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Encyclopedia > Date and time notation by country

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Different style conventions and habits exist around the world for dates and times in writing and speaking. Examples: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A date in a calendar is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. ... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • The order that a year, month, and day are written.
  • How weeks are identified.
  • The 24-hour clock and/or the 12-hour clock.
  • The punctuation used to separate elements in all-numeric times.

Conventions for date and time can also differ substantially for writing and speaking. The 24-hour clock is a convention of time keeping in which the day runs from midnight to midnight and is divided into 24 hours, numbered from 0 to 23. ... The 12-hour clock is a timekeeping convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods called ante meridiem (a. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ...


International standard ISO 8601 (also called "metric") defines unambiguous written all-numeric bigendian formats for dates, such as 1999-12-31 for December 31, 1999; and time, such as 23:59:59 for 23 hours, 59 minutes, and 59 seconds (one second before midnight). ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... In computing, endianness is the byte (and sometimes bit) ordering in memory used to represent some kind of data. ...


These standards notations have been adopted by many countries as a national standard (e.g., BS EN 28601 in Britain and other EU countries, ANSI INCITS 30-1997 (R2003) and FIPS PUB 4-2 in the United States) and are, in particular, increasingly widely used in computer applications. On the Internet, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) uses ISO 8601 in defining a profile of the standard that restricts the supported date and time formats to reduce the chance of error and the complexity of software. ... British Standards is the new name of the British Standards Institute and is part of BSI Group which also includes a testing organisation. ... CEN, the European Committee for Standardization or Comité Européen de Normalisation, is a private non-profit organization whose mission is to foster the European economy in global trading, the welfare of European citizens and the environment by providing an efficient infrastructure to interested parties for the development, maintenance and... The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private, non-profit standards organization that produces industrial standards in the United States. ... Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the U.S. Federal government for use by all (non-military) government agencies and by government contractors. ...


Australia

Australia has also signed up to use the ISO 8601 notation through the national standard AS 3802:1997.


Date

The most common written date format in Australia is d/m/yyyy (e.g. 31/12/2006). This is the recommended short date format for government publications [1]. d.m.yyyy is also sometimes used. The first two digits of the year are often omitted in everyday use and on forms (e.g. 31/12/06).


The preferred way of writing a date in full is day month year (e.g. 31 December 2006).


Weeks are most often identified by the last day of the week, either the Friday in business (e.g. "week ending 19/1") or the Sunday in civilian use (e.g. "week ending 21/1"). Week ending is often abbreviated to "W/E" or "W.E.". The first day of the week or the day of an event are sometimes referred to (e.g. "week of 15/1"). Week numbers (as in "the third week of 2007") are not often used but may appear in some business diaries in numeral only form (e.g. "3" at the top or bottom of the page). ISO 8601 week notation (as in 2007-W3) is not widely understood.


Time

The 12-hour notation is the default in Australia. 24-hour notation is limited to internal communications within services and organisations, and in aviation. The 24-hour notation is usually referred to as "army time". The before noon/after noon qualifier is usually written as "am" or "pm". A dot (period) is the preferred time separator [citation needed], however the colon is also common. Thus, a time looks like 3.51 pm or 3:51 pm. The 12-hour clock is a timekeeping convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods called ante meridiem (, Latin for before noon) and post meridiem (, Latin for after noon). Each period consists of 12 hours numbered 12, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7...


Austria, Germany, Switzerland

Date

The traditional all-numeric form of writing Gregorian dates in German is the little-endian day-month-year order, using a dot on the line (period or full stop) as the separator (e.g., “31.12.1991” or “15.4.74”). Some typesetters prefer the space after the second dot to be slightly larger than the first. Years can be written with two or four digits; the century may also be replaced by an apostrophe: “31.12.’91”. Numbers may be written with or without leading zero, but commonly they are only discarded in days when literal months are being used (e.g., “09.11.”, but “9. November”). The use of a dot as a separator matches the convention of pronouncing the day and the month as an ordinal number, because ordinal numbers are written in German followed by a dot. This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... In computing, endianness is the byte (and sometimes bit) ordering in memory used to represent some kind of data. ... A full stop or period (sometimes full point or dot), is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences in English and several other languages. ... In set theory, ordinal, ordinal number, and transfinite ordinal number refer to a type of number introduced by Georg Cantor in 1897, to accommodate infinite sequences and to classify sets with certain kinds of order structures on them. ...


In 1995 in Germany, this traditional notation was replaced in the DIN 5008 standard, which defines common typographic conventions, with the ISO 8601 notation (e.g., “1991-12-31”). The latter is beginning to become popular in some areas, especially computer software, but can not yet be described as very widely used. The expanded form of the date (e.g., “31. Dezember 1991”) continues to use the little-endian order and the ordinal-number dot for the day of the month. ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ...


Week numbers according to ISO 8601 and the convention of starting the week on Monday were introduced in the mid 1970s (DIN 1355). These conventions have been widely adhered to by German calendar publishers since then. Week numbers are prominently printed in calendars and are widely used in the business world. It is common to hear people say “I’m still free in week 36” or to have a company write “We expect delivery in week 49”. In contrast to this, television broadcast weeks continue to start on Saturdays, two days before the DIN 1355 week. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...


Time

In written German, time is expressed practically exclusively in the 24-hour notation (00:00–23:59), using either a colon or a dot on the line as the separators between hours, minutes and seconds. Example: 14:51 or 14.51. The standard separator in Germany was the dot (DIN 1355, DIN 5008) until 1995, when the standards changed it to be the colon, in the interest of compatibility with ISO 8601. The traditional representation with dot allows to drop the leading zero of hours and is usually followed by the literal string “Uhr” (e.g., “6.30 Uhr”). The 24-hour clock is a convention of time-keeping in which the day runs from midnight to midnight and is divided into 24 hours, numbered from 0 to 23 (and 24 in the day-ending midnight). ... This article is about colons in punctuation. ... Look up din in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ...


In spoken language, the 24-hour clock has become the dominant form during the second half of the 20th century, especially for formal announcements and exact points in time. Systematic use of the 24-hour clock by German TV announcers, along with the proliferation of digital clocks, may have been a significant factor in this development. The 24-hour clock is a convention of time keeping in which the day runs from midnight to midnight and is divided into 24 hours, numbered from 0 to 23. ...


A variant of the 12-hour clock is also used, in particular in informal speech for approximate times. On some radio stations, announcers regularly give the current time on both forms, as in "Es ist jetzt vierzehn Uhr einundfünfzig; neun Minuten vor drei" ("It is now fourteen fifty-one; nine minutes to three"). The 12-hour clock is a timekeeping convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods called ante meridiem (a. ...


There are two variants of the 12-hour clock used in spoken German regarding quarterly fractions of the current hour. One always relates to the next full hour, in other words, it names the fraction of the currently passing hour. For example, "dreiviertel drei" (three-quarter three, see table below) stands for "three quarters of the third hour have passed".


The other variant is relative; this one is also used for multiples of five minutes.

Time Absolute Relative
14:00 “zwei Uhr/zwei/um zwei” (two o’clock)
14:05 “fünf nach zwei” (five past two)
14:10 “zehn nach zwei” (ten past two)
14:15 “viertel drei” (quarter three) “viertel nach zwei” (quarter past two)
14:20 “zwanzig nach zwei” (twenty past two) / “zehn vor halb drei” (ten to half three)
14:25 “fünf vor halb drei” (five to half three)
14:30 “halb drei” (half three)
14:35 “fünf nach halb drei” (five past half three)
14:40 “zwanzig vor drei” (twenty to three) / “zehn nach halb drei” (ten past half three)
14:45 "dreiviertel drei" (three-quarter three) “viertel vor/auf drei” (quarter to three)
14:50 “zehn vor drei” (ten to three)
14:55 “fünf vor drei” (five to three)
15:00 "drei Uhr/drei/um drei" (three o’clock)

Note that these phrases are exclusive to the 12-hour clock, just as the "(hour) Uhr (minutes)" format is exclusive to the 24-hour clock.


Belgium

Date

In Belgium, dates are written as:

  • dd/mm/yyyy ("22/10/2007")
  • dd/mm/yy ("22/10/07")
  • fully written out ("22 oktober 2007" in Dutch, or "22 octobre 2007" in French).

Time

In written language, time is expressed exclusively in the 24-hour notation using a colon in the middle. For example: 22:51.


In spoken and informal language, the 12-hour clock is still mostly used though. However, "am" or "pm" is never used. Instead, people use a sentence to make it clear (for instance "om 9 uur 's avonds", meaning litterally "at 9 o'clock in the evening").


Canada

Canada has signed up to use the ISO 8601 format for date and time through national standard CSA Z234.5:1989. ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ...


Date

In spite of the above attempted "metrication" (SI) of Canada, approximately equally common are the traditional formats of date-month-year, the style from Britain, and month-date-year, the style from the United States. The former sometimes is recommended for government publications (e.g. 31/12/2006). In more casual use, the first two digits of the year are often omitted (e.g. 31/12/06), though that has caused further confusion starting with 1 January 2000, since such a date could be confused three ways instead of the previous two ways. For example, 01/02/03 could be British "1 February 2003", US "January 2, 2003"; or SI "2001 February 3". Using the international standard for all-numeric dates, with the full year first, is always clearly neither of the other two.


Time

In Canada, similar to the United States, the 12-hour clock is used in ordinary life by the English-speaking population. French speakers in Quebec, however, often use the 24-hour clock. The 24-hour clock is also routinely used in health care settings, such as hospitals, as well as airports and the military. The 24-hour clock is also called "metric time", as it was promoted in the late 1970s, when Canada adopted metric measurements, though some sectors continue to resist change. This article is about the Canadian province. ... Metrication or metrification refers to the introduction of the SI metric system as the international standard for physical measurements—a long-term series of independent and systematic conversions from the various separate local systems of weights and measures. ...


East Africa

Time

In many East African languages, the start of the daily time system is at dawn, not midnight. [citation needed] Thus, what would be seven O'Clock in the morning in English becomes one O'Clock in the morning in Swahili and other East African languages. This also affects the date: the whole night is the same date as the preceding day. For example, Tuesday does not become Wednesday until morning breaks, rather than changing at midnight. For multi-lingual speakers in East Africa, the convention is to use the time system applicable to the language one happens to be speaking at the time. A person speaking of an early morning event is, in English, would report that it happened at eight O'Clock, however in repeating the same facts in Swahili, would state that the events occurred at "saa mbili" (two O'Clock). [2][3] Map showing the distribution of African language families and some major African languages. ... Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see Kiswahili for a discussion of the nomenclature) is an agglutinative Bantu language widely spoken in East Africa. ...


Ethiopia

Time

In Ethiopia, a 12-hour clock is still used that counts 12, 1, 2, ..., 10, 11 from dawn till dusk, and again 12, 1, 2, ..., 10, 11 from dusk to dawn. Unlike the convention in most countries, the start of the day is dawn, rather than midnight. Dawn in Peng Chau, Hong Kong. ... Dusk in Breaux Bridge, Louisiana, USA. Dusk outside a plane on cruise. ...


France

Date

In France, the all-numeric form for dates is in the order day-month-year, using a slash as the separator. Example: 31/12/1992 or 31/12/92. Years can be written with two or four digits, and numbers may be written with or without leading zero. When three-lettered months are used, juin (June) and juillet (July) are abbreviated as JUN and JUL respectively. Due to technical limitations, /. redirects here. ...


Time

The 24-hour notation is used in writing with an h as a separator (h for heure, meaning hour). Example: 14 h 05 (1405 [14:05] hours or 2:05 pm). Though the correct form includes spaces on both sides of the h, it is common to see them omitted: 14h05. The minutes are usually written with two digits; the hour numbers can be written with or without leading zero.


Greater China

Date

The date format follows the Chinese hierarchical system, which has traditionally been big-endian. Consequently, it agrees with ISO 8601 — year first, month next, and day last. Example: 2006-01-29. The hyphen is often replaced with other separators, such as a dot or a forward slash. Example: 2006.01.29. A leading zero is optional in practice. Chinese characters that mean year, month, and day are often used as separators too. Example: 2006年01月29日. In computing, endianness is the byte (and sometimes bit) ordering in memory used to represent some kind of data. ...


Since the characters clearly label the date, the year may be abbreviated to two digits when this format is used. The exception to this guideline is in Taiwan, where a separate calendar system is used, with years numbered to the founding of the Republic of China in 1912. Thus, the year 2006 corresponds to the "95th year of the Republic" or in Chinese Minguo 95 (民國95年). In official contexts, this system is always used, while in informal contexts, the Gregorian calendar is sometimes used. To avoid confusion, the Gregorian year is always written out in full in Taiwan. Example: 95.01.29 refers to 2006-01-29, not 1995-01-29 (which would be rendered as 84.01.29). Another means to distinguish between the two systems is to append the terms Gongyuan (公元, common era) and Minguo (民國, Republic) before the year. Example: 2006 is rendered as either 公元2006年 or 民國95年. For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


The day of the week is often appended to the date and commonly enclosed in parentheses. Example: 2006年01月29日 (星期天). This article is about days of the week. ...


In speech, the date is spoken in the same format as it is written. Using the previous example: 2006 (èrlínglíngliù) 年 (nián) 01 (yī) 月 (yuè) 29 (èrshíjiǔ) 日 (rì) 星期天 (xīngqītiān).


Haò (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ) is a colloquial term used to express the day of the month instead of rì (Chinese: ). It is rarely used in formal writing. Using the previous example: 2006 (èrlínglíngliù) 年 (nián) 01 (yī) 月 (yuè) 29 (èrshíjiǔ) 號 (haò) 星期天 (xīngqītiān). Haò is more often used when the month is understood from the context, i.e.: 29號 for the 29th. Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ...


Dates written in Hong Kong and Macau are often formatted in the DD.MM.YYYY style due to European influences. Nonetheless, the Chinese form of the dates is still read in the same way as described above.


Time

Both the 12-hour and 24-hour notations are used in spoken and written Chinese. However, to avoid confusion, time on schedules and public notices are typically formatted in the 24-hour system. Example: 19:45. Chinese characters that mean hour (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: shí) and minute (Chinese: ; pinyin: fēn) are sometimes used instead of the standard colon. Example: 19時45分. 正 (zhèng) is used to mean exactly on the hour. Example: 19時正. Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


It is not uncommon to see Chinese numerals instead of Arabic numbers, but tourist attractions will usually use Arabic numerals for the convenience of foreigners. Chinese numerals are characters for writing numbers in Chinese. ...


Spoken Chinese predominantly uses the 12-hour system and follows the same concept as A.M. (上午 shàngwŭ) and P.M. (下午 xiàwŭ). However, shàngwŭ and xiàwŭ precede the time. Example: 下午7:45 or 下午7點45分 (xiàwǔ qī diǎn sìshíwǔ fēn). Diǎn (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ) is a variation of shí and typically used in speech and often in writing. Zhōng (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ), which literally means clock, can be added to a time phrase, usually when it contains either only hours or only minutes. Example: 7點鐘 or 12分鐘. If the number of minutes is less than ten, the preceding zero is included in speech. Example: 上午8:05 (shàngwŭ bādiǎn língwǔfēn). Time written in the 24-hour system can be read as is. Example: 19:45 (shíjiǔdiǎn sìshíwǔfēn). Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ...


A sample of other phrases that are often used to better describe the time-frame of day are listed below:

Traditional Simplified Pinyin Meaning
凌晨 língchén approaching morning/dawn (from midnight to before dawn)
早上 zaǒshàng morning (from dawn to about 9:00 or 10:00)
上午 shàngwŭ day before noon (from 9:00 or 10:00 to noon); also used in computer systems (e.g., Windows) to denote "a.m."
中午 or 正午 zhōngwŭ or zhèngwŭ midday/noon (from 12:00 to 12:59)
下午 xiàwŭ day after noon (from 13:00 to before dusk); also used in computer systems (e.g., Windows) to denote "p.m."
傍晚 bàngwǎn approaching evening/night (from dusk to about 20:00 or 21:00)
晚上 wǎnshàng evening/night (from 20:00 or 21:00 to midnight)

Examples: 1. ... 1. ...

03:00 = 淩晨3點 (língchén sān diǎn) or 淩晨3點鐘 (língchén sān diǎnzhōng)
19:00 = 傍晚7點 (bàngwǎn qī diǎn) or 傍晚7點鐘 (bàngwǎn qī diǎnzhōng)
Note: These phrases that describe the time-frame of day are used only with the 12-hour system.

Time can alternatively be expressed as a fraction of the hour in speech. A traditional Chinese unit of time, the (kè), was 1/96 of the 24-hour day cycle or 15 minutes, equivalent to "quarter of an hour" in English. A quarter-after is 一刻 (yī kè) or 過一刻 (guò yī kè), which literally mean "one kè" or "one kè past", respectively. A quarter-to is 差一刻 (chā yī kè), which literally means "one kè less". 半 (bàn), which means half, is used in conjunction with the relative hour to mean "at the half-hour". Examples: Ke (刻) is a traditional decimal time unit equalling 14. ...

6:45 = 7點差一刻 (qī diǎn chā yī kè) or 差一刻7點 (chā yī kè qī diǎn)
8:15 = 8點一刻 (bādiǎn duō yīkè)
9:30 = 9點半 (jiǔdiǎn bàn)

Attention must be drawn to the time 02:00. It is written as 2時 (èr shí) but almost always read as 兩點 (liǎng diǎn). The number two, 二 (èr), takes the form of 兩 (liǎng) when followed by a measure word, in this case, 點 (diǎn). Note that this does not apply to 12:00. Noon is 12點鐘 (shí èr diǎnzhōng) or 正午 (zhèngwŭ) or 午時 (wŭshí). Midnight, on the other hand, is 淩晨12點鐘 (língchén shí èr diǎnzhōng) or 零時 (língshí), which literally means zero hour. In the Chinese languages, measure words or classifiers (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Cantonese (Yale): leung4 chi4) are used along with numerals to define the quantity of a given object or objects, or with this/that to identify specific objects. ...


Cantonese has an additional method of expressing time as a fraction of the hour. This system divides the hour into 12 units, each five minutes long. Each unit, therefore, corresponds to one of the numbers written on an analogue clock. The character for this unit is uncertain since it is only used in speech, however the Cantonese pronunciation is ji6 and homonymous to the character 字 (zì, Cantonese: ji6). This method can be used in two ways - with the relative hour and without. When the relative hour is included, the unit must be preceded with the measure word 個 (ge, Cantonese: go3). Example: 3:05 is 3點1個字 (sāndiǎn yīgezì, Cantonese: saam1 dim2 yat1 go3 ji6). When the relative hour is not included, the unit is omitted as well; the position of the minute hand is described instead, using the verb 踏 (tà, Cantonese: daap6), which means "resting on top of" in this context. Examples: This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... In the Chinese languages, measure words or classifiers (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Cantonese (Yale): leung4 chi4) are used along with numerals to define the quantity of a given object or objects, or with this/that to identify specific objects. ...

five-after = 踏1 (tà yī, Cantonese: daap6 yat1)
ten-after = 踏2 (tà èr, Cantonese: daap6 yi6)
fifteen-to = 踏9 (tà jiǔ, Cantonese: daap6 gau2)
ten-to = 踏10 (tà shí, Cantonese: daap6 sup6)

The half-hour mark is never described using this unit of five minutes, however. 3:30 is still 3點半 (sāndiǎn bàn, Cantonese: saam1 dim2 bun3), as previously described. Half-past the hour is 踏半 (tàbàn, Cantonese: daap6 bun3).


Hungary

Date

Date is traditionally expressed in big endian form, like ISO-8601. Numeric date elements are followed by a dot. There may be a space between numeric elements. Date "2007. 02. 01." is an example. "YYYY. <month name> D." format is commonly used, like "2007. február 1.", or with the abbriveted form of the month (február -> feb.). ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ...


The month often used to be written with Roman numbers. In this case the year can be omitted, like "V. 11.". Nowadays, especially in computing, the colon is used between time elements.


If a weekday is included, it is put after the date, like "2007. május 11., péntek" (Friday, May 11, 2007). Week and month names are not capitalized.


Pronunciation of the date 1975. július 31. is "ezerkilencszázhetvenöt július harmincegy" (thousand-ninehundred-seventy-five July thirty-one).


As year and day numbers in Hungarian are ordinal numbers, they are always followed by a dot. Though, they are said as cardinal numbers (see examples above). A full stop or period (sometimes stop, full point or dot), is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences in English and many other languages. ...


Time

Like in most countries, the 24-hour clock is used in formal and 12-hour clock in informal contexts. 24-hour time format is HH:MM (like 15:26). For 12-hour clock, time of day is used before the time (as used verbally: e.g. morning (reggel), before noon (délelőtt), after noon (délután), evening (este), night (éjjel), dawn (hajnal)). These periods are not exact, and they can overlap. Noon is often said as "déli 12 óra" (12 o'clock at noon), while 0:00 is only said as "éjfél" (midnight).


24-hour format is also used infomally, if one wants to be exact. AM and PM are not known in Hungary.


India

ISO 8601 has been adopted as Indian Standard IS 7900:2001 (Data elements and interchange formats - Information interchange – Representation of dates and times - first revision) The BIS logo The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the National Standards Body of India is involved in the development of technical standards (popularly known as Indian Standards), product quality and management system certifications and consumer affairs. ...


Date

In India, dates in astrology or religious purposes are written in a year-month-day format. This order is also found while reading dates in South Indian languages. (For example, 15th August 1947 would be read in Tamil as 1947 ஆம் ஆண்டு ஆகஸ்ட்(August) 15 ஆம் நாள்.) Whereas, north Indian languages, notably Hindi, follow a day-month-year format for reading the dates (15th August 1947 will be read as 15 अगस्त (August) सन 1947). However, in written form, it is traditionally in day-month-year order, using a slash or hyphen as the separator. This order is used in both the traditional all-numeric date (e.g., "31/12/99" or "31-12-99") as well as in the expanded form (e.g., "31 December 1999"). Sometimes, the ordinal number for the day before the month is written down (e.g. 31st December 1999). When saying the date, it is usually pronounced by the ordinal number of the day first then the word "of" then the month (e.g. 31st of December 1999). The use of its big-endian date notation is not very prelevant. Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ...


The beginning of the week is commonly considered to be Monday.


Time

Both the 12-hour and 24-hour notations are widely used in India. The 12-hour notation is still widely used in ordinary life, written communication and displays and continues to be used in informal spoken language. The 24-hour notation is used on timetables in Indian Railways, airports, TV schedules and some written communication. The usage of the 24-hour notation is becoming more common. A colon is widely used to separate hours, minutes and seconds (e.g., 10:00:15). Indian Railways (Hindi भारतीय रेल), abbreviated as IR, is a Department of the Government of India, under the Ministry of Railways, and is tasked with operating the rail network in India. ...


Ireland

Date

In Ireland, the date is written in the order day-month-year, with the separator as a slash, dot, hyphen, or just left blank. Years can be written with two or four digits. Examples:

  • 31/12/1992 or 31/12/92;
  • 31.12.1992 or 31.12.92;
  • 31-12-1992 or 31-12-92;
  • 31 12 1992 or 31 12 92;

"31 December 1992" is also used.


The week begins on Monday in Ireland.


Time

The 24-hour notation is commonly used in text (e.g., timetables, newspapers, etc.) and is written "14:05" or "14.05". When 12-hour notation is used, it is written the same way, as "2:05PM" or "2.05PM". "AM" or "PM" can be written as either "AM/PM", "A.M./P.M.", "A.M/P.M", "am/pm", "a.m./p.m.", or "a.m/p.m". It can be written directly after the time (e.g., 2:05PM) or one space after (e.g., 2:05 PM).


When talking about the time, it is usually said in traditional 12-hour format.


Examples:

  • 14:00 is said as "two O'Clock", "two", or "two (O'Clock) in the afternoon".
  • 14:01 - 14:14 is said as "... past two" (e.g., 14:10 is said as "ten past two").
  • 14:15 is said as "quarter past two".
  • 14:16 - 14:29 is said as "... past two" (e.g., 14:25 is said as "twenty-five past two").
  • 14:30 is said as "half past two" or "half two".
  • 14:31 - 14:44 is said as "... to three" (e.g., 14:35 is said as "twenty-five to three").
  • 14:45 is said as "quarter to three".
  • 14:46 - 14:59 is said as "... to three" (e.g., 14:55 is said as "five to three").

In addition to this, the system of saying the exact time (e.g., 14:55 is said as "two fifty-five" or "fourteen fifty-five") is also widely used.


People in Ireland commonly juggle using both systems of time.


Norway

Date

Norway uses two date systems:

  • D.MM.YYYY (e.g., 24.12.2006 for Christmas Eve, or 1.5.2006 for Labour Day) is by far the most common system, and is the one recommended by Norwegian Language Council. Dots are the most common separator, although you still see slash and hyphen (especially in handwriting): 24/12-2005.
  • YYYY-MM-DD (the ISO 8601-standard) is used to some extent in official documents and in computer related materials.

Week numbering is also very common both written and orally, albeit less so in private life. Norsk språkråd (The Norwegian Language Council) is the Norwegian governments advisory body in matters pertaining to the Norwegian language and language planning. ... ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ...


The week always begins on Mondays and ends on Sundays.


Time

Written time is almost always in the 24-hour clock. In spoken language, a mixture of the two systems are used: The 24-hour clock is a convention of time keeping in which the day runs from midnight to midnight and is divided into 24 hours, numbered from 0 to 23. ...

  • When giving exact times, or when speaking in official settings (radio, TV, etc.), the 24-hour clock is always used.
  • When speaking informally, the 12-hour clock is often used. Minutes are usually rounded off to the nearest five minutes, and are given according to the closest half hour period: «Klokka er ti på halv fire» («the clock is ten to half four», i.e., 15:20) and «klokka er fem over halv sju» («the clock is five past half seven», i.e., 18:35).

There are two ways of pronouncing numbers: The 12-hour clock is a timekeeping convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods called ante meridiem (a. ...

  • The "modern", standard counting: «Klokka er tjueto» («The clock is twentytwo»). The modern variant is used in all official radio programmes and when speaking officially.
  • The traditional counting: «Klokka er toogtjue» («The clock is twoandtwenty»). The traditional variant is often used in more informal settings.

Many numbers also have different pronunciations depending on dialect (for instance «tjue» and «tyve»).


Serbia

Date

Serbian language uses either all-numeric form of dates in the little-endian date-month-year order, or the same order in which numerical month is replaced with its literal name. The dot is used as a separator, and matches the convention of pronouncing day, month and year as ordinal numbers (31.12.2006.). Note that dot is placed after the year as well. Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...


Years can be written either with four or two digits, and in the latter case, century is usually replaced with an apostrophe (31.12.’06.). Leading zero is rarely used, and in those cases which are considered bad practice, only with months (6.05.2006.). When literal names of the months are used they are not capitalized, and the four-digit format for the year is always used (31. decembar 2006.).


Day of the week always precedes the date (nedelja, 31.12.2006.), is separated by comma, but can be abbreviated to the first three letters, which are then capitalized (NED, 31.12.06.) – note that in that case, the shortest date format is used. Starting day of the week is Monday, and the weekend falls on Saturday and Sunday.


Weeks are rarely referred to by their order in the year, although they are always printed in large format calendars, typically the number of a week in the month is used (third week in March, instead of week 12).


Time

The 24-hour clock is almost exclusively used in writing, while spoken language is dominated by the 12-hour clock, usually without noting whether the hour is AM or PM – that information is derived from the context. However, when time of the day needs to be emphasized, somewhat complicated system is in use, since AM/PM are not known to Serbian language:

  • 8 AM - 10 AM – ujutru (morning) (i.e. 8 ujutru means 8 AM)
  • 10 AM - 12 PM – pre podne (before noon)
  • 1 PM - 6 PM – posle podne or short popodne (afternoon)
  • 7 PM - 11 PM – uveče (evening)
  • 11 PM - 3 AM – noću (in the night)

Note that certain periods overlap, and are given roughly, since this colloquial use of the language is not regulated and is mostly customary. Literal names for midnight (ponoć) and noon (podne) are often used instead of numerical 12 O'Clock.


In written Serbian, time is expressed by the 24-hour notation, using colon as a separator. Incorrect use of dot rarely occurs, usually in brochures or leaflets with minimalistic design. For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ...


In spoken language, when one is telling the time between full and half hour (i.e. 14:00-14:29), a reference is made to the past full hour. Once the half hour has passed (14:30-14:59), two variants can be used – one referring to the previous, and another to the following full hour. Latter variant is more frequently used.

Hour Common reading Alternative
14:00 dva sata (two o’clock) dva posle podne (two (o’clock) in the afternoon)
14:05 dva i pet (two and five)
14:10 dva i deset (two and ten)
14:15 dva i petnaest (two and fifteen)
14:20 dva i dvadeset (two and twenty)
14:25 dva i dvadeset pet (two and twenty five)
14:30 pola tri (half three) dva i trideset (two and thirty)
14:35 dvadeset pet do tri (twenty five to three) dva i trideset pet (two and thirty five)
14:40 dvadeset do tri (twenty to three) dva i četrdeset (two and forty)
14:45 petnaest do tri (fifteen to three) dva i četrdeset pet (two and forty five)
14:50 deset do tri (ten to three) dva i pedeset (two and fifty)
14:55 pet do tri (five to three) dva i pedeset pet (two and fifty five)
15:00 tri sata (three o’clock) tri posle podne (three (o’clock) in the afternoon)

In very formal speech, designations hours and minutes are added, while reference is made only to the previous hour, i.e. 14:45 would be dva sata i četrdeset pet minuta (two hours and forty five minutes), or sometimes even in 24-hour format, četrnaest časova i četrdeset pet minuta (fourteen hours and forty five minutes).


Also, when speaking about the present hour in the second half of the hour, the following hour is sometimes omitted from the phrase in colloquial speech, i.e. in reference to 14:45 instead of saying petnaest do tri (fifteen to three), one could say just petnaest do (fifteen to).


Sweden

Date

In Sweden, the ISO 8601 standard is closely followed in most written Swedish. Dates are generally and officially written for example "2006-12-31", but the older forms "31/12-2006", "31/12 2006", "31/12-06", or "31/12/06" are frequently seen informally. The long form as in "31 December 2006" is also sometimes used in writing and almost always in speech (although the date is pronounced as an ordinal number). Both in the older short forms and the long form, written and spoken, the year is often left out. Numbering of weeks are frequently used in companies and schools and are simply expressed as in "(vecka) 32" ((week) 32) in both writing and speech. On labels and in computers' notation, the year may also be included, as in "2006W32". As in the ISO standard, the week begins with a Monday and week 1 is the week containing the year's first Thursday. ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ...


Time

Times are written without notable exceptions with the 24-hour clock, with periods as separators (colons are sometimes seen as an international influence), although seconds are usually left out. Example: 23.59, or sometimes 23.59.00. In spoken Swedish however, the 12-hour clock is much more common. Usually time is expressed in 5-minute intervals (rounded so that it can be evenly divided by 5) like this: <the hour>, <5, 10 or 20 [minutes]> <past, to> <the hour/the following hour>, a quarter <past, to> <the hour/following hour>, half <the following hour> or five <past, to> half <the following hour>. More accurately like this: <1-29 [minutes]> past <the hour>, half <the following hour> or <29-1 [minutes]> to <the following hour>. In these styles, the word for "minutes" is usually but not always left out. Finally the written notation can be pronounced as is: <the hour> <the minute>, although this isn't very common in everyday conversation. The 24-hour time is always applied on the last form, may be applied to the second form and is never used with rounded time as in the first form. Seconds are very seldom expressed at all in speech. Example: 14:27 may be pronounced as "tre minuter i halv tre" (three minutes to half three), "tjugosju (minuter) över två/fjorton" (twenty seven (minutes) past two/fourteen), or, most commonly: "fjorton och tjugosju" (fourteen and twenty seven). 16:00 may be pronounced as "fyra" (four) or "sexton" (sixteen). The 24-hour clock is a convention of time keeping in which the day runs from midnight to midnight and is divided into 24 hours, numbered from 0 to 23. ... The 12-hour clock is a timekeeping convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods called ante meridiem (a. ...


Thailand

Thailand also adopted ISO 8601 under national standard: TIS 1111:2535 in 1992. ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ...


Date

Thailand mainly uses the Buddhist Era which is 543 years ahead of the Gregorian year. The year AD 2006 is indicated as 2549 BE in Thailand. The Thai solar, or Suriyakati (&#3626;&#3640;&#3619;&#3636;&#3618;&#3588;&#3605;&#3636;), calendar is used in traditional and official contexts in Thailand, although the Western calendar is sometimes used in business. ...


Time

In Thailand, next to the 12-hour and 24-hour clock system, a 6-hour clock system is also used, especially in spoken language. It counts 4 times from 1 to 6, with different additional words to make the distinction for night, morning, afternoon, and evening. Thais use two systems for telling the time: the 24-hour clock and the traditional Thai six hour clock. ...


Turkey

Date

Dates are written in the form DD/MM/YYYY, or "DD <name of the month> YYYY". It is rare to use abbreviations for names of months.


Time

Turkey uses the 24-hour clock system. In informal speech, however, the 12-hour system is more commonly used.


United Kingdom

Date

Dates are written traditionally in day-month-year order, using a slash as the separator. This order is used in both the traditional all-numeric date (e.g., "31/12/99") as well as in the expanded form (e.g., "31 December 1999"). Sometimes the ordinal number for the day before the month is written down (e.g. 31st December 1999). When saying the date, it is usually pronounced by the ordinal number of the day first then the word "of" then the month (e.g. 31st of December 1999). Although ISO 8601 has been adopted as British Standard BS EN 28601, the use of its big-endian date notation remains mostly restricted to specialist use (e.g., use-by dates on medical products) and computer applications. British Standards is the new name of the British Standards Institute and is part of BSI Group which also includes a testing organisation. ...


Weeks are generally referred to by the date on which they start, e.g., "week commencing 5 March". In business, the beginning of the week is usually considered to be Monday; but in private life Sunday is often preferred.


Time

Both the 12-hour and 24-hour notations are used in the United Kingdom. The 12-hour notation is still widely used in ordinary life, written communication and displays, and continues to be used in informal spoken language. The 24-hour notation is used in timetables and in some written communication. The 24-hour notation is used more often than in the United States, but not quite as commonly as in much of the non-English speaking world. To separate hours and minutes, either a dot (e.g. 10.00 pm) or a colon (22:00) can be used. To separate hours, minutes and seconds, a colon (22:00:15) is normally used.


United States

Date

The United States is perhaps the only country in which dates are written in the month-day-year order, that is, in neither descending or ascending order of significance. (In computing, this would be called a "middle-endian" order.) This order is used in both the traditional all-numeric date (e.g., "12/31/99") (said with all cardinal numbers) as well as in the expanded form (e.g., "December 31, 1999") (said with the year as a cardinal number and the day as an ordinal number e.g. "December thirty-first, nineteen ninety-nine), with the historical rationale that it is indeed big-endian with respect to the month and day, as the year was often of lesser importance. The most commonly used separator in the all-numeric form is the slash, though the hyphen is also common. Dots have also emerged in both formats recently -- for example, in movie trailers and on NBC Today since February 31, 2006. When integers or any other data are represented with multiple bytes, there is no unique way of ordering of those bytes in memory or in a transmission over some medium, and so the order is subject to arbitrary convention. ... When integers or any other data are represented with multiple bytes, there is no unique way of ordering of those bytes in memory or in a transmission over some medium, and so the order is subject to arbitrary convention. ... Due to technical limitations, /. redirects here. ... This article is about the punctuation mark. ... Today (commonly referred to as The Today Show) is a morning news and talk show airing on the NBC television network in the United States. ... This article is about February 30 and 31 as non-existent dates. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


If the day-month-year order is used at all, the month is usually written as a name, as in "12-Dec-1999". The exceptions to this rule are the I-94 cards and new customs declaration cards used for people entering the United States where passengers are requested to write pertinent dates in the numeric dd-mm-yy format. The day-month-year format is also used widely for military communications.


The ISO 8601 date notation YYYY-MM-DD is beginning to become popular in some computer applications. It may be considered less of a break with tradition by U.S. users (compared to Europeans) because it preserves the familiar month-day order. Two US standards mandate the use of ISO 8601-like formats: ANSI INCITS 30-1997 (R2003) and NIST FIPS PUB 4-2, the earliest is traceable back to 1968. ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ...


Weeks are generally referred to by the date of some day within that week (e.g. "the week of March 5"), rather than by a week number. Calendars mostly show Sunday as the first day of the week.


Time

The United States differs from other countries in that it uses 12-hour notation almost exclusively, not only in spoken language, but also in writing, even on timetables, for airline tickets, and with some computer software. The suffix "a.m." or "p.m." is appended universally in written language. Where this is inconvenient typographically (e.g., in dense tables), different fonts or colors are sometimes used instead of a.m./p.m. Due to ambiguity of the 12-hour notation at noon and especially midnight, events are sometimes scheduled at "11:59 p.m." instead of 12:00 a.m. to remove ambiguity. Alternatively, people might specify "noon" or "midnight", after or instead of 12:00. (Business events, which are increasingly scheduled using groupware calendar applications such as Microsoft Outlook, avoid such ambiguity, since the software itself takes care of the naming conventions.) The 12-hour clock is a timekeeping convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods called ante meridiem (, Latin for before noon) and post meridiem (, Latin for after noon). Each period consists of 12 hours numbered 12, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7...


The 24-hour notation is rarely used so far in the U.S. in public communication. It is best known there for its use by the military, and therefore commonly called "military time". In U.S. military use, 24-hour time is traditionally written without a colon (1800 instead of 18:00) and in spoken language followed by the word "hours" (e.g., "eighteen hundred hours"). The 24-hour notation is also widely used by astronomers and some other communities (public safety, transport, aerospace) where exact and unambiguous communication of time is critical. It is also widely used with computers, but less commonly with applications targeted at non-specialist end users. The 24-hour clock is a convention of time-keeping in which the day runs from midnight to midnight and is divided into 24 hours, numbered from 0 to 23 (and 24 in the day-ending midnight). ...


Some style guides and most people suggest not to use a leading zero with a single-digit hour; for example, "3:52 p.m." is preferred over "03:52 p.m.". Many digital clocks nevertheless use a leading zero. (The leading zero is more commonly used with the 24-hour notation; especially in computer applications because it can help to maintain column alignment in tables and correct sorting order, and also because it helps to highlight the 24-hour character of the given time.)


Times of day ending in :00 minutes may be pronounced in English as the numbered hour followed by o'clock (e.g., 10:00 ten o'clock, 2:00 two o'clock, 4:00 four o'clock, etc.). This may be followed by the a.m. or p.m. designator, or might not be, if obvious. O'clock itself may be omitted, leaving a time like four a.m. or four p.m.. :01 through :09 are usually pronounced as oh one through oh nine. :10 through :59 are their usual number-words.


Times of day from :01 to :29 minutes past the hour are commonly pronounced with the words "after" or "past", for example 10:17 being "seventeen after ten" or "seventeen past ten". :15 minutes is very commonly called "quarter after" or "quarter past" and :30 minutes universally "half past", e.g. 4:30, "half past four". Times of day from :31 to :59 are, by contrast, given subtractively with the words "to", "of", "until", or "'til": 12:55 would be pronounced as "5 'til 1" or "5 of 1". :45 minutes is pronounced as "quarter to", "quarter of", "quarter until", or "quarter 'til".


Other regions

Date

In terms of dates, most countries still use the day-month-year format. Although they occasionally write it down and say it in the month-day-year format, usually with the day being an ordinal number. The exception is the Philippines where the format is similar to the United States and Canada except that the day is pronounced as a cardinal number but in written communications, it sometimes uses the day-month-year format as well slightly more commonly than the United States and Canada.


Time

The 24-hour clock enjoys broad everyday usage in most African, Asian, Oceanic, European, and many Latin American countries. When a time is written down or displayed, the 24-hour notation is used in these countries almost exclusively. The 12-hour clock remains dominant in some Southeast Asian countries and is used commonly in informal language in some regions, while, for example, most German, French and Romanian speakers use the 24-hour clock today even when speaking casually. In other English-speaking regions, particularly former colonies of the United Kingdom, the 12-hour and 24-hour are used interchangeably in formal communications. The 12-hour clock is a timekeeping convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods called ante meridiem (a. ...


It is not uncommon that the same person would use the 24-hour notation in spoken language when referring to an exact point in time ("The train leaves at fourteen forty-five …"), while using some variant of the 12-hour notation to refer vaguely to a time ("… so I will be back tonight sometime after five."). People are used to converting between the two notations without requiring mental arithmetic, and most perceive "three O'Clock" and "15:00" simply as synonyms. Elementary arithmetic is the most basic kind of mathematics: it concerns the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. ...


See also

The 12-hour clock is a timekeeping convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods called ante meridiem (a. ... The 24-hour clock is a convention of time keeping in which the day runs from midnight to midnight and is divided into 24 hours, numbered from 0 to 23. ... In the United Kingdom, continental time refers to a time-keeping system used on the continent of Europe, either the 24-hour clock, or the Central European Time zone. ... ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Thais use two systems for telling the time: the 24-hour clock and the traditional Thai six hour clock. ... This article is about the language. ...

References

  1. ^ Page 171, Style Manual for Authors Editors and Printers (6th Ed.), Commonwealth of Australia, 2002, Wiley, ISBN 0-7016-3648-3
  2. ^ Erickson, Helen L. and Marianne Gustafsson, "TIME - KISWAHILI GRAMMAR NOTES - Time: Saa Ngapi?", The Kamusi Project - The Internet Living Swahili Dictionary, Yale Program in African Languages
  3. ^ Ali, Hassan O., "Useful Swahili Words: Time", Swahili Language & Culture.

 
 

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