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Encyclopedia > Data storage device
Many different consumer electronic devices can store data.
Edison cylinder phonograph ca. 1899. The Phonograph cylinder is a storage medium. The phonograph may or may not be considered a storage device.
A reel-to-reel tape recorder (Sony TC-630). The magnetic tape is a data storage medium. The recorder is data storage equipment using a portable medium (tape reel) to store the data.
Crafting tools such as paint brushes can be used as data storage equipment. The paint and canvas can be used as data storage media.
RNA might be the oldest data storage medium [1], now replaced by DNA in most organisms.

A data storage device is a device for recording (storing) information (data). Recording can be done using virtually any form of energy, spanning from manual muscle power in handwriting, to acoustic vibrations in phonographic recording, to electromagnetic energy modulating magnetic tape and optical discs. Download high resolution version (1039x806, 262 KB)Common personal storage devices that can be used to carry computer data. ... Download high resolution version (1039x806, 262 KB)Common personal storage devices that can be used to carry computer data. ... Edison cylinder phonograph, from de wikipedia GFDL according to de wikipedia. ... Edison cylinder phonograph, from de wikipedia GFDL according to de wikipedia. ... Download high resolution version (800x790, 72 KB)Image of a reel-to-reel recorder, taken by myself. ... Download high resolution version (800x790, 72 KB)Image of a reel-to-reel recorder, taken by myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 810 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 810 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Thymine and Uracil were incorrectly depicted in the previous version. ... Image File history File links Thymine and Uracil were incorrectly depicted in the previous version. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Historical records of events have been made for thousands of years in one form or another. ...


A storage device may hold information, process information, or both. A device that only holds information is a recording medium. Devices that process information (data storage equipment) may either access a separate portable (removable) recording medium or a permanent component to store and retrieve information.


Electronic data storage is storage which requires electrical power to store and retrieve that data. Most storage devices that do not require vision and a brain to read data fall into this category. Electromagnetic data may be stored in either an analog or digital format on a variety of mediums. This type of data is considered to be electronically encoded data, whether or not it is electronically stored in a semiconductor device, for it is certain that a semiconductor device was used to record it on its medium. Most electronically processed data storage media (including some forms of computer data storage) are considered permanent (non-volatile) storage, that is, the data will remain stored when power is removed from the device. In contrast, most electronically stored information within most types of semiconductor (computer chips) microcircuits are volatile memory, for it vanishes if power is removed. In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret information from visible light reaching the eyes. ... An analog or analogue signal is any time continuous signal where some time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. ... For other uses, see Digital (disambiguation). ... The term machine-readable or computer-readable refers to information encoded in a form which can be read or understood by a machine / computer and interpreted by hardware and / or software. ... A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. ... 1 GiB of SDRAM mounted in a personal computer. ... 1 GiB of SDRAM mounted in a personal computer. ... Volatile memory refers to computer memory that must be powered to maintain its data. ...


With the exception of barcodes and OCR data, electronic data storage is easier to revise and may be more cost effective than alternative methods due to smaller physical space requirements and the ease of replacing (rewriting) data on the same medium. However, the durability of methods such as printed data is still superior to that of most electronic storage media. The durability limitations may be overcome with the ease of duplicating (backing-up) electronic data. For the taxonomic method, see DNA barcoding. ... Optical character recognition, usually abbreviated to OCR, is a type of computer software designed to translate images of handwritten or typewritten text (usually captured by a scanner) into machine-editable text, or to translate pictures of characters into a standard encoding scheme representing them (e. ... For other uses of Backup, see Backup (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Terminology

Devices that are not used exclusively for recording (e.g. hands, mouths, musical instruments) and devices that are intermediate in the storing/retrieving process (e.g. eyes, ears, cameras, scanners, microphones, speakers, monitors, projectors) are not usually considered storage devices. Devices that are exclusively for recording (e.g. printers), exclusively for reading (e.g. barcode readers), or devices that process only one form of information (e.g. phonographs) may or may not be considered storage devices. In computing these are known as input/output devices. For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... This article refers to the sight organ. ... For an alternative meaning, see ear (botany). ... For other uses, see Camera (disambiguation). ... In computing, a scanner is a device that analyzes images, printed text, or handwriting, or an object (such as an ornament) and converts it to a digital image. ... Microphones redirects here. ... For the Marty Friedman album, see Loudspeaker (album) An inexpensive low fidelity 3. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into output device. ... Projectors are used for displaying an image on a projection screen or similar surface for the view of an audience. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. ... A typical handheld barcode scanner A barcode reader (or barcode scanner) is an electronic device for reading printed barcodes. ... Tonearm redirects here. ... For the formal concept of computation, see computation. ... An input device is a hardware mechanism that transforms information in the external world for consumption by a computer. ... An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) to the outside world. ...


An organic brain may or may not be considered a data storage device. [2] For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ...


All information is data. However, not all data is information. For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ...


Many data storage devices are also media players. Any device that can store and playback multimedia may also be considered a media player such as in the case with the HDD media player. Designated hard drives are used to play saved or streaming media on home entertainment systems. Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ... HTPC is an acronym for Home Theater Personal Computer, describing certain personal computer systems designed solely to be connected to a television for entertainment purposes, such as watching TV, playing DVDs, CD music, or viewing digital pictures. ...


Trends

International Data Corporation estimated that the total amount of digital data was 281 billion gigabytes in 2007, and had for the first time exceeded the amount of storage.[3] IDC Analyze the Future-logo. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ...


Data storage equipment

Any input/output equipment may be considered data storage equipment if it writes to and reads from a data storage medium. Data storage equipment uses either: Energy Input: The energy placed into a reaction. ...

  • portable methods (easily replaced),
  • semi-portable methods requiring mechanical disassembly tools and/or opening a chassis, or
  • inseparable methods meaning loss of memory if disconnected from the unit.

The following are examples of those methods: Look up Chassis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Portable methods

Small wooden sculpture depicting a Native American mother holding her child. ... Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ... Lens and mounting of a large format camera Photography is the technique of recording and generating permanent images, by the capturing and preservation of physical stimulus-patterns on a layer of photosensitive material. ... Fabrication may refer to more than one thing: Fabrication (metal) Semiconductor device fabrication Lie Fiction Fable This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Automation (ancient Greek: = self dictated) or Industrial Automation is the use of computers to control industrial machinery and processes, replacing human operators. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... One half of a bronze mold for casting a socketed spear head dated to the period 1400-1000 BC. There are no known parallels for this mold. ... Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) is a technique for manufacturing solid objects by the sequential delivery of energy and/or material to specified points in space to produce that solid. ... A right circular cylinder An elliptic cylinder In mathematics, a cylinder is a quadric surface, with the following equation in Cartesian coordinates: This equation is for an elliptic cylinder, a generalization of the ordinary, circular cylinder (a = b). ... Look up card in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... DDS tape drive. ... For other uses, see Reel (disambiguation). ... For the audio technology, see Reel-to-reel audio tape recording Reel to Reel is the debut album by Grand Puba. ... The Compact Cassette, often referred to as audio cassette, cassette tape, cassette, or simply tape, is a magnetic tape sound recording format. ... Disk storage is a general category of a computer storage mechanisms, in which data is recorded on planar, round and rotating surfaces (disks, discs, or platters). ... Disk Drive is the afternoon show on CBC Radio Two. ... A 3. ... Cartridge for the VIC 20 homecomputer In various types of electronic equipment, a cartridge can refer one method of adding different functionality or content (e. ... There are many kinds of circuit An electric circuit interconnects electrical elements. ... For an account of the words periphery and peripheral as they are used in biology, sociology, politics, computer hardware, and other fields, see the periphery disambiguation page. ... Networking hardware includes all computers, peripherals, interface cards and other equipment needed to perform data-processing and communications within the network. ... JumpDrive redirects here. ...

Semi-portable methods

A hard disk drive (HDD), commonly referred to as a hard drive, hard disk or fixed disk drive,[1] is a non-volatile storage device which stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces. ... There are many kinds of circuit An electric circuit interconnects electrical elements. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Non-volatile memory. ...

Inseparable methods

There are many kinds of circuit An electric circuit interconnects electrical elements. ... Volatile memory refers to computer memory that must be powered to maintain its data. ... RAM redirects here. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ...

Recording medium

A recording medium is a physical material that holds data expressed in any of the existing recording formats. With electronic media, the data and the recording medium is sometimes referred to as "software" despite the more common use of the word to describe computer software. With (traditional art) static media, art materials such as crayons may be considered both equipment and medium as the wax, charcoal or chalk material from the equipment becomes part of the surface of the medium. Historically there have beem hundreds of recording media and formats. ... A screenshot of a web page. ... Software redirects here. ... For other meanings of the word, see Media. ... Techniques and materials related to art: Traditional techniques: Acrylic paint Charcoal Clay Collage Drawing Fresco Glass Gouache Gum arabic Lithography Oil painting Oil pastel Paint Painting Pen and ink Pencil Pigment Pottery Serigraphy Tempera Watercolor painting Woodcarving Modern techniques: Found objects Video art Photographs Installations and Assemblage Performances Plastic paint... Crayola brand crayons A crayon is a stick of colored wax, charcoal, chalk, or other material used for writing and drawing. ...


Some recording media may be temporary either by design or by nature. Volatile organic compounds may be used to preserve the environment or to purposely make data expire over time. Data such as smoke signals or skywriting are temporary by nature. Depending on the volatility, a gas (e.g. atmosphere, smoke) or a liquid surface such as a lake would be considered a temporary recording medium if at all. This article describes a highly specialized aspect of its subject in the Terminology and legal definitions section. ... Sustainable design (also referred to as green design, eco-design, or design for environment) is the art of designing physical objects and the built environment to comply with the principles of economic, social, and ecological sustainability. ... A smoke signal is a form of visual communication used over a long distance, developed both in the Americas and in China. ... Skywriting is the process of using a small aircraft, able to expel special smoke during flight, to fly in certain patterns as to create writing readable by someone on the ground. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... Atmospheres redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ...


Ancient and timeless examples

The Gutenberg Bible displayed by the United States Library of Congress, demonstrating printed pages as a storage medium.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixel Image in higher resolution (925 × 625 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of a copy of the en:Gutenberg Bible owned by the US Library of Congress Taken by Mark Pellegrini on August 12... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixel Image in higher resolution (925 × 625 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of a copy of the en:Gutenberg Bible owned by the US Library of Congress Taken by Mark Pellegrini on August 12... This article is about the inventor of printing in Europe; for other uses, see Guttenberg (disambiguation) and Gutenberg. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... A physical body is an object which can be described by the theories of classical mechanics, or quantum mechanics, and experimented upon by physical instruments. ... This article is about the geological substance. ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... Small wooden sculpture depicting a Native American mother holding her child. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... This article is about metallic materials. ... This article is about the material. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... Inca Quipu. ... A ranch worker brands a young steer using an electric branding iron while another makes an earmark. ... To Brand a person means to burn a symbol into a living persons skin using a hot or cold iron, with the intention that the resulting scar makes the symbol permanent. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chalk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the organ. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone (from Greek φέρω phero to bear + ‘ορμόνη hormone) is a chemical that triggers a natural behavioral response in another member of the same species. ...

Modern examples by energy used

Graffiti on a public wall. Public surfaces are being used as unconventional data storage media, often without permission.
Photographic film is a photochemical data storage medium
A floppy disk is a magnetic data storage medium
Hitachi 2.5 inch laptop hard drive. A hard drive is both storage equipment and a storage medium
Four major types of memory cards (from left to right: CompactFlash, MemoryStick, Secure Digital, and xD.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2014x318, 823 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2014x318, 823 KB) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Flippy_floppy. ... Image File history File links Flippy_floppy. ... Download high resolution version (1248x777, 321 KB)A (broken) Hitachi 2. ... Download high resolution version (1248x777, 321 KB)A (broken) Hitachi 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 345 pixel Image in higher resolution (2884 × 1245 pixel, file size: 851 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Four types of flash media cards - from left to right, CompactFlash, MemoryStick, Secure Digital (MMC), and xD. Markup is all copyrighted, assuming fair... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 345 pixel Image in higher resolution (2884 × 1245 pixel, file size: 851 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Four types of flash media cards - from left to right, CompactFlash, MemoryStick, Secure Digital (MMC), and xD. Markup is all copyrighted, assuming fair... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Thermodynamics (Greek: thermos = heat and dynamic = change) is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes. ... A clinical mercury thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. ... Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light and chemicals. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Classical mechanics (commonly confused with Newtonian mechanics, which is a subfield thereof) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ... Punched cards (or Hollerith cards, or IBM cards), are pieces of stiff paper that contain digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. ... A roll of punched tape Punched tape is an old-fashioned form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data. ... A Music Roll is used to operate a Mechanical organ or Orchestrion and contains the music to be played. ... A musical box (or music box) is a 19th century automatic musical instrument that produces sounds by the use of a set of pins placed on a revolving cylinder so as to strike the tuned teeth of a steel comb. ... Audio storage refers to techniques and formats used to store audio with the goal to reproduce the audio later using audio signal processing to something that resembles the original. ... The earliest method of recording and reproducing sound was on phonograph cylinders. ... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... 1917 Dictaphone advertisement A Dictaphone is a sound recording device most commonly used to record speech for later playback or to be typed into print. ... The Capacitance Electronic Disc (or CED) was a video playback system developed by RCA, in which video and audio could be played back on a TV using a special analog needle and high-density groove system similar to phonograph records. ... Magnetic storage is a term from engineering referring to the storage of data on a magnetised medium. ... A Peirce 55-B dictation wire recorder from 1945. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... hi i am cool xbox is all most as cool as me hi again ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... Optical Storage is made possible by data storage devices such as optical discs and holographic storage systems. ... Until the advent of digital photographic processes, the sole meaning of Photographic Paper was paper coated with light-sensitive chemicals. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... This article is about the photographic technique. ... Projectors are used for displaying an image on a projection screen or similar surface for the view of an audience. ... Overhead projector in operation, with a transparency being flashed. ... “Optical media” redirects here. ... !!! Double article, please see also Magneto-optical drive !!! Magneto-Optical disc is an optical disc format that uses a combination of optical and magnetic technologies. ... Picture of an HVD by Optware. ... Schematic representation of a cross-section through a 3D optical storage disc (yellow) along a data track (orange marks). ... A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. ... Volatile memory refers to computer memory that must be powered to maintain its data. ... RAM redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Floating_Gate_MOSFET. (Discuss) A cross-section of a floating-gate transistor The floating-gate transistor is a kind of transistor that is commonly used for non-volatile storage such as flash, EPROM and EEPROM memory. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Non-volatile memory. ... Four major types of memory cards (from left to right: CompactFlash, Memory Stick, Secure Digital, and xD. A memory card or flash memory card is a solid-state electronic flash memory data storage device used with digital cameras, handheld and Mobile computers, telephones, music players, video game consoles, and other...

Modern examples by shape

A typical way to classify data storage media is to consider its shape and type of movement (or non-movement) relative to the read/write device(s) of the storage apparatus as listed:

Bekenstein (2003) foresees that miniaturization might lead to the invention of devices that store bits on a single atom. A CTR census machine, utilizing a punched card system. ... A roll of punched tape Punched tape is an old-fashioned form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... Disk storage is a general category of a computer storage mechanisms, in which data is recorded on planar, round and rotating surfaces (disks, discs, or platters). ... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... Iomega ZIP-100 Drive Logo An internal Zip drive. ... In late 1995 a joint university/industry/government consortium initiated the Holographic Data Storage System (HDSS) programme, with the initial goals of developing several key components for the system, including a high-capacity, high-bandwidth spatial light modulator used for data input; optimised sensor arrays for data output; and a... “Optical media” redirects here. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... Blu-ray Disc (also known as Blu-ray or BD) is an optical disc storage media format. ... See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ... A hard disk drive (HDD), commonly referred to as a hard drive, hard disk or fixed disk drive,[1] is a non-volatile storage device which stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces. ... Intel bubble memory module Bubble memory is a type of computer memory that uses a thin film of a magnetic material to hold small magnetized areas, known as bubbles, which each store one bit of data. ... A USB flash drive. ... Four major types of memory cards (from left to right: CompactFlash, Memory Stick, Secure Digital, and xD. A memory card or flash memory card is a solid-state electronic flash memory data storage device used with digital cameras, handheld and Mobile computers, telephones, music players, video game consoles, and other... Semiconductor memory is a generic term referring to any computer storage method implemented on a semiconductor-based integrated circuit. ... The xD-Picture Card is a type of flash memory card, used mainly in digital cameras. ... A 32 MB MultiMediaCard MultiMediaCard A 128 MB RS-MMC card and an adapter An RS-MMC card with adapter attached The MultiMediaCard (MMC) is a flash memory memory card standard. ... USB redirects here. ... JumpDrive redirects here. ... A USB keydrive, shown with a US quarter coin for scale. ... A 128MB SmartMedia flash memory card. ... A 32 MB High Speed CompactFlash Type I card CompactFlash (CF) was originally developed as a type of data storage device used in portable electronic devices. ... A SanDisk Multi Card Reader, with a 2 GB SD Card inserted. ... This article is about Sonys proprietary memory format. ... This article refers to both flash and DRAM-based solid state drives. ... This article is about the unit of information. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ...


See also

Archival science is the study of the safe storage, cataloguing and retrieval of documents and items. ... A blank media tax (or blank media levy) is a government-mandated scheme in which a special tax or levy (additional to any general sales tax) is charged on purchases of recordable media. ... 1 GiB of SDRAM mounted in a personal computer. ... Graphical representations of electrical data: analog audio content format (red), 4-bit digital pulse code modulated content format (black). ... Data transmission is the conveyance of any kind of information from one space to another. ... Digital preservation refers to the management of digital information over time. ... A format war describes competition between mutually incompatible proprietary formats, usually for data storage devices and recording formats for electronic media, often forcing content publishers to take sides by supporting one format or the other. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A nonlinear medium is one which is intended to be accessed in a nonlinear fashion. ... In computer science, random access is the ability to access a random element of a group in equal time. ... Historically there have beem hundreds of recording media and formats. ...

References

  • Bekenstein, Jacob D. (2003, August). Information in the holographic universe. Scientific American.
  1. ^ Gilbert, Walter (Feb 1986). "The RNA World". Nature 319: 618. doi:10.1038/319618a0. 
  2. ^ Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451, 1950, 1953 pp:150-152, ISBN 0345342968
  3. ^ Gantz, John F. et al. (2008). The Diverse and Exploding Digital Universe. International Data Corporation via EMC. Retrieved on 2008-03-12.
  4. ^ Aaron P. Nelson and Susan Gilbert, Harvard Medical School Guide to Achieving Optimal Memory, Mar 2005, page 66

Walter Gilbert Walter Gilbert (born March 21, 1932) is an American physicist, biochemist,and molecular biology pioneer. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

[1]

  • Bennett, John C. (1997). "'JISC/NPO Studies on the Preservation of Electronic Materials: A Framework of Data Types and Formats, and Issues Affecting the Long Term Preservation of Digital Material". British Library Research and Innovation Report 50.

External links


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