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Encyclopedia > Data communications

A computer network is a system for communication among two or more computers. The tower of a personal computer (specifically a Power Mac G5). ... A wide variety of systems of interconnected components are called networks. ... Communication is the process of exchanging information usually via a common system of symbols. ... The tower of a personal computer (specifically a Power Mac G5). ...

Contents

Categorizing

By range

A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one person. ... A wireless personal area network (WPAN) is a personal area network (PAN) that uses radio rather than wires. ... A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a local area, like a home, office or small group of buildings such as a college. ... The notebook is connected to the wireless access point using a PCMCIA wireless card. ... [HomePNA] is a high-speed, local area networking (LAN) technology that uses the existing telephone wires in home to share a single Internet connection with several personal computers in your home or to connect to your ISP. Speed varies from 1 Mb (HomePNA 1. ... Power line communication (PLC), also called Broadband over Power Lines (BPL), is wireline method of communication using the existing electric power transmission and electricity distribution lines. ... Metropolitan area networks or MANs are large computer networks usually spanning a campus or a city. ... A wide area network or WAN is a computer network covering a wide geographical area, involving vast array of computers. ...

By functional relationship

Client/Server is a network application architecture which separates the client (usually the graphical user interface) from the server. ... In software engineering, a multi-tier architecture is used to describe one in which a degree of separation is attained by one or many software agents between discrete components in order to facilitate processing in some manner. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is any network that does not rely on dedicated servers for communication but instead mostly uses direct connections between clients (peers). ...

By network topology

A network may be represented as a collection of nodes, some of which are connected by links. ... A bus network is a network architecture in which a set of clients are connected via a shared communications line, called a bus. ... A computer network with a star network topology, in its simplest form, consists of one central, or hub computer which acts as a router to transmit messages Comparing star networks to other types of network Advantages Easy to implement and extend, even in large networks Well suited for temporary networks... A ring network is a topology of computer networks where each user is connected to two other users, so as to create a ring. ... Mesh networking is a way to route data, voice and instructions between nodes. ...

By specialized function

In computing, a storage area network (SAN) is a network designed to attach computer storage devices such as disk array controllers and tape libraries to servers. ... Categories: Stub | Computer terminology | Computer hardware ... A Process Control Network (PCN) is a communications network that is used to transmit instructions and data between control and measurement units and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) equipment. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Substubs ... A SOHO network is a Small office/home office local area network. ... Wireless community networks or wireless community projects are the largely hobbyist-led development of interlinked computer networks using wireless LAN technologies, taking advantage of the recent development of cheap, standardised 802. ...

Protocol stacks

Computer networks may be implemented using a variety of protocol stack architectures, computer buses or combinations of media and protocol layers, incorporating one or more of: A protocol stack is a particular software implementation of a computer networking protocol suite. ... In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers. ...

For a list of more see Network protocols ARCNET (also camel cased as ARCnet, an acronym from Attached Resource Computer NETwork) is a local area network (LAN) protocol, similar in purpose to Ethernet or Token Ring. ... DECnet is a proprietary suite of network protocols created by Digital Equipment Corporation, originally released in 1975 in order to connect two PDP-11 minicomputers. ... Ethernet is a frame-based computer networking technology for local area networks (LANs). ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used by source and destination hosts for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented, reliable delivery byte-stream transport layer communication protocol, currently documented in IETF RFC 793 [1]. It does the task of the transport layer in the simplified OSI model of computer networks. ... The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a minimal message-oriented transport layer protocol that is currently documented in IETF RFC 768. ... AppleTalk is a suite of protocols developed by Apple Computer for computer networking. ... Token ring is a local area network protocol which resides at the data link layer (DLL) of the OSI model. ... Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) is at the Network layer of the OSI model and is part of the IPX/SPX protocol stack. ... Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) is an old Novell protocol used to manage the Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) that allowed Novell Servers and clients to communicate over LAN (Local Area Networks) and WAN (Wide Area Networks). ... In computer networking, fiber-distributed data interface (FDDI) is a standard for data transmission in a local area network that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles). ... HIPPI (HIgh Performance Parallel Interface) is a computer bus for the attachment of high speed storage devices to supercomputers. ... Myrinet, ANSI/VITA 26-1998, is a high-speed local area networking system designed by Myricom to be used as an interconnect between multiple machines to form computer clusters. ... QsNet is a high speed interconnect designed by Quadrics used in HPC clusters, particularly Linux Beowulf Clusters. ... Asynchronous Transfer Mode, or ATM for short, is a cell relay network protocol which encodes data traffic into small fixed sized (53 byte) cells instead of variable sized packets as in packet-switched networks (such as the Internet Protocol or Ethernet). ... RS-232 (also referred to as EIA RS-232C or V.24) is a standard for serial binary data interchange between a DTE (Data terminal equipment) and a DCE (Data communication equipment). ... The Hewlett-Packard Instrument Bus (HP-IB), is a short-range digital communications cable standard developed by Hewlett-Packard (HP) in the 1970s for connecting electronic test and measurement devices (e. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... A 6-Pin Firewire 400 connector FireWire (also known as i. ... X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for WAN networks using the phone or ISDN system as the networking hardware. ... Frame relay is an efficient data transmission technique used to send digital information quickly and cheaply to one or many destinations from one point. ... This article is about the Bluetooth wireless specification. ... IEEE 802. ... Systems Network Architecture (SNA) is IBMs proprietary networking architecture created in 1974. ... In networking, a communications protocol or network protocol is the specification of a set of rules for a particular type of communication. ...


For standards see IEEE 802. IEEE 802 refers to a family of IEEE standards about local area networks and metropolitan area networks. ...


Suggested topics

Further reading for acquiring an in-depth understanding of computer networks include:

See information theory for information related to electronic communications. ... The Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI Model or OSI Reference Model for short) is a layered abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design, developed as part of the Open Systems Interconnect initiative. ... The application layer is the seventh (7. ... The presentation layer is the sixth level of the seven layer OSI model. ... The session layer is level five of the seven level OSI model. ... In computing and telecommunications, the transport layer is level four of the seven level OSI model. ... The network layer is level three of the seven level OSI model. ... The data link layer is level two of the seven-level OSI model. ... The physical layer is level one in the seven level OSI model of computer networking. ... Data transmission is, very generally speaking, the conveyance of any kind of information from one space to another. ... The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the concatenation of the worlds public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the concatenation of the worlds public IP-based packet-switched networks. ... A modem (a portmanteau word constructed from modulator and demodulator) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal (sound), to encode digital information, and that also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ... Wireless is an old-fashioned term for a radio receiver, referring to its use as a wireless telegraph. ... This article is about the Bluetooth wireless specification. ... IEEE 802. ... For other uses, please see Satellite (disambiguation) A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ... Multichannel multipoint distribution service, also known as MMDS or wireless cable, is a wireless telecommunications technology, used for general-purpose broadband networking or, more commonly, as an alternative method of cable television programming reception. ... SMDS, which stands for Switched Multi-megabit Data Services, was a connectionless service used to connect LANs, MANs and WANs to exchange data. ... General information Generically (as a multiplexing scheme), code division multiple access (CDMA) is any use of any form of spread spectrum by multiple transmitters to send to the same receiver on the same frequency channel at the same time without harmful interference. ... Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) uses unused bandwidth normally used by AMPS mobile phones between 800 and 900 MHz to transfer data. ... GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. ... Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is a technology for shared medium (usually radio) networks. ... Mobitex is a paging network developed by Ericsson. ... In computer networks and telecommunications, a dedicated line is a communications cable dedicated to a specific application, in contrast with a shared resource such as the telephone network or the Internet. ... Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a type of digital multiplexing in which two or more apparently simultaneous channels are derived from a given frequency spectrum, i. ... In computer networking and telecommunications, packet switching is a communications paradigm in which packets (messages or fragments of messages) are individually routed between nodes, with no previously established communication path. ... Frame relay is an efficient data transmission technique used to send digital information quickly and cheaply to one or many destinations from one point. ... The Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) is a technology used in telecommunications networks to transport large quantities of data over digital transport equipment such as fibre optic and microwave radio systems. ... Ethernet is a frame-based computer networking technology for local area networks (LANs). ... RS-232 (also referred to as EIA RS-232C or V.24) is a standard for serial binary data interchange between a DTE (Data terminal equipment) and a DCE (Data communication equipment). ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ... Synchronous Optical Networking, commonly known as SONET, is a standard for communicating digital information over optical fiber. ... In computer networking, fiber-distributed data interface (FDDI) is a standard for data transmission in a local area network that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles). ... Computer networking devices are units, that mediate data in a computer network. ... A transitional network card with both BNC Thinnet (left) and Twisted pair (right) connectors. ... This article describes routing in computer networks, a method of finding paths from origins to destinations, along which information can be passed. ... BITNET was a cooperative U.S. university network founded in 1981 under the aegis of Ira Fuchs and Greydon Freeman at the City University of New York (CUNY). ... The Internet backbone was the central network that linked all the parts of the Internet together. ... The word transit, when used alone, has several possible meanings in English a modern rock band in Dallas, TX - [[]http://www. ... A Stub network is a slightly casual term describing a computer network, or part of an internetwork, that meets one or more of the following criteria (paraphrased from various sources): A single OSPF area with no external routes (though it may have interarea and/or intra-area routes). ... An important aspect of a computer network is the naming scheme of the hosts on the network. ...

See also

Originally, the word computing was synonymous with counting and calculating, and a computer was a person who computes. ... The Internet, or simply the Net, is the publicly available worldwide system of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using a standardized Internet Protocol (IP) and many other protocols. ... This article describes routing in computer networks, a method of finding paths from origins to destinations, along which information can be passed. ...

References

Andrew S. Tanenbaum Andrew Stuart Andy Tanenbaum (born 1944) is a professor of Computer Science at Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam in the Netherlands. ... This is a list of important publications in computer science, organized by field. ...

External links

  • Networking and Microcomputers (http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-921/networking.htm)
  • Network - eLook Computing Reference (http://www.elook.org/computing/network.htm) - defines what a network is and provides leading links
  • Networking: K-12 (http://www.ericdigests.org/1993/k-12.htm)
  • Networking dictionary (http://www.airhive.net/modules.php?name=Encyclopedia&op=list_content&eid=5)
  • Prof. Rahul Banerjee's free e-book on Internetworking Technolgies deals with the foundations of major internetworking architectures. (chapters 4-9) [1] (http://discovery.bits-pilani.ac.in/rahul/PDFversions/Complete-InetBook-PHI-2003-Secure.pdf)
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ANSDIT - The letter "D" (1990 words)
The arrangement of data in a storage device and implementation of an access method that are in accordance with the data structures of files and of their records and that provide for these records to be part of a database.
Between a data station and a data switching exchange or data concentrator, the data circuit includes the DCE at the data station end, and may include equipment similar to a DCE at the data switching exchange or data concentrator location.
The transfer of data among functional units according to sets of rules governing data data transmission and the coordination of the exchange.
DATA-LINC MODEMS: How to Improve Industrial Data Communications (2550 words)
This means that data communications equipment must be compatible with or adjustable in order to interface and function with many different devices.In addition to standard RS-232, many devices use RS-422 or 485 digital interfaces.The communications devices must also deal with different word lengthsand special attention pulses.
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Data communications problems are thereby dealt with effectively because of this unique characteristic of a CM signal.
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