments can do this. Also, our sympathy-based sentiments can motivate us towards the pursuit of non-selfish ends, like the utility of others. For Hume, and for fellow sympathy-theorist Adam Smith, the term "sympathy" is meant to capture much more than concern for the suffering of others. Sympathy, for Hume, is a principle for the communication and sharing of sentiments, both positive and negative. In this sense, it is akin to what contemporary psychologists and philosophers call empathy. In developing this sympathy-based moral sentimentalism, Hume surpasses the divinely implanted moral sense theory of his predecessor, Francis Hutcheson, by elaborating a naturalistic, moral psychological basis for the moral sense, in terms of the operation of sympathy. Hume's arguments against founding morality on reason are often now included in the arsenal of moral anti-realist arguments. As Humean-inspired philosopher John Mackie suggests, for there to exist moral facts about the world, recognizable by reason and intrinsically motivating, they would have to be very queer facts. Still, there is considerable debate among scholars as to Hume's status as a realist versus anti-realist. A Treatise of Human Nature is a book by philosopher David Hume, published in 1739–1740. ... An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals is a book by Scottish enlightenment philosopher David Hume. ... Hobbes redirects here. ... Psychological egoism is the view that humans are always motivated by rational self-interest, even in what seem to be acts of altruism. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... Francis Hutcheson was the name of a famous father and son: Francis Hutcheson (philosopher) (1694-1746) Francis Hutcheson (songwriter) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In philosophy, the term anti-realism is used to describe any position involving either the denial of the objective reality of entities of a certain type or the insistence that we should be agnostic about their real existence. ... For other people named John Mackie, see John Mackie. ... Contemporary philosophical realism, also referred to as metaphysical realism, is the belief in a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. ... In philosophy, the term anti-realism is used to describe any position involving either the denial of the objective reality of entities of a certain type or the insistence that we should be agnostic about their real existence. ...


Free will and responsibility

Hume advocated a moral theory based on the freedom of the human will and its relation to the individual's character. Hume believed that effects follow necessarily from their causes, and that this principle of determinism applies equally to people and their actions. In addition, Hume held that a person enjoyed free will, or what he often termed liberty, as long as their will wasn't constrained (for example a person would not be at liberty to give charity if they are locked up in a cell). Given such definitions of determinism and free will, Hume wrote that the two concepts are compatible, a theory known as compatibilism. This article is about the general notion of determinism in philosophy. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Compatibilism, also known as soft determinism and most famously championed by Hume, is a theory which holds that free will and determinism are compatible. ...


In opposition to Christian thinkers (e.g. Samuel Clarke) who argued that in order for a person to be morally responsible, his actions must not be determined by any physical cause, Hume wrote that moral responsibility requires determinism: Hume argued that if effects are not determined by their causes then they're random, and similarly if actions aren't caused by the character then they're random and not the responsibility of the person who committed them. Samuel Clarke. ...


Beyond saying that a person is only responsible when they enjoy free will, and that free will is when one gets to act according to one's character, Hume also offers a psychological evaluation of why we judge people. Hume says that we hold people to blame or approbation when we judge their character as being respectively harmful or beneficial to society. Following from Hume's ideas on experience and causation, this means that when, for example, we experience a person's character (the cause) as resulting in a bad action (the effect), we apply the principle that similar causes result in similar effects, judge that the character will result in future bad actions, and decide that it is important to blame that person for the good of the society.


The is-ought problem

Main article: Is-ought problem

Hume noted that many writers talk about what ought to be on the basis of statements about what is (is-ought problem). But there seems to be a big difference between descriptive statements (what is) and prescriptive statements (what ought to be). Hume calls for writers to be on their guard against changing the subject in this way without giving an explanation of how the ought-statements are supposed to follow from the is-statements. But how exactly can you derive an "ought" from an "is"? That question, prompted by Hume's small paragraph, has become one of the central questions of ethical theory, and Hume is usually assigned the position that such a derivation is impossible. (Others interpret Hume as saying not that one cannot go from a factual statement to an ethical statement, but that one cannot do so without going through human nature, that is, without paying attention to human sentiments.) Hume is probably one of the first writers to make the distinction between normative (what ought to be) and positive (what is) statements, which is so prevalent in social science and moral philosophy. G. E. Moore defended a similar position with his "open question argument", intending to refute any identification of moral properties with natural properties ("naturalistic fallacy"). David Hume raised the is-ought problem in his Treatise of Human Nature. ... David Hume raised the is-ought problem in his Treatise of Human Nature. ... George Edward Moore George Edward Moore, also known as G.E. Moore, (November 4, 1873 - October 24, 1958) was a distinguished and hugely influential English philosopher who was educated and taught at the University of Cambridge. ... George Edward Moore The naturalistic fallacy is often claimed to be a formal fallacy. ...


Murray N. Rothbard contends that Hume in fact failed to prove that values cannot be derived from facts. It is frequently alleged that nothing can be in the conclusion of an argument which was not in one of the premises; and that therefore, an "ought" conclusion cannot follow from descriptive premises. But a conclusion follows from both premises taken together; the "ought" need not be present in either one of the premises so long as it has been validly deduced. To say that it cannot be so deduced simply begs the question. Murray Newton Rothbard Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 - January 7, 1995) was an American economist and political theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ... Begging the question, in modern popular usage, is often used synonymously for raising the question. However the original meaning is quite different: it described a type of logical fallacy (also called petitio principii) in which the evidence given for a proposition as much needs to be proved as the proposition...


Utilitarianism

It was probably Hume who, along with his fellow members of the Scottish Enlightenment, first advanced the idea that the explanation of moral principles is to be sought in the utility they tend to promote. Hume's role is not to be overstated; it was the Irish-born Francis Hutcheson who coined the utilitarian slogan "greatest happiness for the greatest number". But it was from reading Hume's Treatise that Jeremy Bentham first felt the force of a utilitarian system: he "felt as if scales had fallen from [his] eyes". Nevertheless, Hume's proto-utilitarianism is a peculiar one from our perspective. He doesn't think that the aggregation of cardinal units of utility provides a formula for arriving at moral truth. On the contrary, Hume was a moral sentimentalist and, as such, thought that moral principles could not be intellectually justified. Some principles simply appeal to us and others don't; and the reason utilitarian moral principles do appeal to us is that they promote our interests and those of our fellows, with whom we sympathize. Humans are hard-wired to approve of things that help society – public utility. Hume used this insight to explain how we evaluate a wide array of phenomena, ranging from social institutions and government policies to character traits and talents. The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... For other uses, see Utility (disambiguation). ... Francis Hutcheson was the name of a famous father and son: Francis Hutcheson (philosopher) (1694-1746) Francis Hutcheson (songwriter) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Utilitarianism is a suggested theoretical framework for morality, law and politics, based on quantitative maximisation of some definition of utility for society or humanity. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ...


The problem of miracles

In his discussion of miracles in An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding (Section 10) Hume defines a miracle as "a transgression of a law of nature by a particular volition of the Deity, or by the interposition of some invisible agent". Given that Hume argues that it is impossible to deduce the existence of a Deity from the existence of the world (for he says that causes cannot be determined from effects), miracles (including prophesy) are the only possible support he would conceivably allow for theistic religions. For other uses, see Miracle (disambiguation). ... An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is a book by philosopher David Hume, published in 1748. ...


Hume discusses everyday belief as often resulted from probability, where we believe an event that has occurred most often as being most likely, but that we also subtract the weighting of the less common event from that of the more common event. In the context of miracles, this means that a miraculous event should be labeled a miracle only where it would be even more unbelievable (by principles of probability) for it not to be. Hume mostly discusses miracles as testimony, in context of which he writes that when a person reports a marvellous event we (need to) balance our belief in their veracity against our belief that such events do not occur. Following this rule, only where it is considered, as a result of experience, less likely that the testimony is false than that a miracle occur should be believe in miracles.


Although Hume leaves open the possibility for miracles to occur and be reported, he offers various arguments against this ever having happened in history:

  • People often lie, and they have good reasons to lie about miracles occurring either because they believe they are doing so for the benefit of their religion or because of the fame that results.
  • People by nature enjoy relating miracles they have heard without caring for their veracity and thus miracles are easily transmitted even where false.
  • Hume notes that miracles seem to occur mostly in "ignorant" and "barbarous" nations and times, and the reason they don't occur in the "civilized" societies is such societies aren't awed by what they know to be natural events.
  • The miracles of each religion argue against all other religions and their miracles, and so even if a proportion of all reported miracles across the world fit Hume's requirement for belief, the miracles of each religion make the other less likely.

Despite all this Hume observes that belief in miracles is popular, and that "The gazing populace receive greedily, without examination, whatever soothes superstition and promotes wonder."


Critics have argued that Hume's position assumes the character of miracles and natural laws prior to any specific examination of miracle claims, and thus it amounts to a subtle form of begging the question. They have also noted that it requires an appeal to inductive inference, as none have observed every part of nature or examined every possible miracle claim (e.g., those yet future to the observer), which in Hume's philosophy was especially problematic (see above).


The design argument

One of the oldest and most popular arguments for the existence of God is the design argument – that all the order and 'purpose' in the world bespeaks a divine origin. A modern manifestation of this belief is creationism. Hume gave the classic criticism of the design argument in Dialogues concerning Natural Religion and An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding. Here are some of his points: Arguments for and against the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and others. ... A teleological argument, or argument from design, is an argument for the existence of God or a creator based on perceived evidence of order, purpose, design and/or direction in nature. ... Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ... Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion was written by skeptical philosopher David Hume. ... An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is a book by philosopher David Hume, published in 1748. ...

  1. For the design argument to be feasible, it must be true that order and purpose are observed only when they result from design. But order is observed regularly, resulting from presumably mindless processes like snowflake or crystal generation. Design accounts for only a tiny part of our experience with order and "purpose".
  2. Furthermore, the design argument is based on an incomplete analogy: because of our experience with objects, we can recognise human-designed ones, comparing for example a pile of stones and a brick wall. But in order to point to a designed Universe, we would need to have an experience of a range of different universes. As we only experience one, the analogy cannot be applied. We must ask therefore if it is right to compare the world to a machine — as in Paley's watchmaker argument — when perhaps it would be better described as a giant inert animal.
  3. Even if the design argument is completely successful, it could not (in and of itself) establish a robust theism; one could easily reach the conclusion that the universe's configuration is the result of some morally ambiguous, possibly unintelligent agent or agents whose method bears only a remote similarity to human design. In this way it could be asked if the designer was God, or further still, who designed the designer?
  4. If a well-ordered natural world requires a special designer, then God's mind (being so well-ordered) also requires a special designer. And then this designer would likewise need a designer, and so on ad infinitum. We could respond by resting content with an inexplicably self-ordered divine mind but then why not rest content with an inexplicably self-ordered natural world?
  5. Often, what appears to be purpose, where it looks like object X has feature F in order to secure some outcome O, is better explained by a filtering process: that is, object X wouldn't be around did it not possess feature F, and outcome O is only interesting to us as a human projection of goals onto nature. This mechanical explanation of teleology anticipated natural selection. (see also Anthropic principle)
  6. The design argument does not explain pain, suffering, and natural disasters.

William Paley William Paley (July 1743 – May 25, 1805) was an English divine, Christian apologist, utilitarian, and philosopher. ... The watchmaker analogy, or watchmaker argument, is a teleological argument for the existence of God. ... Teleology (Greek: telos: end, purpose) is the philosophical study of design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in nature or human creations. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... In physics and cosmology, the anthropic principle states that we should take into account the constraints that our existence as observers imposes on the sort of universe that we could observe. ...

Political theory

Many regard David Hume as a political conservative, sometimes calling him the first conservative philosopher. This is not strictly speaking accurate, if the term conservative is understood in any modern sense. His thought contains elements that are, in modern terms, both conservative and liberal, as well as ones that are both contractarian and utilitarian, though these terms are all anachronistic. His central concern is to show the importance of the rule of law, and stresses throughout his political Essays the importance of moderation in politics. He thinks that society is best governed by a general and impartial system of laws, based principally on the "artifice" of contract; he is less concerned about the form of government that administers these laws, so long as it does so fairly (though he thought that republics were more likely to do so than monarchies). Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... For political policies of the same name see Bob Raes Social Contract (Ontario) and Harold Wilsons Social Contract (Britain) Social contract (or contractarianism) is a phrase used in philosophy, political science and sociology to denote a real or hypothetical agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities... Utilitarianism is a suggested theoretical framework for morality, law and politics, based on quantitative maximisation of some definition of utility for society or humanity. ...


Hume expressed suspicion of attempts to reform society in ways that departed from long-established custom, and he counselled people not to resist their governments except in cases of the most egregious tyranny. However, he resisted aligning himself with either of Britain's two political parties, the Whigs and the Tories, and he believed that we should try to balance our demands for liberty with the need for strong authority, without sacrificing either. He supported liberty of the press, and was sympathetic to democracy, when suitably constrained. It has been argued that he was a major inspiration for James Madison's writings, and the Federalist No. 10 in particular. He was also, in general, an optimist about social progress, believing that, thanks to the economic development that comes with the expansion of trade, societies progress from a state of "barbarism" to one of "civilisation". Civilised societies are open, peaceful and sociable, and their citizens are as a result much happier. It is therefore not fair to characterise him, as Leslie Stephen did, as favouring "that stagnation which is the natural ideal of a skeptic". (Leslie Stephen, History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century, 2 vols. (London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1876), vol. 2, 185.) This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public speech for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... For other persons named James Madison, see James Madison (disambiguation). ... James Madison, author of Federalist No. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... Sir Leslie Stephen (November 28, 1832 – February 22, 1904) was an English author and critic, the father of two famous daughters, Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell. ... Skepticism (Commonwealth spelling: Scepticism) can mean: Philosophical skepticism - a philosophical position in which people choose to critically examine whether the knowledge and perceptions that they have are actually true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have absolutely true knowledge; or Scientific skepticism - a scientific, or practical...


Though it has been suggested Hume had no positive vision of the best society, he in fact produced an essay titled Idea of a Perfect Commonwealth, which lays out what he thought was the best form of government. His pragmatism shone through, however, in his caveat that we should only seek to implement such a system should an opportunity present itself which would not upset established structures. He defended a strict separation of powers, decentralisation, extending the franchise to anyone who held property of value and limiting the power of the clergy. The Swiss militia system was proposed as the best form of protection. Elections were to take place on an annual basis and representatives were to be unpaid. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... Decentralisation (American: decentralization) is any of various means of more widely distributing decision-making to bring it closer to the point of service or action. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning vote) is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ...


Contributions to economic thought

Through his discussions on politics, Hume developed many ideas that are prevalent in the field of economics. This includes ideas on private property, inflation, and foreign trade.


Hume does not believe, as Locke does, that private property is a natural right, but he argues that it is justified since resources are limited. If all goods were unlimited and available freely, then private property would not be justified, but instead becomes an "idle ceremonial". Hume also believed in unequal distribution of property, since perfect equality would destroy the ideas of thrift and industry, which leads to impoverishment. This page deals with property as ownership rights. ...


Hume did not believe that foreign trade produced specie, but considered trade a stimulus for a country’s economic growth. He did not consider the volume of world trade as fixed because countries can feed off their neighbors' wealth, being part of a "prosperous community". The fall in foreign demand is not that fatal, because in the long run, a country cannot preserve a leading trading position.


Hume was among the first to develop automatic price-specie flow, an idea that contrasts with the mercantile system. Simply put, when a country increases its in-flow of gold, this in-flow of gold will result in price inflation, and then price inflation will force out countries from trading that would have traded before the inflation. This results in a decrease of the in-flow of gold in the long run. The price specie flow mechanism is a logical mechanism created by David Hume which dispeled the Mercantilist (1500-1776) notion that a nation can have a continuously favorable balance of trade. ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ...


Hume also proposed a theory of beneficial inflation. He believed that increasing the money supply would raise production in the short run. This phenomenon would be caused by a gap between the increase in the money supply and that of the price level. The result is that prices will not rise at first and may not rise at all. This theory was later developed by John Maynard Keynes. Keynes redirects here. ...


Works

  • A Kind of History of My Life (1734) Mss 23159 National Library of Scotland.
A letter to an unnamed physician, asking for advice about "the Disease of the Learned" that then afflicted him. Here he reports that at the age of eighteen "there seem'd to be open'd up to me a new Scene of Thought… " which made him "throw up every other Pleasure or Business" and turned him to scholarship.
Hume intended to see whether the Treatise met with success, and if so to complete it with books devoted to Politics and Criticism. However, it did not meet with success (as Hume himself said, "It fell dead-born from the press, without reaching such distinction as even to excite a murmur among the zealots"), and so was not completed.
  • An Abstract of a Book lately Published: Entitled A Treatise of Human Nature etc. (1740)
Anonymously published, but almost certainly written by Hume in an attempt to popularise his Treatise. Of considerable philosophical interest, because it spells out what he considered "The Chief Argument" of the Treatise, in a way that seems to anticipate the structure of the Enquiry concerning Human Understanding.
  • Essays Moral and Political (first ed. 1741–2)
A collection of pieces written and published over many years, though most were collected together in 1753-4. Many of the essays are focused on topics in politics and economics, though they also range over questions of aesthetic judgement, love, marriage and polygamy, and the demographics of ancient Greece and Rome, to name just a few of the topics considered. The Essays show some influence from Addison's Tatler and The Spectator, which Hume read avidly in his youth.
  • A Letter from a Gentleman to His Friend in Edinburgh: Containing Some Observations on a Specimen of the Principles concerning Religion and Morality, said to be maintain'd in a Book lately publish'd, intituled A Treatise of Human Nature etc. Edinburgh (1745).
Contains a letter written by Hume to defend himself against charges of atheism and scepticism, while applying for a Chair at Edinburgh University.
Contains reworking of the main points of the Treatise, Book 1, with the addition of material on free will (adapted from Book 2), miracles, the Design Argument, and mitigated scepticism.
section X of the Enquiry, often published separately
A reworking of material from Book 3 of the Treatise, on morality, but with a significantly different emphasis. Hume regarded this as the best of all his philosophical works, both in its philosophical ideas and in its literary style.
  • Political Discourses, (part II of Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary within vol. 1 of the larger Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects) Edinburgh (1752).
Included in Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects (1753–6) reprinted 1758–77.
Included in reprints of Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects (above).
  • The History of England (Originally titled The History of Great Britain) (1754–62) Freely available in six vols. from the On Line Library of Liberty.[8]
More a category of books than a single work, Hume's history spanned "from the invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution of 1688" and went through over 100 editions. Many considered it the standard history of England until Thomas Macaulay's History of England.
  • The Natural History of Religion (1757) ISBN 0-8047-0333-7
  • "My Own Life" (1776)
Penned in April, shortly before his death, this autobiography was intended for inclusion in a new edition of "Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects". It was first published by Adam Smith who claimed that by doing so he had incurred "ten times more abuse than the very violent attack I had made upon the whole commercial system of Great Britain". (Ernest Campbell Mossner, The Life of David Hume)
Published posthumously by his nephew, David Hume the Younger. Being a discussion among three fictional characters concerning arguments for the existence of God, most importantly the argument from design. Despite some controversy, most scholars agree that the view of Philo, the most skeptical of the three, comes closest to Hume's own. [9]

A Treatise of Human Nature is a book by philosopher David Hume, published in 1739–1740. ... Joseph Addison, the Kit-cat portrait, circa 1703–1712, by Godfrey Kneller. ... The Spectator was a daily publication of 1711–12, founded by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele in England. ... An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is a book by philosopher David Hume, published in 1748. ... Of Miracles is the title of Section X of David Humes An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding (1748). ... An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals is a book by Scottish enlightenment philosopher David Hume. ... Four Dissertations is a collection of four essays by the Scottish enlightenment philosopher David Hume. ... Quotes His imagination resembled the wings of an ostrich. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion was written by skeptical philosopher David Hume. ...

Impact

Attention to Hume's philosophical works grew after the German philosopher Immanuel Kant credited Hume with awakening him from "dogmatic slumbers" (circa 1770). Kant redirects here. ...


A. J. Ayer (1936), introducing his classic exposition of logical positivism, claimed: "the views which are put forward in this treatise derive from the logical outcome of the empiricism of Berkeley and Hume".[59] Albert Einstein (1915) wrote that he was inspired by Hume's positivism when formulating his Special Theory of Relativity. Hume was called "the prophet of the Wittgensteinian revolution" by N. Phillipson, referring to his view that mathematics and logic are closed systems, disguised tautologies, and have no relation to the world of experience.[60] David Fate Norton (1993) asserted that Hume was "the first post-sceptical philosopher of the early modern period".[61] Ayer redirects here. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Special relativity (SR) or the special theory of relativity is the physical theory published in 1905 by Albert Einstein. ... Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 in Vienna, Austria – April 29, 1951 in Cambridge, England) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking ideas to philosophy, primarily in the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ...


See also

Humes principle is a standard for comparing any two sets of objects as to size. ... In meta-ethics, Humes Law says that normative statements cannot be deduced exclusively from descriptive statements. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Contributions to liberal theory is a partial list of individual contributions on a worldwide scale. ... For the novel of the same name, see Humes Fork (novel). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Age of Reason is either Thomas Paines book The Age of Reason. ... Human Science is a term applied to the investigation of human life and activities by a rational, systematic and verifiable methodology that acknowledges the validity of both data derived externally by impartial observation of sensory experience (objective) and data derived internally by means of impartial observation of psychological experience (subjective). ...

Further reading

  • Ardal, Pall (1966). Passion and Value in Hume's Treatise. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press.
  • Ernest Campbell Mossner. The Life of David Hume. Oxford University Press, 1980. (The standard biography.)
  • Peter Millican. Critical Survey of the Literature on Hume and his First Enquiry. (Surveys around 250 books and articles on Hume and related topics.) [10]
  • David Fate Norton. David Hume: Commonsense Moralist, Skeptical Metaphysician. Princeton University Press, 1978.
  • Garrett, Don (1996). Cognition and Commitment in Hume's Philosophy. New York & Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • J.C.A. Gaskin. Hume's Philosophy of Religion. Humanities Press International, 1978.
  • Norman Kemp Smith.The Philosophy of David Hume. Macmillan, 1941. (Still enormously valuable.)
  • Frederick Rosen, Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill (Routledge Studies in Ethics & Moral Theory), 2003. ISBN 0415220947
  • Russell, Paul (1995). Freedom and Moral Sentiment: Hume's Way of Naturalizing Responsibility. New York & Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • Russell, Paul (2008). The Riddle of Hume's Treatise: Skepticism, Naturalism and Irreligion New York & Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • Stroud, B. (1977). Hume, Routledge, London & New York. (Complete study of Hume's work parting from the interpretation of Hume's naturalistic philosophical programme).
  • Hesselberg, A. Kenneth (1961). Hume, Natural Law and Justice. Duquesne Review
  • Rothbard, Murray Newton (1982) The Ethics of Liberty (Full Text / Audio Book) ISBN 0-8147-7559-4.

Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... The Ethics of Liberty, by American economist and historian Murray N. Rothbard, first published in 1982, is a rigorous and philosophically sophisticated exposition of the libertarian political position. ...

Footnotes and references

Footnotes

  1. ^ April 26 is Hume's birthdate in the Old Style Julian calendar, it is May 7 in New Style (Gregorian).
  2. ^ 6 vols., (London: Andrew Millar, 1754-1762).
  3. ^ Thomas Babington Macaulay, The History of England from the Accession of James II, 5 vols. (London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1849-1861) [1], [2], [3], [4], [5] ; ed. David Fate Norton, The Cambridge Companion to Hume (Cambridge: CUP, 1993), p.211.
  4. ^ See E. J. Craig's The Mind of God and the Works of Man, (Oxford, 1987), Ch.1 & 2.
  5. ^ Term due to E. J. Craig; see previous fn.
  6. ^ In the Introduction to his A Treatise of Human Nature, (New York: Dover, 2003 edition), p.xi.fn., Hume mentions "Mr Locke, Lord Shaftesbury, Dr Mandeville, Mr Hutcheson, Dr Butler, etc." as philosophers "who have begun to put the science of man on a new footing, and have engaged the attention, and excited the curiosity of the public".
  7. ^ David Hume, My Own Life, in The Cambridge Companion to Hume, op.cit., p.351.
  8. ^ David Hume, A Kind of History of My Life, in The Cambridge Companion to Hume, ibid., p.346.
  9. ^ See Oliver A. Johnson, The Mind of David Hume, (University of Illinois Press, 1995), pp.8-9, for a useful presentation of varying interpretations of Hume's "scene of thought" remark.
  10. ^ Mossner, 193.
  11. ^ Mossner, 193.
  12. ^ A Kind of History of My Life, op. cit., p.352
  13. ^ Mossner, 195.
  14. ^ Ibid., p.352.
  15. ^ An Abstract of a Book lately Published; Entitled, A Treatise of Human Nature, &c. Wherein the Chief Argument of that Book is farther Illustrated and Explained, (London, 1740).
  16. ^ Douglas Nobbs, 'The Political Ideas of William Cleghorn, Hume's Academic Rival', in Journal of the History of Ideas, (1965), Vol. 26, No. 4: 575-586
  17. ^ Grant, Old and New Edinburgh in the 18th Century, (Glasgow, 1883), p.7.
  18. ^ Op. cit., p.353.
  19. ^ David Hume (1776). My Own Life.
  20. ^ Maitland Club, Caldwell Papers II, p.177n.
  21. ^ Boswell, J. Boswell in Extremes, 1776-1778
  22. ^ David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature, op.cit., p.xi.
  23. ^ Such a view of Hume is standardly presented in A. J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic, (Penguin, 2001 edition), pp.40.ff.
  24. ^ For example, here is Moritz Schlick, one of the founders of the movement: "[N]o meaningful problem can be insoluble in principle... This is one of the most characteristic results of our empiricism. It means that in principle there are no limits to our knowledge." 'Meaning and Verification', (http://www.geocities.jp/mickindex/schlick/schlick_MV_en.html)
  25. ^ David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, ed. Tom L. Beauchamp, (Oxford: OUP, 1999), pp.207-8.
  26. ^ Such an account of Hume's views is presented in Chapter 2 of E. J. Craig's The Mind of God and the Works of Man, op.cit.
  27. ^ For this account of Hume's views on Causation, see Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic, op.cit., p.40-42.
  28. ^ See A Treatise of Human Nature, op.cit., p.56: “Shall we rest contented with these two relations of contiguity and succession? By no means… there is a NECESSARY CONNEXION to be taken into consideration”.
  29. ^ “When we look about us towards external objects, and consider the operation of causes, we are never able… to discover any power or necessary connexion…”, Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, op.cit., p.136.
  30. ^ Proponents of the Sceptical Realist view are numerous: see, e.g., E. J. Craig, op.cit., Ch.2; Galen Strawson, The Secret Connexion, (Oxford: OUP, 1989); John Wright, The Sceptical Realism of David Hume, (Manchester: MUP, 1983).
  31. ^ See S. Blackburn, ‘Hume and Thick Connexions’, in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 50, Supplement. (Autumn, 1990), pp. 237-250.
  32. ^ For the two definitions see the first Enquiry, op.cit., p.146.
  33. ^ Hume, Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, op.cit., p.147, fn.17.
  34. ^ For example, Nelson Goodman argues in Fact, Fiction and Forecast, (Bobbs-Merrill, 1973), that Hume did not solve the problem, and goes on to offer a solution himself. However, late Oxford philosopher P. F. Strawson has said of Hume's solution: "[e]ver since the facts were made clear by Hume, people have been resisting acceptance of them"[6], and in Strawson's book Scepticism and Naturalism, (London: Routledge, 1985), he defends a broadly Humean view of inductive belief-formation.
  35. ^ Hume, Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, op.cit., p.108.
  36. ^ Dr. Peter J. R. Millican has argued that (roughly speaking) demonstration = deduction, and probability = induction, in his Ph.D. thesis, Hume, Induction and Probability.[7]
  37. ^ See Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, op.cit., p.111.
  38. ^ See e.g. Martin Hollis, 'Reason and Reality', in Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Vol. 68 (1968), pp. 271-286.
  39. ^ For this counter, see John D. Kenyon, 'Doubts about the Concept of Reason', in Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume, Vol. 59, (1985), 249-267, p.255.
  40. ^ Such attempts are advanced by Roy Harrod, Foundations of Inductive Logic (London: Macmillan, 1956); Simon Blackburn, Reason and Prediction, (Cambridge: CUP, 1973).
  41. ^ See Goodman, Fact, Fiction and Forecast, op.cit.
  42. ^ Blackburn, Reason and Prediction, op.cit.
  43. ^ P. F. Strawson, Introduction to Logical Theory, (New York: Wiley, 1953). Strawson later came to accept Hume's own solution to the problem (see a previous fn. referring to this).
  44. ^ Ibid.
  45. ^ For this argument, see Brian Skyrms, Choice and Chance: An Introduction to Inductive Logic, (Belmont, Dickinson, 1966).
  46. ^ Max Black, Self-supporting Inductive Arguments, Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 55, (1958), pp. 718-25.
  47. ^ Skyrms, op.cit.
  48. ^ See Wesley Salmon, 'The Pragmatic Justification of Induction', in The Justification of Induction, ed. R. Swinburne, (Oxford: OUP, 1974).
  49. ^ This is again posed by Skyrms, op.cit.
  50. ^ A Treatise of Human Nature, op.cit., p.131.
  51. ^ Doubts about the Concept of Reason, op.cit., p.254.
  52. ^ See, e.g., A. J. Ayer’s account of Hume on the self, in Language, Truth and Logic, op.cit., p.135-6.
  53. ^ Treatise, op.cit., p.180.
  54. ^ See his Reasons and Persons at Oxford Scholarship Online.
  55. ^ See E. J. Craig, op.cit, Ch.2., for this criticism.
  56. ^ This view is forwarded by Craig, ibid.
  57. ^ Treatise, p.181.
  58. ^ Ibid., p.186.
  59. ^ A. J. Ayer (1936). Language, Truth and Logic. London.
  60. ^ Phillipson, N. (1989). Hume, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London.
  61. ^ Norton, D. F. (ed.) (1993). The Cambridge Companion to Hume, Cambridge University Press, pp. 90-116.

References Old Style redirects here. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The History of England from the Accession of James the Second is the full title of the multi-volume work by Lord Macaulay more generally known as The History of England. The history is famous for its brilliant ringing prose and for its confident, sometimes dogmatic, emphasis on a progressive... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (February 26, 1671 – February 4, 1713), was an English politician, philosopher and writer. ... Bernard de Mandeville (1670 – 1733), was a philosopher, political economist and satirist. ... Francis Hutcheson (August 8, 1694–August 8, 1746) was an Irish philosopher and one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... Joseph Butler (May 18, 1692 O.S. – June 16, 1752) was an English bishop, theologian, apologist, and philosopher. ... The cover of a 1952 version of Language, Truth and Logic Language, Truth and Logic, a work of philosophy by Alfred Jules Ayer, published in 1936) defines, explains and argues for the verification principle of logical positivism, sometimes referred to as the criterion of significance or criterion of meaning. The... Alfred Jules Ayer (October 29, 1910 - June 27, 1989), better known as simply A. J. Ayer (and called Freddie by friends), was a British philosopher. ... The cover of a 1952 version of Language, Truth and Logic Language, Truth and Logic, a work of philosophy by Alfred Jules Ayer, published in 1936) defines, explains and argues for the verification principle of logical positivism, sometimes referred to as the criterion of significance or criterion of meaning. The... The cover of a 1952 version of Language, Truth and Logic Language, Truth and Logic, a work of philosophy by Alfred Jules Ayer, published in 1936) defines, explains and argues for the verification principle of logical positivism, sometimes referred to as the criterion of significance or criterion of meaning. The...

  • Anderson, R. F. (1966). Hume’s First Principles, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.
  • Ayer, A. J. (1936). Language, Truth and Logic. London.
  • Bongie, L. L. (1998) David Hume - Prophet of the Counter-Revolution. Liberty Fund, Indianapolis,
  • Broackes, Justin (1995). Hume, David, in Ted Honderich (ed.) The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, New York, Oxford University Press,
  • Daiches D., Jones P., Jones J. (eds )The Scottish Enlightenment: 1730 - 1790 A Hotbed of Genius The University of Edinburgh, 1986. In paperback, The Saltire Society, 1996 ISBN 0-85411-069-0
  • Einstein, A. (1915) Letter to Moritz Schlick, Schwarzschild, B. (trans. & ed.) in The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, vol. 8A, R. Schulmann, A. J. Fox, J. Illy, (eds.) Princeton U. Press, Princeton, NJ (1998), p. 220.
  • Flew, A. (1986). David Hume: Philosopher of Moral Science, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.
  • Fogelin, R. J. (1993). Hume’s scepticism. In Norton, D. F. (ed.) (1993). The Cambridge Companion to Hume, Cambridge University Press, pp. 90-116.
  • Garfield, Jay L. (1995) The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way Oxford University Press
  • Graham, R. (2004). The Great Infidel - A Life of David Hume. John Donald, Edinburgh.
  • Harwood, Sterling (1996). "Moral Sensibility Theories," in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Supplement) (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.).
  • Hume, D. (EHU) (1777). An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding. Nidditch, P. N. (ed.), 3rd. ed. (1975), Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Hume, D. (1740). A Treatise of Human Nature (1967, edition). Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Husserl, E. (1970). The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology, Carr, D. (trans.), Northwestern University Press, Evanston.
  • Kolakowski, L. (1968). The Alienation of Reason: A History of Positivist Thought, Doubleday, Garden City.
  • Morris, William Edward, David Hume, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2001 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)
  • Mossner, Ernest Campbell (April 1950). "Philosophy and Biography: The Case of David Hume". The Philosophical Review 59 (2): 184–201. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. 
  • Norton, D. F. (1993). Introduction to Hume’s thought. In Norton, D. F. (ed.), (1993). The Cambridge Companion to Hume, Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-32.
  • Penelhum, T. (1993). Hume’s moral philosophy. In Norton, D. F. (ed.), (1993). The Cambridge Companion to Hume, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117-147.
  • Phillipson, N. (1989). Hume, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London.
  • Popkin, Richard H. (1993) "Sources of Knowledge of Sextus Empiricus in Hume's Time" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 54, No. 1. (Jan., 1993), pp. 137-141.
  • Popkin, R. & Stroll, A. (1993) Philosophy. Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd, Oxford.
  • Popper. K. (1960). Knowledge without authority. In Miller D. (ed.), (1983). Popper, Oxford, Fontana, pp. 46-57.
  • Robinson, Dave & Groves, Judy (2003). Introducing Political Philosophy. Icon Books. ISBN 1-84046-450-X.
  • Russell, B. (1946). A History of Western Philosophy. London, Allen and Unwin.
  • Spiegel, Henry William,(1991). The Growth of Economic Thought, 3rd Ed., Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Stroud, B. (1977). Hume, Routledge, London & New York.
  • Taylor, A. E. (1927). David Hume and the Miraculous, Leslie Stephen Lecture. Cambridge, pp. 53-4.

Moritz Schlick around 1930 Moritz Schlick ( )(April 14, 1882–June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Persondata
NAME Hume, David
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Scottish philosopher, economist and historian
DATE OF BIRTH April 26, 1711(1711-04-26)
PLACE OF BIRTH Edinburgh, Scotland
DATE OF DEATH August 25, 1776
PLACE OF DEATH Edinburgh, Scotland

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Sir Thomas Greshams grasshopper crest is used as a symbol of the College Gresham College is an unusual institution of higher learning off Holborn in central London. ... A Treatise of Human Nature is a book by philosopher David Hume, published in 1739–1740. ... An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is a book by philosopher David Hume, published in 1748. ... An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals is a book by Scottish enlightenment philosopher David Hume. ... Four Dissertations is a collection of four essays by the Scottish enlightenment philosopher David Hume. ... Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion was written by skeptical philosopher David Hume. ... The History of Great Britain (volume 1) is a book by David Hume published in 1754. ... 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For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... Francisco Javier Eugenio de Santa Cruz y Espejo (born Luis Chuzhig) (Royal Audience of Quito, 1747-1795) was a medical pioneer, writer and lawyer of mestizo origin in colonial Ecuador. ... Francisco de Miranda Sebastián Francisco de Miranda Rodríguez (commonly known as Francisco de Miranda March 28, 1750 – July 14, 1816) was a South American revolutionary whose own plan for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, but who is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bol... This article is about the South American independence leader. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Christian Thomasius, portrait by Johann Christian Heinrich Sporleder. ... Erhard Weigel (1625–1699) was a German mathematician, astronomer and philosopher. ... Leibniz redirects here. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Kant redirects here. ... Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781), writer, philosopher, publicist, and art critic, was one of the most outstanding German representatives of the Enlightenment era. ... Thomas Abbt (born 25 November 1738 in Ulm - died 3 November 1766 in Bückeburg) was a mathematician and German writer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Adam Weishaupt Johann Adam Weishaupt (6 February 1748 in Ingolstadt - 18 November 1830 in Gotha) was a German who founded the Order of Illuminati. ... Goethe redirects here. ... Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10, 1759 - May 9, 1805), usually known as Friedrich Schiller, was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist. ... Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (pronounced ,  ; in German usually Gauß, Latin: ) (30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician and scientist who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, electrostatics, astronomy, and optics. ... Moses Mendelssohn Moses Mendelssohns glasses, in the Berlin Jewish Museum Moses Mendelssohn (Dessau, September 6, 1729 – January 4, 1786 in Berlin) was a German Jewish philosopher to whose ideas the renaissance of European Jews, Haskalah, (the Jewish enlightenment) is indebted. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Ferenc Kazinczy (October 27, 1759 - August 22, 1831) was a Hungarian author, the most indefatigable agent in the regeneration of the Magyar language and literature at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century. ... József Kármán (1769-1795), Hungarian author, was born at Losoncz on the 14th of March 1769, the son of a Calvinist pastor. ... János Batsányi by Friedrich Heinrich Füger, 1808 (Hungarian National Museum, Budapes) Batsányi János (May 11, 1763 - May 12, 1845) was a Hungarian poet, born in Tapolca. ... Mihály Fazekas (1766-1828) is a famous Hungarian writer from Debrecen. ... Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10 April 1583 – Rostock, 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... Baruch de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Franciscus van den Enden (Antwerp ca. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani (Georgian: ) (November 4, 1658 in Tandzia, Georgia; † January 26, 1725 in Moskow) was a famous Georgian prince, writer, monk and religious zealot. ... David Bagrationi (Georgian: დავით ბაგრატიონი, Davit Bagrationi) also known as David the Regent (Georgian: დავით გამგებელი, Davit Gamgebeli) (1 July 1767, Tbilisi, Georgia, - 13 May 1819, St Petersburg, Russia), a Georgia prince (batonishvili), writer and scholar, was a regent of the Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti, eastern Georgia, from December 28, 1800 to January 18... Solomon Dodashvili (May 17, 1805-August 20, 1836) was a famous Georgian scientist and public benefactor, founder of the Georgian scientific school of Logic, founder of the Georgian professional journalistic, philosopher, historian and linguist. ... Adamantios Korais (April 27, 1748 - April 6, 1833) was a graduate of the University of Montpellier in 1788 and he spent most of his life as an expatriate in Paris. ... Rigas Feraios Rigas Feraios or Rigas Velestinlis (Greek: Ρήγας Βελεστινλής-Φεραίος, born Αντώνιος Κυριαζής, Antonios Kyriazis; also known as Κωνσταντίνος Ρήγας, Konstantinos or Constantine Rhigas; Serbian: Рига од Фере, Riga od Fere; 1757—June 13, 1798) was a Greek revolutionary and poet, remembered as a Greek national hero, the forerunner and first victim of the uprising against the Ottoman Empire... Reign From 1704 until 1709 and from 1733 until 1736 Elected In 1704 and 1733 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On October 4, 1705 in the St. ... Stanislaw Konarski StanisÅ‚aw Konarski, real name: Hieronim Konarski (b. ... For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ... Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Krasicki (February 3, 1735, in Galicia — March 14, 1801, in Berlin) was a Polish prince of the Roman Catholic Church, a social critic, a leading writer, and the outstanding poet of the Polish Enlightenment, hailed by contemporaries as the Prince of Poets. ... Noble Family KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj Coat of Arms Kotwica Parents Antoni KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj Marianna MierzeÅ„ska Consorts None Children None Date of Birth April 1, 1750 Place of Birth NiecisÅ‚owice Date of Death February 28, 1812 Place of Death Warsaw Hugo KoÅ‚Å‚Ä…taj (1750-1812) was a Polish Roman Catholic... Noble Family Potocki Coat of Arms Piława Parents Eustachy Potocki Marianna Kątska Consorts Elżbieta Lubomirska Children with Elżbieta Lubomirska Krystyna Potocka Date of Birth February 28, 1750 Place of Birth Radzyn Podlaski Date of Death August 30, 1809 Place of Death Vienna Count Roman Ignacy Franciszek Potocki (generally known as... StanisÅ‚aw Staszic. ... Jan Åšniadecki Jan Åšniadecki (August 28, 1756 in Å»nin - November 9, 1830 in Jaszuny near Wilno), greatest Polish mathematician, philosopher and astronomer at the turn of the 18th century. ... Categories: 1758 births | 1841 deaths | Polish writers | Polish nobility | People stubs ... JÄ™drzej Åšniadecki JÄ™drzej Åšniadecki (1768 - 1838) was a Polish writer, physician, chemist and biologist. ... Catherine the Great redirects here. ... For other uses, see Lomonosov (disambiguation). ... Ivan Shuvalov in 1760, as painted by Fyodor Rokotov. ... Portrait of Ivan Betskoy, by Alexander Roslin (1777). ... Portrait of Princess Dashkova by Dmitry Levitzky Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova (Russian: ) (March 17, 1744–January 4, 1810) was the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment. ... Portrait of Nikolay Novikov, by Dmitry Levitzky. ... Portrait of Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov Prince Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov (July 22, 1733 - December 12, 1790) was a leading ideologue and exponent of the Russian Enlightenment, on the par with Mikhail Lomonosov and Nikolay Novikov. ... Portrait and signature of Alexander Radishchev Aleksandr Nikolaevich Radishchev (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Ради́щев) (September 2, 1749 – September 24, 1802) was a Russian author and social critic who was arrested and exiled under... Dositej Obradović Dositej (Dositheus) Dimitrije Obradović (Доситеј Обрадовић) (February 17, 1742 - 1811) was a Serbian author, writer and translator. ... Richard Arkwright Sir Richard Arkwright, born (23 December 1732 – 3 August 1792) to Ellen and Thomas Arkwright, was an Englishman credited for inventing the spinning frame — later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was a British writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... Hobbes redirects here. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (February 26, 1671 – February 4, 1713), was an English politician, philosopher and writer. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... Rt Rev Beilby Porteus, DD, Bishop of London (May 8, 1731 _ May 13, 1809) was a leading evangelical churchman and abolitionist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mary Wollstonecraft (circa 1797) by John Opie Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was a British writer, philosopher and feminist. ... For the second husband of Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, see George Berkeley (MP). ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... For other uses, see John Toland (disambiguation). ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... Joseph Black Joseph Black (April 16, 1728 - December 6, 1799) was a Scottish physicist and chemist. ... James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck and 1st Baronet (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... Adam Ferguson, also known as Ferguson of Raith (June 20, 1723 (O.S.) - February 22, 1816) was a philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... Francis Hutcheson (August 8, 1694–August 8, 1746) was an Irish philosopher and one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... James Hutton, painted by Abner Lowe. ... Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696 - December 27, 1782) was a Scottish philosopher of the 18th century. ... James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish judge, scholar and eccentric. ... James Macpherson (October 27, 1736–February 17, 1796), was a Scottish poet, known as the translator of the Ossian cycle of poems (also known as the Oisín cycle). ... For the Scottish footballer, see Thomas Reid (footballer). ... This article is about the Scottish historian. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Dugald Stewart. ... George Turnbull (1698-1748) was a Scottish philosopher and writer on education. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... Pierre Bayle. ... For other uses of Fontenelle, see Fontenelle (disambiguation). ... Montesquieu redirects here. ... François Quesnay (June 4, 1694 - December 16, 1774) was a French economist of the Physiocratic school. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, by François-Hubert Drouais (1727-1775). ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Claude Adrien Helvétius (February 26, 1715 - December 26, 1771) was a French philosopher and litterateur. ... Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour Jean le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... Baron dHolbach Paul-Henri Thiry, baron dHolbach (1723 – 1789) was a German-French author, philosopher and encyclopedist. ... Portrait of the Marquis de Sade by Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo (c. ... “Condorcet” redirects here. ... Lavoisier redirects here. ... Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (September 30, 1715 – August 3, 1780) was a French philosopher. ... Olympe de Gouges (born Marie Gouze; December 31, 1745, – November 3, 1793) was a playwright and journalist whose feminist writings reached a large audience. ... Tocqueville redirects here. ... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was an Italian philosopher, historian, and jurist. ... Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria-Bonesana (March 15, 1738 – November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field of criminology. ... Detail of Pietro Verri monument in Milan. ... Alessandro Verri (November 9, 1741 - September 23, 1816) was an Italian author. ... Giuseppe Parini (Bosisio, now in Lecco province, May 23, 1729 - Milan, 1799) was an Italian satirist and poet. ... Carlo Goldoni Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni (25 February 1707 - 6 February 1793) was a celebrated Italian playwright, whom critics today rank among the European theatres greatest authors. ... Vittorio Alfieri painted by Davids pupil François-Xavier Fabre, in Florence 1793. ... Giuseppe MarcAntonio Baretti (April 24, 1719 - May 5, 1789) was an Italian critic. ... Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Marquis of Pombal, by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1766) Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Count of Oeiras, 1st Marquis of Pombal (in Portuguese, Marquês de Pombal, pron. ... John V, King of Portugal (Portuguese João pron. ... Joseph I (Portuguese José, pron. ... Ienăchiţă Văcărescu (1740-1797) Romanian poet and boyar of Phanariote origin. ... Anton Pann (in the 1790s, Sliven, in Rumelia—November 2, 1854, Bucharest) born Antonie Pantoleon-Petroveanu (also mentioned as Anton Pantoleon), was a Wallachian poet and composer. ... Gheorghe Åžincai Gheorghe Åžincai (February 28, 1754 – November 2, 1816) was an ethnic Romanian Transylvanian historian, philologist, translator, poet, and representative of the Enlightenment-influenced Transylvanian School. ... Jovellanos painted by Goya Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (5 January 1744 - 27 November 1811), Spanish statesman and author, was born at Gijón in Asturias, Spain. ... Leandro Fernández de Moratín, born March 10, 1760 – died June 21, 1828, was a Spanish dramatist and neoclassical poet. ... Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro (8 October 1676 - 26 September 1764) was a Spanish monk and scholar noted for encouraging scientific thought in Spain. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jorge Juan y Santacilia Jorge Juan y Santacilia (January 5, 1713–June 21, 1773) was a Spanish mathematician, scientist, naval officer, and mariner. ... Antonio de Ulloa (January 12, 1716 _ July 3, 1795) was a Spanish general, explorer, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana. ... José Moñino, conde de Floridablanca, painted by Goya José Moñino, conde de Floridablanca Don José Moñino y Redondo, Count of Floridablanca (es: José Moñino y Redondo, conde de Floridablanca) (October 21, 1728 - December 30, 1808), Spanish statesman. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Jens Schielderup Sneedorff Jens Schielderup Sneedorff (22 August 1724–5 June 1764) was a Danish author, professor of political science and royal teacher and a central figure in Denmark-Norway in the Age of Enlightenment. ... Johann Friedrich Struensee By Jens Juel, 1771, Collection of Bomann Museum, Celle, Germany. ... {{unreferenced|article|date=March 2007]] Copper engraving depicting Eggert Ólafssons death. ... Anders Chydenius Anders Chydenius (26 February 1729 – 1 February 1803) was the leading classical liberal of Nordic history. ... Peter ForsskÃ¥l (sometimes also Pehr ForsskÃ¥l, Peter Forskaol, Petrus ForskÃ¥l or Pehr ForsskÃ¥hl) (born in Helsinki, 11 January 1732, died in Yemen, 11 July 1763), Swedish explorer, orientalist and naturalist. ... Gustav III, King of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends, etc. ... Field Marshal and Count Arvid Bernhard Horn (April 6, 1664 â€“ April 17, 1742) was a statesman and a soldier of the Swedish empire during the period of Sweden-Finland). ... Johan Henrik Kellgren Johan Henrik Kellgren (1 December 1751-1795), Swedish poet and critic, was born at Floby in West Gothland. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities — particularly rationality. ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... Rationality as a term is related to the idea of reason, a word which following Websters may be derived as much from older terms referring to thinking itself as from giving an account or an explanation. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about secularism. ... The Encyclopédistes were a group of 18th century writers in France who compiled the Encyclopédie (Encyclopedia) edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond dAlembert. ... Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. ... This page lists some links to ancient philosophy, although for Western thinkers prior to Socrates, see Pre-Socratic philosophy. ... Buddhist Teachings deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology. ... Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with Neo-Platonism. ... The holiest Jain symbol is the right facing swastika, or svastika, shown above. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Philosophy seated between the seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Europe and the Middle East in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Filled with OR and completely unsourced. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... 17th-century philosophy in the West is generally regarded as seeing the start of modern philosophy, and the shaking off of the mediæval approach, especially scholasticism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Philosophy is a broad field of knowledge in which the definition of knowledge itself is one of the subjects investigated. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to philosophy, beginning with the letters A through C. This is so that those interested in the subject can monitor changes to the pages by clicking on Related changes in the sidebar. ... The alphabetical list of p is so large it had to be broken up into several pages. ... Philosophies: particular schools of thought, styles of philosophy, or descriptions of philosophical ideas attributed to a particular group or culture - listed in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of topics relating to philosophy that end in -ism. ... A philosophical movement is either the appearance or increased popularity of a specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject. ... This is a list of philosophical lists. ... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... Ethics is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Philosophy of action is chiefly concerned with human action, intending to distinguish between activity and passivity, voluntary, intentional, culpable and involuntary actions, and related question. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... The philosophy of information (PI) is a new area of research, which studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, and philosophy. ... Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Philosophical anthropology is the philosophical discipline that seeks to unify the several empirical investigations and phenomenological explorations of human nature in an effort to understand human beings as both creatures of their environment and creators of their own values. ... Philosophy of Humor is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the philosophical study of humor. ... Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ... Philosophy and literature is the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes. ... // Philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Some of the questions relating to the philosophy of music are: What, exactly is music (what are the necessary and sufficient conditions for it)? What is the relationship between music and emotion? Peter Kivy, Professor of Philosophy at Rutgers University, in particular, sets out to argue how music, which is... Metaphilosophy (from Greek meta + philosophy) is the study of the subject and matter, methods and aims of philosophy. ... Philosophy of physics is the study of the fundamental, philosophical questions underlying modern physics, the study of matter and energy and how they interact. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Philosophy of psychology typically refers to a set of issues at the theoretical foundations of modern psychology. ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... Philosophy of social science is the scholarly elucidation and debate of accounts of the nature of the social sciences, their relations to each other, and their relations to the natural sciences (see natural science). ... The Philosophy of technology is a philosophical field dedicated to studying the nature of technology and its social effects. ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Averroism is the term applied to either of two philosophical trends among scholastics in the late 13th century, the first of which was based on the Arab philosopher Averroës or Ibn Rushd interpretations of Aristotle and the resolution of various conflicts between the writings of Aristotle and the Muslim... Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ... Critical theory, in sociology and philosophy, is shorthand for critical theory of society or critical social theory, a label used by the Frankfurt School, i. ... This page is about the school of philosophy. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Deontological ethics or deontology (Greek: δέον (deon) meaning obligation or duty) is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, as opposed to the rightness or wrongness of the consequences of those actions. ... According to many followers of the theories of Karl Marx (or Marxists), dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... Hegelianism is a philosophy developed by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel which can be summed up by a favorite motto by Hegel, the rational alone is real, which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities — particularly rationality. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... One of major longstanding schools of Islamic philosophy, حكمت اشراق or kihmat-al-Ishraq or Illuminationist Philosophy has been created and developed by Suhrawardi, famous Persian Philosopher. ... Kant redirects here. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Logical positivism grew from the discussions of Moritz Schlicks Vienna Circle and Hans Reichenbachs Berlin Circle in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... The New Philosophers (French nouveaux philosophes) were a group of French philosophers (for example, André Glucksmann and Bernard Henri-Lévy) who appeared in the early 1970s, as critics of the previously-fashionable philosophers (roughly speaking, the post-structuralists). ... This article is about the philosophical position. ... This article is about the philosophy of Ayn Rand. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. ... Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive movement characterized by its criticism of Western philosophy. ... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ... The Pre-Socratic philosophers were active before Socrates or contemporaneously, but expounding knowledge developed earlier. ... Philosophical quietists want to release us from the deep perplexity that philosophical contemplation often causes. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Contemporary philosophical realism, also referred to as metaphysical realism, is the belief in a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. ... For the physics theory with a similar name, see Theory of Relativity. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Philosophical scepticism (UK spelling, scepticism) is both a philosophical school of thought and a method that crosses disciplines and cultures. ... Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy, founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early third century BC. It proved to be a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... حكمت متعاليه Transcendent theosophy or al-hikmat al-muta’liyah, the doctrine and philosophy that has been developed and perfected by Persian Philosopher Mulla Sadra, is one of tow main disciplines of Islamic Philosophy which is very live & active even today. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


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David Hume - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6412 words)
Hume was heavily influenced by empiricists John Locke and George Berkeley, along with various Francophone writers such as Pierre Bayle, and various figures on the Anglophone intellectual landscape such as Isaac Newton, Samuel Clarke, Francis Hutcheson, and Joseph Butler.
Hume was charged with heresy but he was defended by his young clerical friends who argued that as an atheist he lay outside the jurisdiction of the Church.
Fogelin (1993) concluded that Hume was a radical perspectivalist, perhaps as in Protagoras and certainly in Sextus Empiricus.
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