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Encyclopedia > Dassault Rafale
Rafale
Rafale B at the Paris Air Show 2007
Type Multirole fighter aircraft
Manufacturer Dassault Aviation
Maiden flight 1986-07-04
Introduced 2000-12-04
Status In production
Primary users French Air Force
French Navy
Unit cost €113,2 million (Rafale C) in 2006[1]
€121,4 million (Rafale M) in 2006[2]
The logo of the Dassault Rafale program.

The Dassault Rafale (or "Squall" in English) is a French twin-engined delta-wing highly agile multi-role fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. Dassault uses "Omni Role" as a marketing term in an effort to differentiate the aircraft from other "multi-role" fighters that have primary and secondary roles. Dassault also uses the term to indicate the Rafale's ability to switch from one role to another during a single sortie, although the term is mostly meant to encapsulate the fact that the Rafale is replacing seven specialised planes.[citation needed] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (977 × 652 pixel, file size: 74 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A Mirage 2000-5 at the Paris Air Show The Paris Air Show (Salon International de lAéronautique et de lEspace, Paris-Le Bourget) is an international trade fair for the aerospace business. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft. ... Dassault-Breguet/Dornier Alpha Jet of the UK defence technology organisation QinetiQ Dassault Aviation is a French aircraft manufacturer of military, regional and business jets. ... The Maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The French Air Force is the air force branch of the French Armed Forces. ... The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... Image File history File links Rafale_logo. ... Image File history File links Rafale_logo. ... A squall is a sudden, sharp increase in wind speed which usually is associated with active weather, such as rain showers, thunderstorms, or heavy snow. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The delta wing is a wing planform in the form of a triangle, named after the Greek uppercase delta (letter) which is a triangle (Δ). Its use in the so called tailless delta, i. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... Dassault-Breguet/Dornier Alpha Jet of the UK defence technology organisation QinetiQ Dassault Aviation is a French aircraft manufacturer of military, regional and business jets. ...


The Rafale is being produced both for land-based use with the French Air Force and for carrier-based naval operations with the French Navy. It has also been marketed for export; whilst several countries have expressed interest in the Rafale, there have been no foreign sales as of yet. The French Air Force is the air force branch of the French Armed Forces. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ...

Contents

Development

Prototype Dassault Rafale A

In the mid 1970s, both the French Air Force (Armée de l'Air) and Navy (Aéronavale) had a requirement (the Navy's being rather more pressing) to find a new generation of fighter (principally to replace AdlA SEPECAT Jaguars and Aéronavale F-8 Crusaders), and their requirements were similar enough to be merged into one project.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x423, 105 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dassault Rafale ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x423, 105 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dassault Rafale ... The SEPECAT Jaguar is an Anglo-French ground attack aircraft still in service with several export customers, notably the Indian Air Force and the Royal Air Force of Oman. ... The F-8 Crusader (originally F8U) was a single-engine aircraft carrier-based fighter aircraft built by Chance-Vought of Dallas, Texas, USA. It replaced the Vought F-7 Cutlass. ...


The Rafale A technology demonstrator was rolled out in late 1985 and made its maiden flight on 4 July 1986. The SNECMA M88 engines being developed were not considered sufficiently mature for the initial trials programme to be conducted without risk (though their development status has often been underplayed), so the demonstrator flew with General Electric F404-GE-400 afterburning turbofans as used on the F/A-18 Hornet. The demonstrator impressed the French Ministry of Defence enough to place production orders in 1988.[citation needed] is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Snecma Moteurs of France is one of the worlds major aircraft engine suppliers. ... The M88 is an afterburning turbofan engine developed for the Dassault Rafale omnirole fighter by Snecma. ... “GE” redirects here. ... A turbofan engine with afterburner. ... For other uses of afterburner, see Afterburner (disambiguation). ... Schematic diagram of high-bypass turbofan engine CFM56-3 turbofan, lower half, side view. ... The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F/A-18 Hornet is a modern all-weather carrier-capable strike fighter jet, designed to attack both ground and aerial targets. ...


Further testing continued, including carrier touch-and-go landings and test-flying early M88 engines, before the Rafale A was retired in 1994. Though the Rafale A and British Aerospace EAP were broadly comparable, when the first Eurofighter made its maiden flight in March 1994, pre-series Rafales had been flight-testing for three years, including carrier trials (Rafale C01, Rafale M01, and Rafale B01 first flew in May 1991, December 1991, and April 1993 respectively).[citation needed] The British Aerospace EAP was a prototype fighter aircraft developed as a private venture in the 1980s and which eventually formed the basis for the Eurofighter Typhoon. ... The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine multi-role canard-delta fighter aircraft, very similar to the US-German Rockwell-MBB X-31 prototype and designed and built by a consortium of European nations formed in 1983. ...


Three versions of Rafale were in the initial production order:

  • Rafale C (Chasseur) Single-seat fighter for the AdA (Armée de l'Air, French Air Force)
  • Rafale B (Biplace) Two-seat fighter for the AdA
  • Rafale M (Marine) Single-seat carrier fighter for the Aéronavale

The prototype Rafale C flew in 1991, the first of two Rafale M prototypes flew later that year. The prototype Rafale B flew in early 1993, and the second Rafale M prototype flew later that year.[citation needed] Catapult trials were initially carried out between July 13 and August 23, 1992 at NAS Lakehurst in New Jersey, USA and NAS Patuxent River, Maryland, USA, as France had no land-based catapult test facility. The aircraft then undertook trials aboard the carrier Foch.[citation needed] u suk usuk u suk u suk u suk u suk u suk u suk u suk u suk usuk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Naval Air Engineering Station Lakehurst, New Jersey, formerly the Lakehurst Naval Air Station then the Naval Air Engineering Center Lakehurst. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland, is a United States Navy Naval Air Station located in St. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... The Foch (R 99) was the sister-ship of the Clémenceau. ...


Initially the Rafale B was to be just a trainer, but Gulf War and Kosovo experience showed that a second crewmember is invaluable on strike and reconnaissance missions, and therefore more Rafale Bs were ordered, replacing some Rafale Cs.[citation needed] A similar decision was made by the Navy, who initially did not have a two-seat aircraft on order; the program nevertheless was stopped.[citation needed] For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


Political and economic uncertainty meant that it was not until 1999 that a production Rafale M flew.[citation needed]

A French Navy Rafale M performing a touch and go on the deck of the carrier USS John C. Stennis (CVN-74).

At one time the French forces were expected to order 292 Rafales: 232 for the Air Force and 60 for the Navy.[citation needed] 120 Rafales have been officially ordered to date.[citation needed] These are being delivered in three separate batches, the most recent being the December 2004 order for 59 Rafales, though the French Ministry of Defense (MoD) has revealed that this figure is currently under study and is likely to be reduced to 51 aircraft "for the same overall cost". It was hinted that the sacrifice of 8–12 aircraft would "allow for the introduction of new sensors developed by the French industry on this batch."[citation needed] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2400 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2400 pixel, file size: 1. ... USS (CVN-74) is the seventh Nimitz-class nuclear-powered supercarrier in the United States Navy, named for Senator John C. Stennis of Mississippi. ...


The marine version has priority since the aircraft it is replacing are much older, especially the Vought F-8 Crusader fighter which is a 50-year-old design.[citation needed] Service deliveries began in 2001 and the type "entered service" on 4 December 2000, though the first squadron, Flotille 12, did not actually reform until 18 May 2001. The unit embarked on the Charles de Gaulle in 2002, becoming fully operational on 25 June 2004, following an extended opeval (operational evaluation) which included flying limited escort and tanker missions in support of Operation Enduring Freedom over Afghanistan. Though restricted to an air-to-air role, with a limited range of weapons the Rafale M was claimed by some to be the most advanced fighter in service in Europe.[citation needed] is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The Charles de Gaulle (R91) is the tenth aircraft carrier in service with the French Marine Nationale, and the first French nuclear surface vessel. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States, Poland, France, Canada, Pakistan, India, Australia, United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines (in the Philippines theatre only), Northern Alliance, Italy, Czech Republic, Hungary, Ethiopia, Somalia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Portugal, Bulgaria, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Georgia Taliban, al-Qaeda, Abu Sayyaf, Jemaah...


The Armee de l'Air received its first three Rafale Bs (to F2 standards) in late December 2004. They went to the Centre d'Expériences Aériennes Militaires (CEAM) at Mont-de-Marsan for operational evaluation and associated pilot conversion training.[citation needed] The first Armée de l'Air frontline unit, Escadron de Chasse 1/7 Provence, will form at Saint-Dizier during 2006, delayed deliveries having forced some delay to the squadron's stand up date. Full Operational Capability (FOC) was until recently still optimistically scheduled for September 2006, but has now slipped back to mid-2007, when the type should be fully operational as an omni-role fighter/fighter-bomber with MICA air-to-air missiles, SCALP EG cruise missiles, GPS-guided bombs, and laser-guided bombs (LGBs) (though the latter will be designated by other platforms or by ground based systems). Mont-de-Marsan is a commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Landes département. ... Saint-Dizier is a city in the Haute-Marne département in the Champagne-Ardenne Region of France. ... The MBDA MICA (Missile dInterception et de Combat Aérien, Interception and Air Combat Missile) is an anti-air multi-target, all weather, fire and forget missile system. ... A US Navy VF-103 Jolly Rogers F-14 Tomcat fighter launches an AIM-54 Phoenix long-range air-to-air missile. ... Storm Shadow is an Anglo-French air-launched cruise missile, manufactured by MBDA and used by Britain, France, and Italy. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ... BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence... A laser-guided bomb (LGB) is a free-fall bomb, usually dropped from an aircraft, that is guided to its target by a laser designator The laser is directed at the target, illuminating it. ...


Cockpit

The Rafale features a `glass cockpit’ with a comprehensive combat avionics suite, including a wide-angle holographic Head Up Display (HUD), and two accessory colour flat-panel multifunction displays (MFDs) with touch-input overlays. To use the touch input the pilot wears silk-lined leather gloves with no seams on the fingertips and chamois pads for cleaning the screens. In addition, in full development, the pilot will have a Helmet-Mounted Sighting System (HMSS). For other meanings of Hud, see this article A Rafale fighter of the FS Charles de Gaulle, seen through the HUD of another Rafale. ...


The pilot sits on a Martin-Baker Mark 16F "zero-zero" (zero speed, zero altitude) ejection seat, inclined 29 degrees to improve pilot tolerance to G forces. The canopy hinges open to the right. An `on-board oxygen generating system’ (OBOGS) is provided to eliminate the need for multiple oxygen canisters. Martin-Baker Aircraft is a manufacturer of aircraft seats and is the oldest existing maker of ejector seats. ...


The pilot flies the aircraft with a side-stick controller mounted on the right side of the seat and a throttle on the left, incorporating `hands on throttle and stick’ (HOTAS) controls. The Rafale cockpit is also planned to include Direct Voice Input (DVI) capabilities, allowing the pilot to perform actions through spoken commands. The DVI system will have a vocabulary of between 90 to 300 words, with recognition rates of 95% . DVI is not included in the initial production variant. [3] HOTAS is an abbreviation for Hands on throttle-and-stick, an aircraft cockpit control layout. ... A style of Human-Machine Interaction HMI where the user makes voice commands to issue instructions to the machine. ...


Variants

Dassault Rafale M.
Rafale B at the Paris Air Show 2007
Rafale A
This was a technology demonstrator that first flew in 1986, as described above. It has now been retired.
Rafale D
Dassault used this designation (D for discret or stealthy) in the early 1990s for the production versions for the Armée de l'Air, to emphasize the new semi-stealthy features they had added to the design. Various sources have reported the development of an active stealth system, involving the use of a system which broadcasts "cancellation" waves.[citation needed]
Rafale B
This is the two-seater version for the Armée de l'Air; delivered to EC 330 in 2004.
Rafale C
This is the single-seat version for the Armée de l'Air; delivered to EC 330 in June 2004.
Rafale M
This is the carrier-borne version for the Aéronavale, which entered service in 2002. The Rafale M weighs about 500 kg (1,100 lb) more than the Rafale C. Very similar to the Rafale C in appearance, the M differs in the following respects:
  • Strengthened to withstand the rigors of carrier-based aviation
  • Stronger landing gear
  • Longer nose gear leg to provide a more nose-up attitude for catapult launches
  • Deleted front center pylon (to give space for the longer gear)
  • Large stinger-type tailhook between the engines
  • Built-in power operated boarding ladder
  • Carrier microwave landing system
  • "Telemir" inertial reference platform that can receive updates from the carrier systems.
Rafale N
The Rafale N, originally called the Rafale BM, was planned to be a two-seater version for the Aéronavale. Budget constraints and the cost of training extra crew members have been cited as the grounds for its cancellation.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 667 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 667 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A Mirage 2000-5 at the Paris Air Show The Paris Air Show (Salon International de lAéronautique et de lEspace, Paris-Le Bourget) is an international trade fair for the aerospace business. ... Many aircraft that land on aircraft carriers are equipped with a simple piece of equipment called a tailhook. ...

Combat systems

Weapon complement of the Rafale.

The Rafale carries, for the first time in aviation history, an integrated electronic survival system named SPECTRA which features a software-based virtual stealth technology. The most important sensor is the Thales RBE2 passive electronically scanned multi-mode radar. Thales claims to have achieved unprecedented levels of situational awareness through the earlier detection and tracking of multiple air targets for close combat and long-range interception, as well as real time generation of three-dimensional maps for terrain-following and the real time generation of high resolution ground maps for navigation and targeting.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2138 KB) Dassault Rafale weaponry Salon International de lAéronautique et de lEspace de Paris-Le Bourget, 2005 Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Dassault Rafale Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2138 KB) Dassault Rafale weaponry Salon International de lAéronautique et de lEspace de Paris-Le Bourget, 2005 Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Dassault Rafale Metadata This file contains additional... The Thales SPECTRA (Système de Protection et dÉvitement des Conduites de Tir du Rafale, Self-Protection Equipment Countering Threats to Rafale Aircraft) is an integrated defensive aids suite developed by Thales Group for the Dassault Rafale series of fighter aircraft. ... F-117 stealth attack plane Stealth technology is a sub-discipline of electronic countermeasures which covers a range of techniques used with aircraft, ships and missiles, in order to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared and other detection methods. ... The Thales Group (Euronext: HO) is a major French electronics company delivering mission-critical information systems and services for the Aerospace, Defence, and Security markets. ... Current state The RBE2 (Radar à Balayage Electronique 2 plans) is a multirole radar developed during the 90s for the French Rafale combat aircraft. ... A passive electronically scanned array, as opposed to AESA, is a phased array which has a central RF source (such as a magnetron, a klystron or a traveling wave tube), sending energy into (usually digitally-controlled) phase shift modules, which then send energy into the various emitting elements in the...


However, in those circumstances when signature management is required, the Rafale can use several passive sensor systems.


The front-sector electro-optical system or Optroniques Secteur Frontal (OSF), developed by Thales, is completely integrated within the aircraft and can operate both in the visible and infrared wavelengths.


The SPECTRA electronic warfare system, jointly developed by Thales and EADS France, provides the aircraft with the highest survivability assets against airborne and ground threats.[citation needed] The real-time data link allows communication not only with other aircraft, but also with fixed and mobile command and control centres. For those missions requiring it, the Rafale will also eventually use the DAMOCLES electro-optical/laser designation pod that brings full day and night LGB capability, though the Armée de l'Air's current plans call for Rafale to use stand off weapons, and for the LGB role to be handled by Mirage 2000s. The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N.V. (EADS) is a large European aerospace corporation, formed by the merger on July 10, 2000 of Aérospatiale-Matra of France, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain, and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) of Germany. ... A Mirage 2000 of the Indian Air Force The Mirage 2000 is a French-built multi-role fighter manufactured by Dassault Aviation. ...


The Rafale core systems employ an Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA), called MDPU (Modular Data Processing Unit). This architecture hosts all the core functions of the aircraft as Flight management system, Data Fusion, Fire Control, Man-Machine Interface, etc..[1]. Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) represent real-time computer network airborne systems. ... A Flight Managment System is a little computer onboard almost every aircraft that will guide the aircraft to it designated destination. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ...


Programme milestones

Milestones include:

  • 1983
    • April: Dassault awarded contract for ACX (Rafale A) technology demonstrator
  • 1985
    • France formally withdraws from Eurofighter programme, commits to Rafale project.
  • 1986
    • July 4: First flight of Rafale A
    • December: Development of SNECMA M88 engines commences
  • 1988
    • April: First order signed (for Rafale C prototype).
  • 1990
    • February: Flight tests of M-88 begin
  • 1991
    • May 19: First flight of Armée de l'Air single seat prototype (Rafale C)
    • December 12: First flight of Aéronavale prototype (Rafale M)
  • 1992
    • Rafale M carrier trials programme begins
  • 1993
    • March: First contract for production aircraft signed.
    • April: Start of carrier compatibility trials with Foch.
    • April 30: First flight of Armée de l'Air twin seat prototype (Rafale B)
  • 1995
    • June: First MICA fired from Rafale in self guided mode.
    • July: OSF system and helmet-mounted sight/display installed and tested.
    • September: Rafale M tested on board carrier (4th series).
    • November: First non-stop long-range flight by Rafale B01 (3,020 nm in under 6 hours 30 minutes).
    • October: Final land-based carrier test series of Rafale M in the USA.
    • December: First production model fuselage assembly.
  • 1996
    • March: M88 engine "flightworthiness" qualified.
    • April: Production suspended, restarted in January 1997 following cost reductions.
    • May: Low level tests with digital terrain database.
    • July: Spectra electronic warefare system integration tests in anechoic chamber
    • November: Spectra flight tested.
    • December: First deliveries of production standard engines.
  • 1997
    • February: Rafale B01 flight tested in heavyweight configuration (2 Apache ASMs, three 2,000l drop tanks, two Magic and two MICA AAMs).
    • May: First inertially-guided MICA firing.
    • June: Flight testing of Spectra countermeasures system.
    • October: First production RBE2 radar flown for the first time.
    • November: Inertially-guided firing of missiles against two targets, with aircraft-to-missile link, with countermeasures.
  • 1998
    • June: Qualification of MICA fire control system.
    • June: Proposed initial operational capability evaluated by Navy and Air Force pilots flying Rafale B01 and M02 development aircraft.
    • November 24: First flight of production Rafale (a Rafale B)
  • 1999
    • May: First test launch of SCALP EG cruise missile.
    • July 6: First deck landing of Charles de Gaulleafgan.
    • July 7: First flight of production Rafale M
  • 2000
    • July 20: First Rafale M delivered to Flotille 12F
  • 2002
    • Rafale M entered service with 12F (Aeronavale, evaluation)
  • 2004
    • Full service entry with 12F (Navy)
    • September 9: First Meteor GHTM (General Handling Training Missiles) carriage trials by Rafale M from CEV Istres
    • December: Three Rafale Bs delivered to CEAM, Mont de Marsan
  • 2005
    • September 11: First Meteor GHTM carriage trials by Rafale M from the carrier Charles de Gaulle.
  • Summer 2006
    • Formation of EC 1/7 with 8–10 aircraft
  • Mid 2007
    • Full service entry (Air Force) expected with EC7
    • First landing of Rafale M on US Carrier USS Enterprise

is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The M88 is an afterburning turbofan engine developed for the Dassault Rafale omnirole fighter by Snecma. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Thales SPECTRA (Système de Protection et dÉvitement des Conduites de Tir du Rafale, Self-Protection Equipment Countering Threats to Rafale Aircraft) is an integrated defensive aids suite developed by Thales Group for the Dassault Rafale series of fighter aircraft. ... The MBDA Apache is a French-developed air-launched anti-runway missile, manufactured by European arms company MBDA. The Apache system is a variant of the SCALP EG. While the SCALP uses a single high-penetration warhead, the Apaches effect is obtained by dispersal of cluster submunitions. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Current state The RBE2 (Radar à Balayage Electronique 2 plans) is a multirole radar developed during the 90s for the French Rafale combat aircraft. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Meteor missile is a highly agile long-range air-to-air guided missile for future complex beyond-visual-range (BVR) threat scenarios built by MBDA. Meteor started out as the UK MoD Staff Requirement 1239, for a Beyond Visual Range Air-To-Air Missile (BVRAAM) system, to replace the... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Standards

Initial deliveries of the Rafale M were to the F1 ("France 1") standard. This meant that the aircraft was suitable for air-to-air combat, replacing the obsolescent F-8 Crusader as the Aviation Navale's carrier-based fighter, but not equipped or armed for air-to-ground operations. Future deliveries (to Flotille 11 some time after 2007) will be to the "F2" standard, giving air-to-ground capability, and replacing the Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard in the ground attack role and the Dassault Étendard IVP in the reconnaissance role. This will leave the Rafale M as the only fixed-wing combat aircraft flown by the Aviation Navale, and plans are to upgrade all airframes to the "F3" standard, with terrain-following 3D radar and nuclear capability, from early in the decade following 2010.[citation needed] The Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard is a French carrier-borne strike fighter in service with the French and Argentine Navies. ... The Dassault Étendard IV was a French carrier-borne strike fighter in service with the French Navy. ...


The first Rafale C delivered to the Armée de l'Air, in June 2005, was to the "F2" standard, and it is anticipated that upgrades similar to those of the navy will take place in the future. The Rafale replaces the SEPECAT Jaguar, Mirage F1 and the Mirage 2000 in the Armée de l'Air. The Dassault Mirage F1 is a single-seat air-superiority fighter and attack aircraft built by Dassault of France. ...


Users

A Rafale takes off from an aircraft carrier.

The Rafale is now in service in the trials and training role with the French Air Force (CEAM/EC 5/330) and EC 1/7 at Saint-Dizier is expected to receive a nucleus of 8–10 Rafale F2s during the Summer of 2006, and it looks set to enter full operational service (with robust air-to-air and stand off air-to-ground precision attack capabilities) during mid-2007 (when EC 1/7 will have about 20 aircraft).[citation needed] The aircraft is already in limited operational service with the French Navy (Flotille 12F) in the air-to-air role, and has undertaken a great deal of air-to-ground trials and evaluation work. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,896 × 1,944 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,896 × 1,944 pixels, file size: 1. ...


Operational history

The first Rafale deployed in a combat zone were those of the French Navy during Opération Héraclès, the French participation in Operation Enduring Freedom. They flew from the Charles de Gaulle over Afghanistan as soon as 2002, but the F1 standard precluded air-to-ground missions and the Rafale did not see any action.


In 2007, after a "crash program" enhancement some six Rafales were given the ability to drop laser-guided bombs, in view of engaging them in Afghanistan. Three of these aircraft belonging to the Air Force were deployed to Dushanbe in Tadjikistan, while the three others were Rafale Marine of the Navy on board the Charles De Gaulle.[4] The first mission occurred on March 12, and the first GBU-12 was launched on March 28 in support of embattled Dutch troops in Southern Afghanistan, marking the operational début of the Rafale.[5] However, they still have to rely on Mirage 2000Ds and Super Etendards carrying laser designation pods to illuminate their targets.[6] Location of Dushanbe in Tajikistan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev Area  - City 100 km²  (38. ... The Republic of Tajikistan (Тоҷикистон), formerly known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, is a country in Central Asia. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... American Paveway-series laser-guided bomb, based on the Mk 82 general-purpose bomb, but with laser seeker and wings for guidance. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Dassault Mirage 2000N is a variant of the Mirage 2000 designed for nuclear strike. ... A laser designator is a laser light source which illuminates a target. ... Targeting and designation systems for precision-guided weaponry such as laser-guided bombs. ...


Export

No foreign sales have yet been made, though the type has been rated highly in a number of evaluations.[citation needed] It faces tough competition from other European and American aircraft manufacturers that offer the rivals Eurofighter Typhoon, JAS 39 Gripen, F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-15 Eagle, Sukhoi Su-30, Sukhoi Su-35, MiG-35 and the F-35 Lightning II. In addition, it competes with the older Russian designs such as the Sukhoi Su-27 and Mikoyan MiG-29, to which it has already lost contracts. Previous French fighter aircraft, such as the Mirage family, still perform well on the export market, but the Rafale has proved to be more difficult to sell in the international arena. This article is about a fighter aircraft. ... The Saab JAS 39 Gripen (Griffin or Gryphon) is a fighter aircraft manufactured by the Swedish aerospace company Saab. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is an American multirole jet fighter aircraft developed by General Dynamics and Lockheed Martin for the United States Air Force. ... The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F-15 Eagle is an all-weather tactical fighter designed to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. ... The Sukhoi Su-30 (NATO reporting name Flanker-C) is an agile military aircraft developed by Russias Sukhoi Aviation Corporation and introduced into operational service in 1996. ... Su-35 cockpit The Sukhoi Su-35 (NATO designation: Flanker-E) is an advanced fighter aircraft flown by the Russian Air Force. ... The Mikoyan Project 1. ... The F-35 Lightning II is a single-seat, single-engine, stealth-capable military strike fighter, a multi-role aircraft that can perform close air support, tactical bombing, and air-to-air combat. ... Su-27 Flanker redirects here. ... The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Russian: ) is a 4th generation jet fighter aircraft designed for the air superiority role in the Soviet Union. ...


South Korea and Singapore

The Rafale was shortlisted (with the F-15K) in South Korea in early 2002, but was eliminated from the competition in April 2002. Dassault immediately filed a court injunction in Seoul, disputing the selection process, which it claimed to be biased in favor of U.S. interests. The Korean defense ministry responded that the selection was made on the basis of the F-15K's multi-role capability, payload, combat radius, performance and the proven combat capability of the F-15E Strike Eagle upon which the F-15K was based.[citation needed] The F-15SG (ex F-15T) is a variant of the U.S Air Forces F-15E Strike Eagle, currently ordered by the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) after a seven-year evaluation period involving five other fighter aircraft under consideration. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... The F-15E Strike Eagle is a modern United States all-weather strike fighter, designed for long-range interdiction of enemy ground targets deep behind enemy lines. ...


Korea Times reported Rafale had outperformed F-15 :"At that time, Dassault accused the South Korean government of favoring the U.S. aircraft maker in consideration of their military alliance, though its Rafale outperformed F-15K in the first inspection of operational capabilities." 14 December 2005, Jung Sung-ki). Categories: Stub | English-language newspapers | South Korean newspapers ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In August 2005, Singapore selected the Boeing F-15SG after a run-off with the Rafale. The Typhoon had been eliminated from the competition in June 2005.[citation needed] The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... The F-15SG (ex F-15T) is a variant of the U.S Air Forces F-15E Strike Eagle, currently ordered by the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) after a seven-year evaluation period involving five other fighter aircraft under consideration. ... This article is about a fighter aircraft. ...


Others

Several other countries have shown interest in purchasing the Rafale, including India.[7] India is looking for more than 126 multi-role fighter and strike aircraft. Rafale is in competition with the MiG-35, F-16, F/A-18 Hornet, Saab Gripen and Eurofighter Typhoon.[8] The six competing MRCA aircraft. ... For the aircraft previously incorrectly known as MiG-35, see Mikoyan Project 1. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ... The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F/A-18 Hornet is a modern all-weather carrier-capable strike fighter jet, designed to attack both ground and aerial targets. ... For the manufacturer of Saab cars, see Saab Automobile. ... The Saab JAS-39 Gripen (Griffin) is a fighter aircraft, originally from Sweden but later also United Kingdom, manufactured by Saab and BAE Systems. ... This article is about a fighter aircraft. ...


In January 2006, the French newspaper Journal du Dimanche reported that Libya wanted to order 13–18 Rafales "in a deal worth as much as $3.24 billion"[9] To-date no official statements have been made by the Libyan government to support that report.


In February 2007, it was reported that Switzerland was considering amongst others the Rafale to replace its F-5 Tiger IIs. (Le Temps, February 13, 2007) The F-5 Freedom Fighter (or TigerII) is a fighter aircraft, designed and built by Northrop in the USA, beginning in 1962. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


In September 2007, La Tribune reported that a sale to Morocco had fallen through, the government selecting Lockheed Martin's F-16 instead.[10] In October 2007, La Tribune's earlier report appeared to have been confirmed that the Rafale would not be bought.[11] Lockheed/BAE/Northrop F-35 Lockheed Trident missile C-130 Hercules; in production since the 1950s, now as the C-130J Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) is an aerospace manufacturer formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta. ...


Costs

The total programme cost is around 28,000,000,000, which translates to a unit programme cost of approximately €95 million. For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


The unit system cost is €91 million, or €88 million including development cost per aircraft.


The unit flyaway price as of 2000 is €47 million for the Air Force version, and €49 million for the Navy version.


Specifications

A Rafale flies above the aircraft carrier USS John C. Stennis.

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1–2
  • Length: 15.27 m (50.1 ft)
  • Wingspan: 10.80 m (35.4 ft)
  • Height: 5.34 m (17.4 ft)
  • Wing area: 45.7 m² (492 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 9,060 kg (20,000 lb)
  • Useful load: 9,500 kg (21,000 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 24,500 kg (54,000 lb)
  • Powerplant:SNECMA M88-2 turbofans
    • Dry thrust: 50 kN (11,250 lbf) each
    • Thrust with afterburner: 75 kN (17,000 lbf) each

Performance

Armament

  • Thales RBE2 radar
  • Thales SPECTRA electronic warfare system.
  • Thales/SAGEM OSF (Optronique Secteur Frontal) infrared search and track system.

Image File history File links Rafale_and_CVN_74. ... Image File history File links Rafale_and_CVN_74. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... USS (CVN-74) is the seventh Nimitz-class nuclear-powered supercarrier in the United States Navy, named for Senator John C. Stennis of Mississippi. ... The distance AB is the wing span of this Aer Lingus Airbus A320. ... In aviation, the Maximum Take-Off Weight (or MTOW) is the maximum weight with which an aircraft is allowed to try to achieve flight. ... The M88 is an afterburning turbofan engine developed for the Dassault Rafale omnirole fighter by Snecma. ... Schematic diagram of high-bypass turbofan engine CFM56-3 turbofan, lower half, side view. ... For other uses of afterburner, see Afterburner (disambiguation). ... V speeds are speeds that define certain performance and limiting characteristics of an aircraft. ... The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft. ... In aeronautics, the service ceiling is the maximum density altitude where the best rate of climb airspeed will produce a 100 feet per minute climb(twin engine) and 50 feet(single engine) at maximum weight while in a clean configuration with maximum continuous power. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... In aerodynamics, wing loading is the loaded weight of the aircraft divided by the area of the wing. ... Thrust-to-weight ratio (where weight means weight at the Earths surface) is a dimensionless parameter characteristic of rocket and jet engines, and of vehicles propelled by such engines (typically space launch vehicles and jet aircraft). ... The GIAT 30 is a series of 30mm cannon developed to replace the DEFA 550 series weapons on French military aircraft. ... M242 Bushmaster autocannon on an M2 Bradley. ... The MBDA MICA (Missile dInterception et de Combat Aérien, Interception and Air Combat Missile) is an anti-air multi-target, all weather, fire and forget missile system. ... The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range, air-to-air missile carried by fighter aircraft and recently, certain gunship helicopters. ... The AIM-132 Advanced Short Range Air-to-Air Missile is a British air-to-air missile with infra-red guidance. ... The AIM-120 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile, or AMRAAM (pronounced am-ram), is a modern Beyond Visual Range (BVR) air-to-air missile (AAM) capable of all weather day and night performance. ... The Meteor missile is a highly agile long-range air-to-air guided missile for future complex beyond-visual-range (BVR) threat scenarios built by MBDA. Meteor started out as the UK MoD Staff Requirement 1239, for a Beyond Visual Range Air-To-Air Missile (BVRAAM) system, to replace the... The R550 Magic is a a short-range missile designed in 1968 by Matra to compete with the American AIM-9 Sidewinder. ... The MBDA Apache is a French-developed air-launched anti-runway missile, manufactured by European arms company MBDA. The Apache system is a variant of the SCALP EG. While the SCALP uses a single high-penetration warhead, the Apaches effect is obtained by dispersal of cluster submunitions. ... Storm Shadow is an Anglo-French air-launched cruise missile, manufactured by MBDA and used by Britain, France, and Italy. ... The AASM is a French Precision Guided Munition expected to enter operational service in 2006. ... The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, and airplanes. ... The Air-Sol Moyenne Portée (abbreviated ASMP) is a French air-launched missile with a nuclear warhead. ... Current state The RBE2 (Radar à Balayage Electronique 2 plans) is a multirole radar developed during the 90s for the French Rafale combat aircraft. ... The Thales SPECTRA (Système de Protection et dÉvitement des Conduites de Tir du Rafale, Self-Protection Equipment Countering Threats to Rafale Aircraft) is an integrated defensive aids suite developed by Thales Group for the Dassault Rafale series of fighter aircraft. ... An infra-red search and track (IRST) system (sometimes known as infra-red sighting and tracking) is a method for detecting and tracking objects which give off infrared radiation such as jet aircraft and helicopters. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.defense-aerospace.com/dae/articles/communiques/FighterCostFinalJuly06.pdf the real cost of Modern Fighter Aircraft Page 2
  2. ^ http://www.defense-aerospace.com/dae/articles/communiques/FighterCostFinalJuly06.pdf the real cost of Modern Fighter Aircraft Page 2
  3. ^ [http://www.faqs.org/docs/air/avrafa.html
  4. ^ "Paris engage des Rafale en Afghanistan(French)", Le Figaro, 2007-03-15. Retrieved on 2007-04-05. 
  5. ^ "Le Rafale, bon pour le bombardement(French)", Midi Libre, 2007-04-02. Retrieved on 2007-04-05. 
  6. ^ Goebel, Greg. Rafale into service(2007-04-01). www.vectorsite.net. Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  7. ^ "India to shop for more combat aircraft", Hindustan Times, 2006-02-26. Retrieved on 2006-09-10. 
  8. ^ "India's MMRCA Fighter Competition", Defense Industry Daily, 2007-08-29. Retrieved on 2007-09-21. 
  9. ^ "Report: Libya to order 13-18 French Rafale fighter jets in $3.24 b deal", Haaretz, 14 January 2007.
  10. ^ "Dassault Aviation to lose Rafale order in Morocco to Lockheed Martin", Forbes, 2007-09-21. Retrieved on 2007-09-21. 
  11. ^ "France to rejig arms sales after Rafale flop", Reuters, 2007-10-24. Retrieved on 2007-10-24. 
  12. ^ "Rafale specifications", Dassault Aviation. Retrieved on 2007-10-24. 

Le Figaro (English: ) is one of the leading French morning daily newspapers. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Grand Prix du Midi Libre (nicknamed Midi Libre) was a multiple-stage cycling course in the south of France. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dassault-Breguet/Dornier Alpha Jet of the UK defence technology organisation QinetiQ Dassault Aviation is a French aircraft manufacturer of military, regional and business jets. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Comparable aircraft

Designation sequence

Related lists

This article is about a fighter aircraft. ... The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F/A-18 Hornet is a modern all-weather carrier-capable strike fighter jet, designed to attack both ground and aerial targets. ... The F-35 Lightning II is a single-seat, single-engine, stealth-capable military strike fighter, a multi-role aircraft that can perform close air support, tactical bombing, and air-to-air combat. ... The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Russian: ) is a 4th generation jet fighter aircraft designed for the air superiority role in the Soviet Union. ... The Dassault Mirage G4, top, and G8 prototypes in flight. ... The Mirage 2000 is a French-built multirole fighter jet manufactured by Dassault Aviation. ... The Mirage 4000 was a prototype jet fighter developed by Dassault Aviation as a twin engine version of their Mirage 2000. ... nEUROn (formerly spelled Neuron) is the European UCAV technology demonstrator. This delta wing stealth Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) project is the final phase of the French Dassault Aviation LOGIDUC 3-step stealth combat drone programme. ... A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for attacking other aircraft, as opposed to a bomber, which is designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... France has used many military aircraft both in its air force, the Armée de lAir, and other branches of its armed forces. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Dassault Rafale - Biocrawler (958 words)
The prototype Rafale C flew in 1991, the first of two Rafale M prototypes flew later that year, the prototype Rafale B flew in early 1993 and the second Rafale M prototype flew later that year.
Initially the Rafale B was to be just a trainer, but Gulf War and Kosovo experience showed that a second crewmember is invaluable on strike and reconnaissance missions, and therefore more Rafale Bs were ordered, replacing some Rafale Cs.
Dassault used this designation (D for discret or stealthy) in the early 1990s for the production versions for the Armée de l'Air, to emphasize the new semi-stealthy features they had added to the design.
Dassault Rafale (1257 words)
Dassault has in a single design satisfied the requirements of the both the Aeronavale and the Armee de L'air with this versatile multirole fighter.
The Rafale C has a wingspan of 35 ft and 9 in(10.9 m) and a length of 50 ft 22 in(15.3 m).
The Rafale M is slightly is slightly heavier and has 13 weapon points as it loses one to the tailhook.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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