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Encyclopedia > Dating the Bible
Part of a series on
The Bible
Biblical canon and books
Tanakh: Torah · Nevi'im · Ketuvim Old Testament · Hebrew Bible · New Testament · New Covenant · Deuterocanon · Antilegomena · Chapters & verses · Jefferson Bible
Apocrypha: Jewish · OT · NT
Development and authorship
Panbabylonism · Jewish Canon · Old Testament canon · New Testament canon · Mosaic authorship · Pauline epistles · Johannine works
Translations and manuscripts
Septuagint · Samaritan Pentateuch · Dead Sea scrolls · Targums · Peshitta · Vetus Latina · Vulgate · Masoretic text · Gothic Bible · Luther Bible · English Bibles
Biblical studies
Dating the Bible · Biblical criticism · Higher criticism · Textual criticism · Novum Testamentum Graece · NT textual categories · Documentary hypothesis · Synoptic problem · The Bible and history‎ · Biblical archaeology
Interpretation
Hermeneutics · Pesher · Midrash · Pardes · Allegorical · Literalism · Prophecy
Views
Inerrancy · Infallibility ·
Criticism · Islamic · Qur'anic · Gnostic · Judaism and Christianity · Law in Christianity
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The Bible is a compilation of various texts or "books" of different ages. While the books of the New Testament may be dated with some confidence, the dates of many of the texts of the Hebrew Bible are difficult to establish. Textual criticism places all of them within the 1st millennium BCE[citation needed]. For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1993x1300, 432 KB) A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Bible, in contrast to the protocanonical books which are contained in the Hebrew Bible. ... Antilegomena (from Greek , contradicted or disputed, literally spoken against[1]), an epithet used by the Church Fathers to denote those books of the New Testament which, although sometimes publicly read in the churches, were not for a considerable amount of time considered to be genuine, or received into the canon... The Bible comprises 24 books for Jews, 66 for Protestants, 73 for Catholics, and 78 for most Orthodox Christians. ... The Jefferson Bible, or The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth as it is formally titled, was an attempt by Thomas Jefferson to glean the teachings of Jesus from the Christian Gospels. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... This article on Jewish apocrypha includes a survey of books written in the Jewish religious tradition either in the late pre-Christian era or in the early Christian era, but outside the Christian tradition. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... In the process of determining the Biblical canon, a large number of works were excluded from the New Testament. ... Authors of the Bible are listed by book of the Bible, comparing the writer according to Christian tradition with what current scholarship proposes. ... Panbabylonism is a school of thought within Assyriology and Religious studies that considers the Hebrew Bible and Judaism as directly derived from Babylonian culture and mythology. ... This article is about the selection of the books which make up the Tanakh. ... For the Jewish canon, see Development of the Jewish Bible canon. ... A folio from P46, an early 3rd century collection of Pauline epistles. ... Mosaic authorship is the traditional ascription to Moses of the authorship of the five books of the Torah or Pentateuch - Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus and Deuteronomy. ... A nineteenth century picture of Paul of Tarsus The Pauline epistles are the fourteen books in the New Testament traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus, thirteen of which are explicitly ascribed to Paul, and one, Hebrews, is anonymous. ... El Grecos rendition of John the Apostle shows the traditional author of the Johannine works as a young man. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... Fragments of the Dead Sea scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... The Dead Sea scrolls consist of roughly 1000 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1979 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West... A targum (plural: targumim) is an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) written or compiled in the Land of Israel or in Babylonia from the Second Temple period until the early Middle Ages (late first millennium). ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... Vetus Latina is a collective name given to the Biblical texts in Latin that were translated before St Jeromes Vulgate bible became the standard Bible for Latin-speaking Western Christians. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible (Tanakh). ... Luthers 1534 bible The Luther Bible is a German Bible translation by Martin Luther, first printed with both testaments in 1534. ... The efforts of translating the Bible from its original languages into over 2,000 others have spanned more than two millennia. ... Biblical studies is the academic study of the Judeo-Christian Bible and related texts. ... This article is about the academic treatment of the bible as a historical document. ... Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Manuscript C, folio 436v, 11th century Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts and manuscripts. ... Novum Testamentum Graece is the name (in the Latin language) of the Greek language version of the New Testament. ... New Testament manuscripts are categorized into five groups. ... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ... The synoptic problem concerns the literary relationship between and among the first three canonical gospels (the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke), known as the synoptic gospels. ... The article concerns the historicity of the Bible. ... Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ... Pesher is a Hebrew word meaning interpretation in the sense of solution. It became known from one group of the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... The Pardes system is a method of systematic exegesis in Judaism. ... Allegorical interpretation in Biblical studies is the approach which assigns a higher-than-literal interpretation to contents of the Bible. ... Biblical literalism is the supposed adherence to the explicit and literal sense of the Bible. ... Bible prophecy, or biblical prophecy is the belief that the exegesis and hermeneutics that relate to those scriptures containing various prophecies regarding global politics, natural disasters, the future of the nation of Israel, the coming of a Messiah and a Messianic Kingdom, and the ultimate destiny of humankind are true. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Biblical... Biblical infallibility is the theological term to describe the belief that the Bible is free from errors on issues of faith and practice. ... when thousands of people call a person as thief, he becomes thief. ... In Islam, the Bible is held to reflect true unfolding revelation from God; but revelation which had become corrupted or distorted in its handing down (in Arabic: tahrif); which necessitated the giving of the Quran to Mohammed, to correct this deviation. ... The Quran, the central religious text of Islam, contains references to over fifty people also found in the Bible, typically in the same or similar narratives. ... This article discusses the relationship between Gnosticism and the New Testament. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... (Redirected from 1st millennium BCE) (2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – 1st millennium AD – other millennia) Events The Iron Age began in Western Egypt declined as a major power The Tanakh was written Buddhism was founded Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon and created the Persian Empire (6th century BC) Sparta...


With the exception an extensive manuscripts and fragments (found among the Dead Sea scrolls, discussed below), no Old Testament manuscript predates the 2nd century BCE. The earliest manuscript of the New Testament is the Rylands Library Papyrus P52, a manuscript fragments of the Gospel of John dated to the first half of the 2nd century. The Chester Beatty Papyri P46, which contains most of the Pauline epistles, the Magdalen papyrus P64/67, and the Bodmer Papyri P66 are other noted early manusript, dated c. 200, over a century after the New Testament books were most likely composed. For this reason, dating of the older texts cannot be done directly by dating manuscripts, but relies on textual criticism, philological and linguistic evidence, as well as direct references to historical events in the texts. The Dead Sea scrolls consist of roughly 1000 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1979 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West... (3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events BC 168 Battle of Pydna -- Macedonian phalanx defeated by Romans BC 148 Rome conquers Macedonia BC 146 Rome destroys Carthage in the Third Punic War BC 146 Rome conquers... John Rylands Library Papyrus P52, recto The Rylands Library Papyrus P52, also known as the St Johns fragment, is a papyrus conserved at the John Rylands Library, Manchester, UK. The front (recto) contains lines from the Gospel of John 18:31-33, in Greek, and the back (verso) contains... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... P. Chester Beatty I, (P45) folio 13-14, containing portion of the Gospel of Luke The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri or simply the Chester Beatty Papyri are a group of early papyrus manuscripts of biblical texts. ... Papyrus 46 is one of the oldest New Testament manuscripts known to exist to day, with its creation dated at the early 3rd century 1. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Magdalen papyrus was purchased in Luxor, Egypt in 1901 by Rev Charles B. Huleatt (1863-1908), who identified the Greek fragments as portions of the Gospel of Matthew (Chapter 26:23 and 31) and presented them to Magdalen College, Oxford, where they are cataloged as (Gregory-Aland P64) and... The Bodmer Papyri are a group of twenty-two papyri found in 1952 at Pabau near Dishna, Egypt, the ancient headquarters of the Pachomian order of monks; the discovery site is not far from Nag Hammadi. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Manuscript C, folio 436v, 11th century Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts and manuscripts. ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ...

Contents

The Hebrew Bible

The authorship of the Hebrew Bible is an open topic of research, and who and how many people contributed to the text is a vital and lively area of investigation. Therefore, assigning solid dates to any of the texts is difficult. Since the dating of the authorship of these books depends on the particulars of textual deconstruction, the range of dates assigned to the first five books is rather broad, ranging from the 10th to the 6th centuries BCE[citation needed]. This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... (Redirected from 10th century BCE) (11th century BC - 10th century BC - 9th century BC - other centuries) (1000s BC - 990s BC - 980s BC - 970s BC - 960s BC - 950s BC - 940s BC - 930s BC - 920s BC - 910s BC - 900s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events... (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War...


Manuscripts

The oldest known preserved fragment of a Torah text is a good luck charm inscribed with a text close to, although not identical with, Num 6:24–27, dated to approximately 600 BCE (Dever, p. 180). The oldest complete or nearly complete texts are the Dead Sea Scrolls from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century CE. The DSS contain almost all the books of the Tanakha, although not all are complete. Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... The Dead Sea scrolls consist of roughly 1000 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1979 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West...


According to tradition the Torah was translated into Greek (the Septuagint, or 70, from the traditional number of translators) in the 3rd century BCE. The oldest Greek manuscripts include 2nd century BCE fragments of Leviticus and Deuteronomy[1] and 1st century BCE fragments of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and the Minor Prophets.[2] Relatively complete manuscripts of the Septuagint include the Codex Vaticanus and the Codex Sinaiticus of the 4th century and the Codex Alexandrinus of the 5th century—these are the oldest surviving nearly-complete manuscripts of the Old Testament in any language. The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Page from Codex Vaticanus Graece 1209, B/03 The Codex Vaticanus (The Vatican, Bibl. ... A portion of the Codex Sinaiticus, containing Esther 2:3-8. ... Folio 65v from the Codex Alexandrinus contains the end of the Gospel of Luke with the decorative tailpiece found at the end of each book. ...


The Hebrew or Masoretic text of the Torah is held by tradition to have been assembled in the 4th century CE, but the oldest extant complete or near-complete manuscripts are the Aleppo Codex, ca. 920 CE, and the Westminster Leningrad Codex, dated to 1008 CE. The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Jewish Bible (Tanakh). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... The Aleppo Codex (the Keter (Crown) Aram Tzova) is the oldest complete manuscript Hebrew Bible, though scrolls of individual books of the Tanakh are much older (see Dead Sea scrolls). ... Leningrad Codex (cover page E, folio 474a) The Leningrad Codex (Codex Leningradensis) is the oldest surviving complete copy of the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible, dated 1008. ...


Additional manuscripts include the Samaritan Torah and the Peshitta, the latter a translation of the Christian Bible into Syriac, the earliest known copy of which dates to the 2nd century CE. The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


Differences between manuscripts can provide significantly different interpretations of the contemporary bible.


Dating texts

One way to date an ancient text is to examine the text for places or events that were known to the author. If, for example, the text refers to a town or village that did not exist until the 3rd century BCE, then that can be used as a reference to pin down the approximate date of authorship. Also used can be the style of writing and common facts known at a particular place and time. Loanwords from other languages can be important, as the period of contact between different cultures creates watermarks in time that allow for dating. (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy...


Documents, inscriptions, and objects that have portions of the Torah, or the whole of the text, allow researchers to place an upper bound on the date of a particular portion of text, or perhaps even the whole of it. If the portion of text is small, it can be argued that it simply is part of an oral tradition; for that reason whole books or substantially whole books are proportionately more meaningful in determining when the whole of the Bible was written. Also useful are documents, inscriptions, and objects that speak of the Hebrew Bible, or portions thereof, or of people, places and events that are in common with Biblical narrative.


Torah

Some critical scholars (the 'Biblical Minimalists") insist that the whole of the Torah shows evidence of its construction composed after 538 BCE, perhaps with material from an earlier oral tradition, as it were a "prequel" to the prophetic books. Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Cyrus the Great 537 BC - Jews transported to Babylon... A prequel is a work that portrays events which include the structure, conventions, and/or characters of a previously completed narrative, but occur at an earlier time. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ...


A middle ground is held by people such as Israel Finkelstein, whose archeological studies tend to suggest that a substantial portion of the Pentateuch is a 7th century BCE construction, designed to promote the dynastic ambitions of King Josiah of Judah. The 6th century BCE Books of Kings tells of the rediscovery of an old book by King Josiah, which would be the oldest part of the Torah, around which Josiah's scribes would have fabricated the remaining text: Israel Finkelstein Israel Finkelstein is an Israeli archaeologist. ... (8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC - other centuries) (700s BC - 690s BC - 680s BC - 670s BC - 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC - 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Scythians arrived in Asia Collapse... Josiah listening to the reading of the law by Julius Schnoor von Carolsfeld Josiah or Yoshiyahu (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; supported of the Lord) was king of Judah, and son of Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. ... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were... The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ...

And Hilkiah the high priest said unto Shaphan the scribe, I have found the book of the law in the house of the LORD. And Hilkiah gave the book to Shaphan, and he read it. (2 Kings 22:8 KJV)

Under Josiah's rule there would then for the first time have been a unified and centralized state of Judah around the worship of Yahweh based at the Temple in Jerusalem, portraying King Josiah as the legitimate successor to the legendary David and thus the rightful ruler of Judah. According to this interpretation, neighboring countries that kept many written records, such as Egypt, Persia, etc., have no writings about the stories of the Bible or its main characters before 650 BCE, and the archaeological record of pre-Josiac Israel does not support the existence of a unified state in the time of David. Such claims are detailed in Who Were the Early Israelites? by William G. Dever (William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI, 2003). Another such book is The Bible Unearthed by Neil A. Silberman and Israel Finkelstein (Simon and Schuster, New York, 2001). Hilkiah was a Hebrew Priest at the time of King Josiah. ... Genera Procavia Heterohyrax Dendrohyrax A hyrax (from Greek shrewmouse; South African English: klipdassie) is any of four species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Josiah listening to the reading of the law by Julius Schnoor von Carolsfeld Josiah or Yoshiyahu (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; supported of the Lord) was king of Judah, and son of Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Persia redirects here. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras, Guatemala. ... William G. Dever is an American archaeologist, specialising in the history of Israel and the Near East in Biblical times, who was Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona from 1975 to 2002. ... Neil Asher Silberman is an archaeologist who serves as director of the Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation in Belgium. ... Israel Finkelstein Israel Finkelstein is an Israeli archaeologist. ...


A traditional strain of scholarship (the "Biblical maximalists") would assign portions of the Pentateuch (generally, the J author) to the period of the United Monarchy in the 10th century BCE, would date Deuteronomy and the Deuteronomic history to the time of King Josiah, and that the final form of the Torah was due to a redactor in exilic or postexilic times (6th century BCE). This view is based on the account of the finding of the "book of law" in 2 Kings 22:8, which would correspond to the core of Deuteronomy, and the remaining parts of the Torah would have been composed to supply a background from traditional accounts to the rediscovered text. The article concerns the historicity of the Bible. ... The Jahwist, also referred to as the Jehovist, Yahwist, or simply as J, is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... United Monarchy - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... (Redirected from 10th century BCE) (11th century BC - 10th century BC - 9th century BC - other centuries) (1000s BC - 990s BC - 980s BC - 970s BC - 960s BC - 950s BC - 940s BC - 930s BC - 920s BC - 910s BC - 900s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events... The Deuteronomist (D) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis that treats the texts of Scripture as products of human intellect, working in time. ...


Nevi'im

The major Nevi'im ("Prophets"). Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ...


The Books of Kings mentions the following sources: The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ...

  1. The "book of the acts of Solomon" (1 Kings 11:41)
  2. The "book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah" (14:29; 15:7, 23, etc.)
  3. The "book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel" (14:19; 15:31; 16:14, 20, 27, etc.).

The date of its composition was perhaps some time between 561 BCE, the date of the last chapter (2 Kings 25), when Jehoiachin was released from captivity by Evil-merodach, and 538 BCE, the date of the decree of deliverance by Cyrus the Great. Jeconiah (also known as Jehoiachin, Joachin, and Coniah) was king of Judah. ... Amel-Marduk (or Evil-merodach, Merodachs man) (? BC - ca. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Cyrus the Great 537 BC - Jews transported to Babylon... “Cyrus” redirects here. ...


The Book of Isaiah, in its present form, is by most scholars considered the result of an extensive editing process, in which the promises of God's salvation are reinterpreted and claimed for the Judean people through the history of their exile and return to the land of Judah. Very few scholars dispute these conclusions and argue for the unity of the composition of the book. When the Septuagint version was made (about 250 BCE), the entire contents of the book were ascribed to Isaiah, the son of Amoz. In the time of Jesus, the book existed in its present form, with many prophecies in the disputed portions quoted in the New Testament as the words of Isaiah. This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... (Redirected from 250s BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 259 BC 258 BC 257 BC 256 BC 255 BC 254 BC... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


Ketuvim (Hagiographia)

Traditionally, the Book of Daniel was believed to have been written by its namesake during and shortly after the Babylonian exile in the 6th century BCE. However, most mainstream scholars find this view to be untenable in light of both archaeology and textual analysis. Scholarship on the dating of the Book of Daniel largely falls into two camps: one dates the book in its entirety to a single author during the desecration of the Jerusalem Temple (167–164 BCE) under the Syrian-Greek ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes (ruled 175–164 BCE); the other sees it as a collection of stories dating from different times throughout the Hellenistic period (with some of the material possibly going back to very late Persian period), with the visions in chapters 7–12 having been added during the desecration of Antiochus. For example, Hartman and Di Lella, 1978 suggest multiple authorship, with some material dating to the 3rd century, culminating with a 2nd-century editor and redactor. Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...


The reasons for these dates include a use of Greek and Persian words in the Hebrew of the text unlikely to happen in the 6th century, that the style of the Hebrew and Aramaic was more like that of a later date, that the use of the word "Chaldean" occurs in a fashion unknown to the 6th century, and that repeated historical gaffes betray an ignorance of the facts of the 6th century that a high official in Babylon would not have, while the 2nd-century history was found to be far more accurate (see Ferrell Till's analysis). Farsi redirects here. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Look up Chaldean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


John Collins, on the other hand, finds it impossible for the "court tales" portion of Daniel to have been written in 2nd century BCE because of textual analysis. In his 1992 Anchor Bible Dictionary entry for the Book of Daniel, he states, "it is clear that the court-tales in chapters 1–6 were 'not written in Maccabean times'. It is not even possible to isolate a single verse which betrays an editorial insertion from that period."


The New Testament

Approximate dates

The most accepted historical understanding of how the Gospels developed is known as the two-source hypothesis. This theory holds that Mark is the oldest gospel. Matthew and Luke are believed to come later, and draw on Mark and also on a source that is now believed to be lost, called the Q document, or just "Q". John is thought by many to be a later work. Some, but not many, conservative scholars reject the two-source hypothesis and say it suffers from a number of weaknesses in terms of historicity and textual issues. [1][2][3] The Two-Source Hypothesis is the most commonly accepted solution to the synoptic problem among biblical scholars, which posits that there are two sources to Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke: the Gospel of Mark and a lost, hypothetical sayings collection called Q. The Two-Source Hypothesis was first... The Q document or Q (from the German Quelle, source) is a postulated lost textual source for the Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke. ...

The Gospel of Mark, anonymous[1] but traditionally ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is a synoptic gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Colossians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Epistle to Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament, written by Paul at Rome about the same time as that to the Colossians, which in many points it resembles. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ... There are three books in the New Testament called Epistles of John: First Epistle of John Second Epistle of John Third Epistle of John This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The brief Epistle of Jude is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... In Christianity, the First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible. ... The Epistle to Philemon is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Epistle to Philippians is a book included in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... The Epistles to the Thessalonians, also known as the Letters to the Thessalonians, are two books from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... For other uses of Timothy, see Timothy (disambiguation). ... The Pastoral Epistles are often considered together, as each throws light upon the others. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...

The Gnostic Scriptures

The Nag Hammadi library, a collection of books found in 1945, some refer to as Gnostic Scriptures (which include the Gospel of Thomas), were not accepted as canonical by Jerome in the 4th century CE. They were written in Coptic and are generally dated to the 3rd and 4th centuries CE, though the Gospel of Thomas has ignited some debate, and scholars argue that it dates from 50 CE(Koester, HDS) to the late 2nd century CE(Miers). The Nag Hammadi library is a collection of early Christian Gnostic texts discovered near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge) that only a few possess. ... The Gospel of Thomas (full name The Gospel According to Thomas (in Coptic, p. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ...


Traditional school

See also Biblical literalism.

In Late Antiquity and throughout the Middle Ages, neither Jewish nor Christian scholars questioned that the Tanakh, and for Christians the New Testament as well, were accurate historical renditions of the events portrayed, written by the traditionally-attributed authors. The only errors acknowledged were minor ones attributable to copyists. Today, such views are largely confined to Orthodox Jewish scholars and evangelical and/or fundamentalist scholars such as Kenneth Kitchen, Gleason Archer, and Bryant G. Wood. Biblical literalism is the supposed adherence to the explicit and literal sense of the Bible. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Emeritus Professor Kenneth A. Kitchen (University of Liverpool publicity photograph, 2006). ... Gleason Leonard Archer (May 22, 1916 – April 27, 2004) was a Biblical scholar, theologian, educator, and author. ... Bryant G. Wood is currently the Creationist Director of the Associates for Biblical Research. ...


Many of the scholars who hold conservative views believe that Torah was written from the mid to late 15th century BCE, on the basis of 1 Kings 6:1. Similarly, they say, the book of Isaiah in its entirety was written by Isaiah himself (as stated in Isaiah 1:1), and that the book of Daniel was written by the court official who lived and worked from the time of Nebuchadnezzar to the first year of Cyrus. Where events and people are mentioned before they happened or were born, they are explained as evidences of God's ability to tell the future in his communication with mankind; this reliance on the supernatural renders the approach essentially irrefutable. Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... (Redirected from 15th century BCE) (16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC - other centuries) (1500s BC - 1490s BC - 1480s BC - 1470s BC - 1460s BC - 1450s BC - 1440s BC - 1430s BC - 1420s BC - 1410s BC - 1400s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... This article is about the Biblical figure called Daniel. ... Nebuchadnezzar (or Nebudchadrezzar) II (ca. ... The name Cyrus (or Kourosh in Persian) may refer to: [[Cyrus I of Anshan]], King of Persia around 650 BC [[Cyrus II of Persia | Cyrus the Great]], King of Persia 559 BC - 529 BC — See also Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition Cyrus the Younger, brother to the Persian king... Falsifiability (or refutability or testability) is the logical possibility that an assertion can be shown false by an observation or a physical experiment. ...


These traditional views went unchallenged down to the emergence of rationalism in the 17th century (see documentary hypothesis). In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ...


In respect of the New Testament, scholars of the traditionalist school such as FF Bruce, Gary Habermas, Norman Geisler, Bruce Metzger, John Wenham, John Warwick Montgomery, and Edwin M. Yamauchi agree with the historically and traditionally recognized dates for the New Testament, such as This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Frederick Fyvie Bruce (1910-1990) was a Bible scholar and one of the founders of the modern evangelical understanding of the Bible. ... Gary Habermas is an American Christian apologist, theologian, and philosopher of religion. ... Dr. Norman L. Geisler is a scholar, contributor to the field of Christian apologetics, and the author or coauthor of some sixty books defending the Christian faith. ... Bruce Metzger pictured on the cover of his autobiography Reminiscences of an Octogenarian Bruce Manning Metzger (born 1914) is a professor emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who serves on the board of the American Bible Society. ... John W. Wenham was a Anglican Bible scholar. ... John Warwick Montgomery was born October 18, 1931 in Warsaw, New York. ... Dr. Edwin M. Yamauchi, born in 1937 in Hilo, Hawaii, is Professor of History at Miami University, Ohio, and has served in that capacity since 1969. ...

  • The first three Gospels, Acts, Paul's Epistles, Hebrews, James, and Peter's Epistles were written in the period between about 50–65 CE.
  • The Gospel of John, John's Epistles, Jude, and Revelation were written between about 85–100 CE.

See also

Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ... The article concerns the historicity of the Bible. ... The synoptic problem concerns the literary relationship between and among the first three canonical gospels (the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke), known as the synoptic gospels. ... Markan priority is the hypothesis that the Gospel of Mark was the first written of the three Synoptic Gospels, and that the two other synoptic evangelists, Matthew and Luke, used Marks Gospel as one of their sources. ... The Dead Sea scrolls consist of roughly 1000 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1979 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West... The Nag Hammadi library is a collection of early Christian Gnostic texts discovered near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Rahlfs nos. 801, 819, and 957
  2. ^ Rahlfs nos. 802, 803, 805, 848, 942, and 943

Further reading

  • Dever, William G. What Did The Biblical Writers Know & When Did They Know It?, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI, USA, 2001.
  • Fox, Robin Lane The Unauthorized Version: Truth and Fiction in the Bible, NY, 1992.
  • Hartman, Louis Francis, and Di Lella, Alexander A. (Ed) The Book of Daniel (Anchor Bible, Vol. 23), Anchor Bible, 1978.
  • Külling, Samuel Zur Datierung der Genesis "P" Stücke PhD dissertation, 1970
  • Pagels, Elaine The Gnostic Gospels, Vintage, reissued 1989.

Elaine Pagels, née Hiesey, (born February 13, 1943), is the Harrington Spear Paine Professor of Religion at Princeton University. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bible - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4486 words)
The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hē biblos) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Word of God, The Word, The Good Book or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βίβλια, (ta) biblia, "(the) books", is the name used by Jews and Christians for their differing (and sometimes overlapping) canons of sacred texts.
Karl Lachmann’s critical edition of 1831, based on manuscripts dating from the fourth century and earlier, was intended primarily to demonstrate that the Textus Receptus must finally be rejected.
The longest verse in the Bible is Esther chapter 8, verse 9.
Dating the Bible - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2330 words)
Since the dating of the authorship of these books depends on the particulars of the deconstruction of the texts, the range of dates assigned to the first five books is rather broad, ranging from the 10th to the 6th centuries BC.
The date of its composition was perhaps some time between 561 BC, the date of the last chapter (2 Kings 25), when Jehoiachin was released from captivity by Evil-merodach, and 538 BC, the date of the decree of deliverance by Cyrus the Great.
They were written in Coptic and are generally dated to the 3rd and 4th centuries CE, though the Gospel of Thomas has ignited some debate, and scholars argue that it dates from 50 CE (Koester, HDS) to the late 2nd century CE (Miers).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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