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Encyclopedia > Data processing

Data processing is any computer process that converts data into information or knowledge. The processing is usually assumed to be automated and running on a computer. Because data are most useful when well-presented and actually informative, data-processing systems are often referred to as information systems to emphasize their practicality. Nevertheless, both terms are roughly synonymous, performing similar conversions; data-processing systems typically manipulate raw data into information, and likewise information systems typically take raw data as input to produce information as output. A data entry clerk is a member of staff who reads hand-written or printed records and types them into a computer. ... This article is about the machine. ... Process (lat. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is about the machine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Information systems. ...


To better market their profession, a computer programmer or a systems analyst that might once have referred, such as during the 1970s, to the computer systems that they produce as data-processing systems more often than not nowadays refers to the computer systems that they produce by some other term that includes the word information, such as information systems, information technology systems, or management information systems. In computing, a programmer is someone who does computer programming and develops computer software. ... Systems analysis is the science dealing with analysis of complex, large scale systems and the interactions within those systems. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Management Information Systems (MIS), are information systems, typically computer based, that are used within an organization. ...


In the context of data processing, data are defined as numbers or characters that represent measurements from observable phenomena. A single datum is a single measurement from observable phenomena. Measured information is then algorithmically derived and/or logically deduced and/or statistically calculated from multiple data. (evidence). Information is defined as either a meaningful answer to a query or a meaningful stimulus that can cascade into further queries. For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Number (disambiguation). ... Various meters Measurement is an observation that reduces an uncertainty expressed as a quantity. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Geodetic system. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... In general, a query is a form of questioning, in a line of inquiry. ...


More generally, the term data processing can apply to any process that converts data from one format to another, although data conversion would be the more logical and correct term. From this perspective, data processing becomes the process of converting information into data and also the converting of data back into information. The distinction is that conversion doesn't require a question (query) to be answered. For example, information in the form of a string of characters forming a sentence in English is converted or encoded from a keyboard's key-presses as represented by hardware-oriented integer codes into ASCII integer codes after which it may be more easily processed by a computer—not as merely raw, amorphous integer data, but as a meaningful character in a natural language's set of graphemes—and finally converted or decoded to be displayed as characters, represented by a font on the computer display. In that example we can see the stage-by-stage conversion of the presence of and then absence of electrical conductivity in the key-press and subsequent release at the keyboard from raw substantially-meaningless integer hardware-oriented data to evermore-meaningful information as the processing proceeds toward the human being. In general, conversion is the transformation of one thing into another. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... For other senses of the word code, see code (disambiguation). ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... The term natural language is used to distinguish languages spoken and signed (by hand signals and facial expressions) by humans for general-purpose communication from constructs such as writing, computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic. ... In typography, a grapheme is the atomic unit in written language. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A font can mean: A member of a typeface family; or digital font - file format that encapsulates a typeface family in a database. ... Electrical conductivity or specific conductivity is a measure of a materials ability to conduct an electric current. ...


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Conversely, that simple example for pedagogical purposes here is usually described as an embedded system (for the software resident in the keyboard itself) or as (operating-)systems programming, because the information is derived from a hardware interface and may involve overt control of the hardware through that interface by an operating system. Typically control of hardware by a device driver manipulating ASIC or FPGA registers is not viewed as part of data processing proper or information systems proper, but rather as the domain of embedded systems or (operating-)systems programming. Instead, perhaps a more conventional example of the established practice of using the term data processing is that a business has collected numerous data concerning an aspect of its operations and that this multitude of data must be presented in meaningful, easy-to-access presentations for the managers who must then use that information to increase revenue or to decrease cost. That conversion and presentation of data as information is typically performed by a data-processing application. A router, an example of an embedded system. ... System programming (or systems programming) is the activity of building and maintaining, low-level, system software for computers, including operating systems, system utilities, compilers, and so forth. ... The acronym ASIC, depending on context, may stand for: Application-specific integrated circuit ASIC programming language Australian Securities and Investments Commission This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A field-programmable gate array or FPGA is a gate array that can be reprogrammed after it is manufactured, rather than having its programming fixed during the manufacturing — a programmable logic device. ... System programming (or systems programming) is the activity of building and maintaining, low-level, system software for computers, including operating systems, system utilities, compilers, and so forth. ... Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform. ...


When the domain from which the data are harvested is a science or an engineering, data processing and information systems are considered too broad of terms and the more specialized term data analysis is typically used, focusing on the highly-specialized and highly-accurate algorithmic derivations and statistical calculations that are less often observed in the typical general business environment. This divergence of culture is exhibited in the typical numerical representations used in data processing versus numerical; data processing's measurements are typically represented by integers or by fixed-point or binary-coded decimal representations of real numbers whereas the majority of data analysis's measurements are often represented by floating-point representation of real numbers. Data analysis is the act of transforming data with the aim of extracting useful information and facilitating conclusions. ... The integers are commonly denoted by the above symbol. ... In mathematics, a fixed point of a function f is an argument x such that f(x) = x; see fixed point (mathematics). ... In computing and electronic systems, Binary-coded decimal (BCD) is an encoding for decimal numbers in which each digit is represented by its own binary sequence. ... In mathematics, the real numbers may be described informally as numbers that can be given by an infinite decimal representation, such as 2. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Practically all naturally occurring processes can be viewed as examples of data processing systems where "observable" information in the form of pressure, light, etc. are converted by human observers into electrical signals in the nervous system as the senses we recognise as touch, sound, and vision. Even the interaction of non-living systems may be viewed in this way as rudimentary information processing systems. Conventional usage of the terms data processing and information systems restricts their use to refer to the algorithmic derivations, logical deductions, and statistical calculations that recur perennially in general business environments, rather than in the more expansive sense of all conversions of real-world measurements into real-world information in, say, an organic biological system or even a scientific or engineering system. In data processing, a Data Processor or Data Processing System is a system which processes information after it has been encoded into data. ... The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin in Canberra, Australia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Observation is an activity of a sapient or sentient living being (e. ... The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... Somatic sensation consists of the various sensory receptors that trigger the experiences labelled as touch or pressure, temperature (warm or cold), pain (including itch and tickle), and the sensations of muscle movement and joint position including posture, movement, and facial expression (collectively also called proprioception). ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... An information processor or information processing system, as its name suggests, is a system (be it electrical, mechanical or biological) which takes information (a sequence of enumerated states) in one form and processes (transforms) it into another form, e. ...


See also

A data entry clerk is a member of staff who reads hand-written or printed records and types them into a computer. ... Two Pass Verification, also called Double Data Entry, is a data entry quality control method that was originally employed when data records were entered onto sequential 80 column Hollerith cards with a keypunch. ...

Further reading

  • Linda B., Bourque, Linda B., Bourgue, Virginia A., Clark, Processing Data: The Survey Example (Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences), Sage Publications, Inc. (December 14, 2006), ISBN 0803947410

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