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Encyclopedia > David Baltimore

David Baltimore (b. March 7, 1938) is an American biologist and co-recipient of the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He is currently the Robert A. Millikan Professor of Biology at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), where he was president from 1997 to 2006. He is also currently the president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... Robert Andrews Millikan (March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953) was an American experimental physicist who won the 1923 Nobel Prize for his measurement of the charge on the electron and for his work on the photoelectric effect. ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational research university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ...


Baltimore was born in New York City and graduated from Swarthmore College (BA, 1960). He received his Ph.D. at Rockefeller University in 1964. At the age of 37, while on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) faculty, he shared the Nobel Prize with Howard Temin for the discovery of reverse transcriptase (RTase). Baltimore and Temin worked independently of each other yet discovered RTase at the same time [1]. Since RTase transcribes RNA into DNA, this work upset a central dogma of molecular biology: that DNA led to RNA, which in turn led solely to proteins. RTase is essential for the reproduction of retroviruses such as HIV. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Swarthmore College is a private, independent, liberal arts college in the United States with an enrollment of about 1,450 students. ... A B.A. issused as a certificate Bachelor of Arts (B.A., BA or A.B.), from the Latin Artium Baccalaureus is an undergraduate bachelors degree awarded for either a course or a program in the liberal arts or the sciences, or both. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Founders Hall Rockefeller University is a private university focusing primarily on graduate and postgraduate education research in the biomedical fields, located between 63rd and 68th Streets along York Avenue, on the Upper East Side of Manhattan island in New York City, New York. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... “MIT” redirects here. ... In biochemistry, a reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA, hence reverse transcription is the reverse of this. ... Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Information flow in biological systems The central dogma of molecular biology was first enunciated by Francis Crick in 1958[1] and re-stated in a Nature paper published in 1970:[2] POSTLEWAITE IS A TOOL The central dogma of molecular biology deals with the detailed residue-by-residue transfer of... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Genera Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is any virus belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...


Also while at MIT, Baltimore was founding director of the Whitehead Institute and an organizer of the 1975 Asilomar conference on recombinant DNA. Founded in 1984, the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research is a non-profit research and teaching institution located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Convened by Paul Berg, the Asilomar conference on recombinant DNA was an influential conference discussing the regulation of biotechnology held in February 1975 at a conference center Asilomar State Beach. ...


Baltimore has had profound influence on national policy concerning recombinant DNA research and the AIDS epidemic. Dr. Baltimore is a member of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists' Board of Sponsors, Encyclopædia Britannica editorial board, National Academy of Sciences USA (NAS), NAS Institute of Medicine, Amgen, Inc. Board of Directors, NIH AIDS vaccine task force, and numerous other organizations and their boards. He is married to Dr. Alice S. Huang. For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Cover of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists with the famous Doomsday Clock set at seven minutes to midnight. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...

Contents

Imanishi-Kari Case

For most people outside of science, Baltimore is best known for his role in an affair of alleged scientific misconduct. In 1986, Professor of Biology, MIT & Director, Whitehead Institute Baltimore co-authored a scientific paper on immunology with Assistant Professor of Biology, MIT Thereza Imanishi-Kari and four others. [2] A postdoctoral fellow in Imanishi-Kari's laboratory, Dr. Margot O'Toole, who was not an author, could not reproduce some of the experiments in the paper and discovered laboratory data that contradicted the published data. O'Toole then challenged the authors to explain the discrepancies and ultimately accused Imanishi-Kari of fabricating data in a cover-up. Baltimore initially refused to retract the paper, although he did later with three co-authors (Imanishi-Kari and Moema H. Reis did not sign the retraction).[3] Although O'Toole soon dropped her challenge, Walter W. Stewart and Ned Feder, National Institutes of Health (NIH; Health & Human Services (HHS), U.S. Federal Government) scientists, picked it up. Because they and the authors also could not resolve the challenge, NIH, which had funded the contested paper's research, began investigating. It was then also taken up in the United States Congress by Representative John Dingell (D-MI) who aggressively pursued it, eventually calling in US Secret Service (USSS; US Treasury) document examiners. The House of Representatives' Subcommittee on Oversight & Investigations of the Committee on Energy & Commerce, chaired by Mr. Dingell, held four hearings analyzing the case.[4] In a draft report dated 14 March 1991 and based mainly on USSS forensics findings, NIH's fraud unit, then called the Office of Scientific Integrity (OSI), accused Dr. Imanishi-Kari of falsifying and fabricating data. It also harshly criticized Baltimore for failing to embrace O'Toole's challenge. After the report was soon leaked to the press, Baltimore stated he would retract the paper.[5] Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... Thereza Imanishi-Kari Thereza Imanishi-Kari (born 1943 in Brazil) is an Associate Professor of Pathology at Tufts University. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical research. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Rep. ...


During the ensuing controversy/uproar (including extensive press coverage) the Rockefeller University faculty pressured President Baltimore to resign December 1991, after only 1.5 years in the office (term began 1 July 1990). An extensive file/analysis of the case assembled by Yale University mathematician Serge Lang entitled, "Questions of Scientific Responsibility: The Baltimore Case" was published in the journal, Ethics & Behavior Spring 1993. 26 October 1994 OSI's successor, the Office of Research Integrity (ORI, HHS) reviewed the case and found Imanishi-Kari guilty on 19 counts of research misconduct; it recommended she be barred from receiving HHS research grants for 10 years. In June 1996, a HHS appeals panel reviewed the case again and dismissed all charges. Neither OSI nor ORI ever accused Baltimore of research misconduct. Baltimore has been both admired for defending a junior faculty member at great personal and professional cost and criticized for failing to be a responsible scientist. Daniel Kevles' book, The Baltimore Case: A Trial of Politics, Science, and Character recounts the affair but is sympathetic to Baltimore and Imanishi-Kari. For a different perspective, see Lang's study (also reprinted updated in his book, Challenges (New York: Springer-Verlag; 1997)) and/or Horace Freeland Judson's book, The Great Betrayal: Fraud in Science (Orlando: Harcourt; 2004). Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Serge Lang (May 19, 1927–September 12, 2005) was a French-born American mathematician. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Several agencies named Office of Research Integrity investigate cases of scientific misconduct. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Daniel J. Kevles is Stanley Woodward Professor of History at Yale University, a position he assumed in 2001. ... Daniel J. Kevles is an American historian of science. ... Horace Freeland Judson is a historian of molecular biology and the author of several books, including The Eighth Day of Creation, a history of molecular biology, and A Great Betrayal: Fraud in Science, an examination of the deliberate manipulation of scientific data. ...


Despite the controversy, President William Jefferson Clinton awarded Baltimore the National Medal of Science in 1999 for his numerous contributions to the scientific world. Order: 42nd President Term of Office: January 20, 1993–January 20, 2001 Preceded by: George H. W. Bush Succeeded by: George W. Bush Date of birth: August 19, 1946 Place of birth: Hope, Arkansas Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Hillary Rodham Clinton Political party: Democratic Vice... National Medal of Science The National Medal of Science, also called the Presidential Medal of Science, is an honor given by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social... This article is about the year. ...


van Parijs Case

Probably scientific fraud cost Baltimore the CalTech presidency as well.[dubious ] Image File history File links Wikitext. ...


3 October 2005 Baltimore resigned CalTech's presidency (reported by Los Angeles Times [6] ONLY) for not very specific reasons (same LA Times article). 6 October 2005 CalTech began an inquiry (Harvard Crimson [7]) that was prompted by a free-lance reporter's queries (NewScientist.com, "MIT professor sacked for fabricating data" [8]). The reporter had found suspicious data in several of Dr. Luk van Parijs' research papers, including one co-authored by, among others, Baltimore when van Parijs was a postdoctoral trainee of his at CalTech. 27 October 2005 MIT fired van Parijs, Associate Professor of Biology, claiming he, "[...A]dmitted to fabricating and falsifying research data in a paper and several manuscripts and grant applications" (MIT statement [9]). Luk Van Parijs was an associate professor of biology in Massachusetts Institute of Technologys Center for Cancer Research. ...


28 October 2005 the media storm began: NewScientist.com, Boston Globe[10], New York Times[11], The Tech[12], Harvard Crimson, TheScientist.com[13], Nature[14], Science[15], Chronicle of Higher Education[16], and Nature Immunology[17]; but not LA Times and none mentions Baltimore's resignation. Apparently, van Parijs' lab's members observed questionable scientific practices on his part and then reported to MIT authorities. MIT began investigating August 2004. The NewScientist.com and Science reports conflict whether MIT had reimbursed NIH. The news reports also point to suspicious data in two papers co-authored by van Parijs during his Harvard doctoral training. Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ...


26 January 2006 a story [18] in Nature by the same free-lance reporter discusses suspicious data in two patent applications filed by Baltimore and van Parijs.


Other than retraction of falsified or fabricated data from one of van Parijs' papers [19] by co-authors online 14 May 2007 and in print [20], there has been no more news since from CalTech, Harvard, MIT, or ORI (as of 4 August 2007).


References

  1. ^ Judson, Horace. "No Nobel Prize for Whining", New York Times, 2003-10-20. Retrieved on 2007-08-03. 
  2. ^ Weaver D, Reis MH, Albanese C, Costantini F, Baltimore D, and Imanishi-Kari T (1986) Altered repertoire of endogenous immunoglobulin gene expression in transgenic mice containing a rearranged mu heavy chain gene. Cell 45(2): 247-59 (25 April) [1]
  3. ^ Weaver D, Albanese C, Costantini F, and Baltimore D (1991) Retraction: Altered repertoire of endogenous immunoglobulin gene expression in transgenic mice containing a rearranged mu heavy chain gene. Cell 65(4): 536 (17 May) [2]
  4. ^ "Fraud in NIH Grant Programs" (12 April 1988), "Scientific Fraud" (4 & 9 May 1989), and "Scientific Fraud (Part 2)" (14 May 1990; transcript includes 30 April 1990 hearing on Dr. R. Gallo's NIH lab)
  5. ^ Philip J. Hilts, "Crucial Data Were Fabricated In Report Signed by Top Biologist; Nobel Winner Is Asking That Paper Be Retracted" (New York Times, 21 March 1991, Pp. A1, B10)
  6. ^ LATimes.com, "Caltech President Baltimore Announces Retirement," 3 October 2005 & LA Times, "Caltech President Who Raised School's Profile to Step Down," 4 October 2005
  7. ^ Harvard Crimson, "MIT Professor Fired for Faking Data," 31 October 2005
  8. ^ NewScientist.com, "MIT professor sacked for fabricating data," 28 October 2005 [3]
  9. ^ MIT statement, "MIT professor dismissed for research misconduct," 27 October 2005
  10. ^ Boston Globe, "MIT professor is fired over fabricated data," 28 October 2005 & "More doubts raised on fired MIT professor," 29 October 2005
  11. ^ New York Times, "M.I.T. Dismisses a Researcher, Saying He Fabricated Some Data," 28 October 2005
  12. ^ The Tech (MIT student paper), "MIT Fires Professor Van Parijs for Using Fake Data in Papers," 28 October 2005 & "Van Parijs’ Research at Caltech, Brigham Drawing New Scrutiny," 1 November 2005
  13. ^ TheScientist.com, "Immunologists prepare for fraud fallout," 3 November 2005
  14. ^ Nature, "Universities scramble to assess scope of falsified results," 3 November 2005
  15. ^ Science, "MIT Terminates Researcher Over Data Fabrication," 4 November 2005
  16. ^ Chronicle of Higher Education, "MIT Fires Biology Professor Who Admitted Faking Data," 11 November 2005
  17. ^ Nature Immunology, "Scientific blues" (unsigned editorial), 1 January 2006
  18. ^ Eugenie Samuel Reich, "Bad data fail to halt patents" (Nature 439(7075): 379 [26 January 2006]) [4]
  19. ^ Rubinson DA, Dillon CP, Kwiatkowski AV, Sievers C, Yang L, Kopinja J, Zhang M, McManus MT, Gertler FB, Scott ML, and van Parijs L (2003) A lentivirus-based system to functionally silence genes in primary mammalian cells, stem cells and transgenic mice by RNA interference. Nature Genetics 33(3): 401-6 (March) [5] Authors list subsequently changed twice by "corrigenda:" June 2003 (34(2): 231) & June 2007 (next ref.) .
  20. ^ Rubinson DA, Dillon CP, Kwiatkowski AV, Sievers C, Yang L, Kopinja J, Zhang M, McManus MT, Gertler FB, Scott ML, and van Parijs L (2007) Corrigendum: A lentivirus-based system... Nature Genetics 39(6): 803 (June) [6]

Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Robert C. Gallo Robert Charles Gallo (born March 23, 1937) is a U.S. biomedical researcher. ...

See also

  • Other books on Baltimore and/or the Baltimore/Imanishi-Kari case
    • Marcel C. LaFollette, "Stealing into Print: Fraud, Plagiarism, and Misconduct in Scientific Publishing" (Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press; 1992)
    • Robert Bell, "Impure Science: Fraud, Compromise, and Political Influence in Scientific Research" (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1992)
    • Judy Sarasohn, "Science on Trial: The Whistle-blower, the Accused, and the Nobel Laureate" (New York: St. Martin's Press; 1993)
    • Donald Kennedy, "Academic Duty" (Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Press; 1997)
    • Shane Crotty, "Ahead of the Curve: David Baltimore's Life in Science" (Berkeley: University of California Press; 2001)
  • Baltimore classification
  • 73079 Davidbaltimore

The Baltimore classification is a classification system which groups viruses into families depending on their type of genome (DNA, RNA, single-stranded (ss), double-stranded (ds) etc. ... 73079 Davidbaltimore is a main belt asteroid. ...

External links

Academic offices
Preceded by
Thomas Eugene Everhart
President of the California Institute of Technology
1997–2006
Succeeded by
Jean-Lou Chameau

  Results from FactBites:
 
David Baltimore - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (553 words)
David Baltimore (born March 7, 1938) is an American biologist and a winner of the 1975 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.
Baltimore is admired by many in the scientific community for standing behind a junior faculty member at great personal and professional cost.
Baltimore was appointed president of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in 1997, though he will be leaving this post at the end of the 2005-2006 school year.
Baltimore, David (520 words)
Baltimore received his undergraduate degree in chemistry from Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania (B.A., 1960), and went on to study animal virology at the Rockefeller Institute (now Rockefeller University) in New York City, where he obtained his doctorate in 1964, and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Boston.
Baltimore joined the faculty of MIT in 1968, accompanied by Alice Huang, a postdoctoral fellow who had worked on vesicular stomatitus virus (VSV) at the Salk Institute.
Baltimore became director of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Mass., in 1983 and in 1990 left to become president of Rockefeller University.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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