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Encyclopedia > Daur
Daur
Total population

132,394

Regions with significant populations
People's Republic of China, in Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang and Xinjiang
Languages
Daur
Religions
shamanism, Tibetan Buddhism,
Related ethnic groups
Khitan, Mongols

The Daur people (Simplified Chinese: 达斡尔族; pinyin: Dáwò'ěrzú; the former name "Dahur" is considered derogatory) are an ethnic group. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized in the People's Republic of China. They numbered 132,394 according to the latest census (2000), and most of them live in the Morin Dawa Daur Autonomous Banner (Mòlì Dáwǎ Dáwò'ěrzú Zìzhìqí 莫力达瓦达斡尔族自治旗) in Inner Mongolia autonomous region of China. There are also some near Tacheng in Xinjiang, where their ancestors were moved during the Qing Dynasty. Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ... Tibetan Buddhism (Simplified Chinese: 藏传佛教) is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Khitan may refer to: Khitan people Khitan language Khitan script Category: ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiǎnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... It has been suggested that Pinyin method be merged into this article or section. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Tacheng or Qoqek (Chinese:塔城; pinyin: TÇŽchéng), is a city (1994 est. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: QÄ«ng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China and the surrounding territories, establishing the Empire...

Contents

Language

Daur is a Mongolic language. There is no written standard, although a Pinyin-based orthography has been devised by the native Daur scholar Merden Enhebatu. The Daur language retains some Khitan substratal features, including a number of lexemes not found in other Mongolic languages. It is made up of three dialects: Bataxan, Hailar, Qiqihar. The Mongolic languages are a group of thirteen languages spoken in Central Asia. ... It has been suggested that Pinyin method be merged into this article or section. ...


History

Genetically, the Daurs are descendants of the Khitan, as recent DNA analyses have proven.[1] The Daurs gave their name to the region of Dauria, also called Transbaikal, now the area of Russia east of Lake Baikal. Khitan may refer to: Khitan people Khitan language Khitan script Category: ... Transbaikal (Russian: Забайкалье [Zabajkale]) or Dauria (Russian: Даурия [Daurija]) is a mountainous region to the east of or beyond (trans-) Lake Baikal in Russia. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ...


During the reign of Shunzhi Emperor (1644-1662), the Daurs moved south and settled on the banks of the Nonni River, from where they were constantly conscripted to serve in the banner system of the Qing emperors. The Daurs helped to repel Cossack invaders from Tsarist Russia in 1643 and 1651. When the Japanese invaded China’s Northeast in 1931, the Daurs carried out an intense resistance against them. The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... Nen River (also Nonni) is a river in north-eastern China. ...


Culture

There is a very noticeable hierarchic structure. People sharing the same surname are in groups called hala, they live together with the same group, formed by two or three towns. Each hala is divided in diverse clans (mokon) that live in the same town. If a marriage between different clans is made, the husband can go to live with the clan of his wife but he does not hold any property rights.


In the weddings, the fiancé goes out to look for the fiancée when the sun when coming out. It is custom that offers wine, meat and paste to all the neighbors who are attending. The celebration of the wedding usually concludes with a festival of flat racing.


During the winter, the Daur women wear long dresses, generally blue in color and boots of skin that they change by long trousers during the summer. The men dress in winter made orejeros caps in fox or red deer skin. In summer, they cover its head with fabrics with white color or straw hats.


Religion

The Daurs are mostly shamanists. Each clan has its own shaman in charge of all the important ceremonies in the lives of the Daur. However there are some Daurs who have taken up Lamaism.


Notes

  1. ^ Li Jinhui, DNA Match Solves Ancient Mystery, china.org.cn 08/02/2001.

External links

  • The Daur ethnic minority (Chinese government site, in English)

 
 

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