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Encyclopedia > David (Michelangelo)
David
Michelangelo, 1504
Carrara Marble
Florence, Galleria dell'Accademia

Michelangelo's David, sculpted from 1501 to 1504, is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and one of Michelangelo's two greatest works of sculpture, along with the Pietà. It is the statue of the young Israelite king David alone that almost certainly holds the title of the most recognizable stone sculpture in the history of art. It has become regarded as a symbol both of strength and youthful human beauty. The 5.17 meter (17 ft)[1] marble statue portrays the Biblical King David in the nude, at the moment that he decides to battle with Goliath. It came to symbolize the defense of civic liberties embodied in the Florentine Republic, an independent city state threatened on all sides by more powerful rival states and by the hegemony of the Medici themselves. This interpretation was also encouraged by the original setting of the sculpture outside the Palazzo della Signoria, the seat of civic government in Florence. The completed sculpture was unveiled on 8 September 1504. Download high resolution version (500x711, 63 KB)Subject: David by Michelangelo Location: Accademia Gallery, Florence Source: [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carrara is a city in the Massa Carrara province of Tuscany, Italy, famous for the white or blue-gray marble quarried there. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Michelangelos David in the Tribuna that was built especially to house it The Accademia dell Arte del Disegno (Academy of Design) of Florence was the first academy of drawing in Europe. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... The Pietà (1498–1499) by Michelangelo is a marble sculpture in St. ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... David and Goliath, by Caravaggio, c. ... This article needs cleanup. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... David and Goliath, by Caravaggio, c. ... Depictions of nudity refers to nudity in all the artistic disciplines including vernacular and historical depictions. ... This article is about the biblical warrior. ... Florence (Italian, Firenze) is a city in the center of Tuscany, in central Italy, on the Arno River, with a population of around 400,000, plus a suburban population in excess of 200,000. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having sovereignty. ... For the nice game, see Medici (nice game). ... Palazzo Vecchio The Palazzo Vecchio is the town hall of Florence, Italy. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Pre-history of the commission

The history of the David statue precedes Michelangelo's work on it from 1500-1504.[2] Prior to Michelangelo's involvement, the Overseers of the Office of Works of the Duomo (Operai), comprised mostly of members of the influential woolen cloth guild, the Arte della Lana, had plans to commission a series of twelve large Old Testament sculptures for the buttresses of the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore. Until then only two had been created independently by Donatello and his assistant, Agostino di Duccio. Eager to continue their project, in 1464 they again contracted Agostino to create a sculpture of David. He only got as far as beginning to shape the legs, feet and the figure, roughing out some drapery and probably gouging a hole between the legs. His association with the project ceased, for reasons unknown, with the death of his master Donatello in 1466, and Antonio Rossellino was commissioned to take up where Agostino had left off. The Arte della Lana was the wool guild of Florence during the Late Middle Ages and in the Renaissance. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... A buttress (and mostly concealed, a flying buttress) supporting walls at the Palace of Westminster Three different types of buttress: diagonal, on the statues plinth; an ordinary buttress supporting a flying buttress, to the right of the statue; a small ordinary buttress to the right side of the picture... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the cathedral church, or Duomo, of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, noted for its distinctive dome. ... Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ... Agostino di Duccio (1418 - 1481) was an Italian early Renaissance sculptor. ... Drapery refers to cloth or textiles (Latin drappus = cloth and Old French drap) or the trade of selling cloth. ... Antonio Gamberelli (c. ...


Rossellino's contract was terminated, soon thereafter, and the block of marble originally from a quarry in Carrara, a town in the Apuan Alps in northern Italy, remained neglected for twenty-five years, all the while exposed to the elements in the yard of the cathedral workshop. The rain and wind weathered it down to a smaller size than was originally planned. This was of great concern to the Operai authorities, as such a large piece of marble was both costly, and represented a large amount of labor and difficulty in its transportation to Florence. In 1500, an inventory of the cathedral workshops described the piece as, "a certain figure of marble called David, badly blocked out and supine." A year later, documents showed that the Operai were determined to find an artist who could take this large piece of marble and turn it into a finished work of art. They ordered the block of stone, which they called The Giant, "raised on its feet" so that a master experienced in this kind of work might examine it and express an opinion. Though Leonardo da Vinci and others were consulted, it was young Michelangelo, only twenty-six years old, who convinced the Operai that he deserved the commission. On August 16, 1501, Michelangelo was given the official contract to undertake this challenging new task. He began carving the statue early in the morning on Monday, September 13, a month after he was awarded the contract. He would work on the massive biblical hero for a little more than three years. Carrara is a city in the Massa Carrara province of Tuscany, Italy, famous for the white or blue-gray marble quarried there. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Conception

Michelangelo's David differs from previous representations of the subject in that David is not depicted with the slain Goliath (as he is in Donatello's and Verrocchio's versions, produced earlier), a common interpretation is that David is depicted before his battle with Goliath. Instead of being shown victorious over a foe much larger than he, David looks tense and ready for combat. His veins bulge out of his lowered right hand and the twist of his body effectively conveys to the viewer the feeling that he is in motion. The statue is meant to show David after he has made the decision to fight Goliath but before the battle has actually taken place. It is a representation of the moment between conscious choice and conscious action.[citation needed] However, other experts (including Giuseppe Andreani, the current director of Accademia Gallery) consider the depiction to represent the moment immediately after battle, as David serenely contemplates his victory. Donatellos David Donatellos bronze statue of David (circa 1440s) is notable as the first unsupported standing work in bronze cast since classical times. ... Andrea del Verrochios bronze statue of David was most likely made between 1473 and 1475. ... The Accademia dell Arte del Disegno (Academy of Design) of Florence was the first academy of drawing in Europe. ...

Copy standing in the original location of the David, in front of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence.
Copy standing in the original location of the David, in front of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence.

On January 25, 1504, when the sculpture was nearing completion, a committee of Florentine artists including Leonardo da Vinci and Sandro Botticelli met to decide on an appropriate site for the David. The majority, led by Giuliano da Sangallo and supported by Leonardo and Piero di Cosimo, among others, believed that due to the imperfections in the marble the sculpture should be placed under the roof of the Loggia dei Lanzi on Piazza della Signoria. Only a rather minor view, supported by Botticelli, believed that the sculpture should be situated on or near the cathedral. Eventually the David was placed in front of the entrance to the Palazzo Vecchio, also on Piazza della Signoria, replacing Donatello's bronze sculpture of Judith and Holofernes, which embodied a comparable theme of heroic resistance. It took four days to move the statue from Michelangelo's workshop onto the Piazza della Signoria. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 616 KB) Summary Statue of David, (replica) in front of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, Italy Own photo - photo made on 12 October 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Michelangelos David Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 616 KB) Summary Statue of David, (replica) in front of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, Italy Own photo - photo made on 12 October 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Michelangelos David Metadata This file contains... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Botticelli redirects here. ... Portrait by Piero di Cosimo, c. ... Portrait of Simonetta Vespucci (c. ... The Loggia dei Lanzi, also called the Loggia della Signoria, is a building on the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, adjoining the Uffizi Gallery. ... The Piazza della Signoria is an L-shaped square in front of the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, Italy. ... Palazzo Vecchio The Palazzo Vecchio is the town hall of Florence, Italy. ...


Style and detail

Michelangelo's David is based on the artistic discipline of disegno, which is built on knowledge of the male human form. Under this discipline, sculpture is considered to be the finest form of art because it mimics divine creation. Because Michelangelo adhered to the concepts of disegno, he worked under the premise that the image of David was already in the block of stone he was working on — in much the same way as the human soul is found within the physical body. It is also an example of the contrapposto style of posing the human form. Disegno is the design, usually in the form of a drawing, that the artist had in mind before beginning to carve or paint their work. ... THIS IS A FACT Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions and philosophical belief systems which maintains that a single God, or a group of or deities is responsible for creating the universe. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... The Doryphoros of Polyclitus, an early example of classical contrapost. ...


In the High Renaissance, contrapposto poses were thought of as a distinctive feature of antique sculpture. As exemplified In Michelangelo’s David, sculptured from 1501-1503, the figure stands with one leg holding its full weight and the other leg relaxed. This classic pose causes the figure’s hips and shoulders to rest at opposite angles, giving a slight s-curve to the entire torso. In addition, the statue faces to the left while the left arm leans on his left shoulder with his sling flung down behind his back. Michelangelo’s David has become one of the most recognized pieces of Renaissance Sculpture ever, becoming a symbol of both strength and youthful human beauty.


The proportions are not quite true to the human form; the head and upper body are somewhat larger than the proportions of the lower body. The hands are also larger than would be in regular proportions. While some have suggested that this is of the mannerist style, the most commonly accepted explanation[weasel words] is that the statue was originally intended to be placed on a church façade or high pedestal, and that the proportions would appear correct when the statue was viewed from some distance below. In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... West façade of the Notre-Dame de Strasbourg Cathedral A facade (or façade) is the exterior of a building – especially the front, but also sometimes the sides and rear. ... A statue of Henry IV of France on a pedestal Pedestal (from French piedestal, Italian piedestallo, foot of a stall) is a term generally applied to the support of a statue or a vase. ...


There was controversy over the statue's supposed Biblical reference, since the statue seemed to portray an uncircumcised male, whereas the historical King David was undoubtedly circumcised. It was also suggested that this was a conscious decision in Michelangelo's endeavor to emulate the ancient Greek aesthetic ideal, which regarded the circumcised penis as mutilated. For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article is about male circumcision. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... Mutilation or maiming is an act or physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of the (human) body, usually causing death. ...


Later history

To protect it from damage, the sculpture was moved in 1873 to the Accademia Gallery in Florence, where it attracts many visitors. A replica was placed in the Piazza della Signoria in 1910. The Accademia dell Arte del Disegno (Academy of Design) of Florence was the first academy of drawing in Europe. ...


The cast of David at the South Kensington Museum (now the V&A), had a detachable plaster fig leaf, added for visits by Queen Victoria and other important ladies, when it was hung on the figure using two strategically placed hooks; it is now displayed nearby. [3] In 1991 a postmodern artist attacked the statue with a hammer in an act of art intervention[4], in the process damaging the toes of the left foot before being restrained. The samples obtained from that incident allowed scientists to determine that the marble used was obtained from the Fantiscritti quarries in Miseglia, the central of three small valleys in Carrara. The marble in question contains many microscopic holes that cause it to deteriorate faster than other marbles. Because of the marble's degradation, a controversy occurred in 2003, when the statue underwent its first major cleaning since 1843. Some experts opposed the use of water to clean the statue, fearing further deterioration. The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the worlds largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. ... Eugen Sandow as the Dying Gaul A fig leaf is the covering up of an act or an object that is embarrassing or disagreeable. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... Art intervention as a performance artist, with eyes closed, sits motionless for long periods balanced on an uncomfortable railing in Montmartre, Paris, France An art intervention is an interaction with a previously existing artwork, audience or venue/space. ... -1... For other uses, see Quarry (disambiguation). ... Carrara is a city in the Massa Carrara province of Tuscany, Italy, famous for the white or blue-gray marble quarried there. ...


Replicas

Main article: Replicas of Michelangelo's David

By the twentieth century Michelangelo's David had become iconic shorthand for "culture" David has been endlessly reproduced, in plaster, imitation marble fibreglass, and lends an atmosphere of culture even in some unlikely settings, such as beach resorts, gambling casinos and model railroads. This article needs cleanup. ...


Notes

  • Hall, James, Michelangelo and the Reinvention of the Human Body 2005.
  • Hartt, Frederick, Michelangelo: the complete sculpture
  • Hibbard, Howard. Michelangelo
  • Hirst Michael, “Michelangelo In Florence: David In 1503 And Hercules In 1506”
  • Pope-Hennessy, John (1996). Italian High Renaissance and Baroque Sculpture. London: Phaidon
  • Kleiner, Fred S.; Christin J. Mamiya (2001). Gardner's Art Through the Ages. Fort Worth: Harcourt College. 
  • Seymour, Charles, Jr. Michelangelo's David : a search for identity (Mellon Studies in the Humanities) 1967.
  • Stokstad, Marilyn (1999), Art History. 2nd Ed. Vol. 2. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Vasari, Giorgio, Lives of the Artists (Penguin Books), “Life of Michelangelo” pp. 325-442. Vasari's report on the origin and placement of the David has been undermined by modern historians.

John Wyndham, Sir Pope-Hennessy (1913 - 1994) was a British art historian. ...

References

General
  • Michelangelo Buonarroti: David, Art and the Bible
Specific
  1. ^ The height of David was recorded incorrectly and the mistake proliferated through many art history publications. See http://graphics.stanford.edu/projects/mich/more-david/more-david.html and http://graphics.stanford.edu/projects/mich/publicity/faq.html#height%20of%20the%20David
  2. ^ The genesis of the David was discussed in Seymour 1967.
  3. ^ David's Fig Leaf. Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  4. ^ "a man the police described as deranged broke part of a toe with a hammer, saying a 16th-century Venetian painter's model ordered him to do so." Cowell, Alan. "Michelangelo's David Is Damaged". New York Times, 1991-09-15. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.

The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the worlds largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Taj Mahal Big Ben Saint Basils Cathedral Azadi Square in Tehran For other senses of this word, see landmark (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x921, 196 KB) Summary it: Stemma del Comune di Firenze (Provincia di Firenze). ... the Bargello For the type of embroidery, please visit Bargello (needlework) The Bargello palace was built in 1255 to house first the Capitano del Populo and later, in 1261, the Podestà, the highest magistrate of the Florence City Council, Italy. ... The Battistero of San Giovanni. ... The Boboli Gardens is a famous park in Florence, Italy that is home to a small but distinguished collection of sculptures. ... The Tribute Money, fresco by Masaccio in the Brancacci Chapel. ... Giotto’s bell tower (campanile) stands on the Cathedral square (Piazza del Duomo) in Florence, Italy. ... Early, tinted 20th-century photograph of the Palazzo Pitti, then still known as La Residenza Reale following the residency of King Emmanuel II between 1865–71, when Florence was the capital of Italy. ... The Strozzi Palace in Florence, Italy, was begun by Benedetto deMaiano, for Filippo Strozzi an unfortunate rival of Medici. ... Palazzo Vecchio The Palazzo Vecchio is the town hall of Florence, Italy. ... Ponte Vecchio at night View across the bridge. ... Exterior from the Piazza San Lorenzo. ... The façade and the bell tower of San Marco in Florence. ... San Miniato al Monte and the Bishops Palace The Basilica di San Miniato al Monte (Basilica of St Minias on the Mountain) stands atop one of the highest points in Florence, and has been described as the finest Romanesque structure in Tuscany and one of the most beautiful churches... The Basilica di Santa Croce (Basilica of the Holy Cross) is the principal Franciscan church in Florence, Italy, and a minor basilica of the Roman Catholic Church. ... View of the façade with Giottos Bell Tower. ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... The following is a list of works of painting, sculpture and architecture by the Italian Renaissance artists Michelangelo. ... Madonna of the Steps is a relief done by Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, created during the time he was in the school of Lorenzo de Medici. ... Battle of the Centaurs is a relief done by the Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo Buonarroti, around 1492. ... The Crucifix is a polychrome wood sculpture by High Renaissance master Michelangelo, finished in 1492. ... General view of the Arca di San Domenico. ... The statue of St. ... The statue of St. ... Michelangelos Cupid was a famous forgery by Michelangelo that has been lost. ... Michelangelos Cupid was a famous forgery by Michelangelo that has been lost. ... Bacchus (1497) is a marble sculpture by the Italian High Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect and poet Michelangelo. ... The Crucifix is a polychrome wood sculpture by High Renaissance master Michelangelo, finished in 1492. ... The Pietà (1498–1499) by Michelangelo is a marble sculpture in St. ... The Madonna of Bruges is a marble sculpture by Michelangelo, of Mary with the infant Jesus. ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Dying Slave The Dying Slave is a famous sculpture by the Italian Renaissance artist Michelangelo. ... The Basilica di San Lorenzo (Basilica of St Lawrence) is one of the largest churches of Florence, Italy, situated at the centre of the city’s main market district. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Deposition (also called the Florentine Pietà or The Lamentation over the Dead Christ) is a marble sculpture by the Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo. ... The Rondanini Pietà The Rondanini Pietà is a marble sculpture that Michelangelo worked on from the 1550s until the last weeks of his life, in 1564. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (767x1048, 166 KB) Summary Portrait of Michelangelo by Daniele da Volterra Source: [1] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Michelangelo ... The Doni Tondo or Doni Madonna is a painting by the Italian Renaissance master Michelangelo Buonarroti (c. ... The Entombment is an unfinished painting attributed to the Italian Renaissance master Michelangelo Buonarroti (c. ... God creates Adam by Michelangelo. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... The iconic image of the Hand of God giving life to Adam. ... The Last Judgment is a painting by Michelangelo located in the Sistine Chapel (Vatican City), above the altar. ... We dont have an article called Cappella Paolina Start this article Search for Cappella Paolina in. ... The Conversion of Saul is a painting attributed to the Italian Renaissance master Michelangelo Buonarroti (c. ... Exterior from the Piazza San Lorenzo. ... The Basilica di San Lorenzo (Basilica of St Lawrence) is one of the largest churches of Florence, Italy, situated at the centre of the city’s main market district. ... It has been suggested that Biblioteca Mediceo Lauenziana be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... San Giovanni dei Fiorentini San Giovanni dei Fiorentini (St John of the Florentines), church in Rome. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ... Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri (English: ) is a basilica built inside the tepidarium of the baths of Diocletian, in Rome. ... Cordonata in Rome The Cordonata is a monumental stair to reach the high piazza of the hill Capitoline, the heart oft pagan Rome. ... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the famous seven hills of Rome, the site of a temple for the Capitoline Triad: the gods Jupiter, his wife Juno and their daughter Minerva. ... A mid-18th century engraving of Palazzo Farnese by Giuseppe Vasi Palazzo Farnese, Rome (housing the French Embassy), is the most imposing Italian palace of the sixteenth century (Sir Banister Fletcher) (1). ... The internal face of Porta Pia Porta Pia, new gate in the Aurelian Walls. ...

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Michelangelo's David (596 words)
Michelangelo was a citizen of the city state of Firenze (Florence).
When the statue of David was placed on the square in front of the city hall (where you can now find a copy), the people of Firenze immediately identified with him, as a cunning victor over superior enemies.
Here are some references in case you are interested in Michelangelo, in David, or just in art in general.
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