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Encyclopedia > Dari (Afghanistan)
Persian language

History
Dialects
Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Persian is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Iranian family. ...

Writing systems Dialects of the Persian language include: Persian (standard) Aimaq language Bukhori language (Judeo-Bukharic) Darwazi language Dehwari language Dzhidi language (Judeo-Persian) Dari Hazaragi language Judeo-Shirazi language Khuzestani Persian Lari language Pahlavani language Tajik language Categories: ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Persian grammar is similar to many other Indo-European languages, especially those in the Indo-Iranian family. ... The Persian language has six vowels and twenty-three consonants, including one glide //, and two affricates // and //. Vowels Diachronically, Persian possessed a distinction of length in its underlying vowel inventory, contrasting the long vowels , , with the short vowels , , . In Modern Persian, this distinction of quantity is neutralized in most environments... Persian nouns have no grammatical gender, and the case markers have been greatly reduced since Old Persian—both characteristics of contact languages. ... There are many loanwords in the Persian language, mostly coming from Arabic, English, French, and the Turkic languages. ... The Persian language has six vowels and twenty-three consonants, including one glide //, and two affricates // and //. Vowels Diachronically, Persian possessed a distinction of length in its underlying vowel inventory, contrasting the long vowels , , with the short vowels , , . In Modern Persian, this distinction of quantity is neutralized in most environments... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... In general, the grammar of the Tajik language fits the analytical type. ... Hazaragi is a dialect of the Persian language, with the main deviation from Farsi and Dari being a larger borrowing of Turkic and Mongolian vocabulary. ... Bukhori, also known as Bukharic or Bukharan, is an Indo-Iranian language. ...

Dari (Persian: دری) is the official name for the Persian language in Afghanistan, popularly and locally known as Farsi. "Dari" is an abbreviation of Darbārī, meaning "royal court", a reference to the classic style of Persian and to the court language of Sassanids.[1] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Perso-Arabic script. ... The coat of arms of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic circa 1929. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Farsi may refer to: The name of the the Persian language among native speakers Farsi Island, an Iranian island in the Persian Gulf The Jafari Shia Tajiks of Central Asia Salman al-Farsi, one of the prophet Muhammads companions Al-Farisi (1260-1320), Persian mathematician and physicist Jalaleddin Farsi... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of...


This variety of Persian spoken in Afghanistan is different from the language of the Zoroastrians who live in Yazd and Kerman, Iran, which is also called Dari (or Gabri). Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Yazd or Yezd (In Persian: یزد), is the capital of Yazd province, one of the most ancient and historic cities in Iran and a centre of Zoroastrian culture. ... Kerman (in Persian: کرمان Kermān) is a city in Iran. ... The main Zoroastrian fire temple in Yazd, Iran. ...

Contents

Origin of the word "Dari"

There are different opinions about the origin of the word Dari.


Some scholars say that it is derived from dara, meaning "valley", as it developed in the valleys of Hindu Kush mountains (located in northern Afghanistan)[citation needed]. The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ...


However, the majority of scholars believe that Dari refers to the Persian word darbār, meaning "Court", as it was the formal language of the Sassanids[2]. This opinion is supported by medieval sources and early Islamic historians[3]. The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of...


Another similar opinion is referring Dari to the Achaemenid coins in Bactria, called Daric, which were disbributed by court. Here daric means "golden" (Persian: دریک or زریک from زر gold). This point is mentioned in the Persian book Yādgār-e Zarīrān. Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


Geographical distribution

Dari is the major language of Afghanistan, and is spoken in the northern and western parts, and the capital, Kabul, in the east. Approximately 50% of the population of Afghanistan are native speakers, though many are bilingual. The language serves as the means of communication between speakers of different languages in Afghanistan. According to the Encyclopædia Iranica,[4] approximately 50% of Afghanistan's population speak in Dari, though the majority of Afghanistan speak Pashto. Kabul (Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ...


Also, due to heavy Afghan emigration, there are thousands of Dari speakers around the world, notably in North America, Australia and many European countries. There are small minority groups of Dari speakers in Pakistan (mainly in NWFP). The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest in size of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Pashtuns (Pakhtoons). ...


Grammar

The syntax of Dari does not differ greatly from Iran's Persian. The stress accent in Dari is different, but just as prominent as those in Iran's Persian. To mark attribution, spoken Dari uses the object marker -ra. The vowel system also differs from that of Iranian Persian, to some degree.


In addition, the major grammatical difference is the usage of continuous tense. In Iran's Persian, the verb “to have” (Persian: dāshtan) is used before any other verb to indicate a continuous action. While in Dari, the expression "dar hālé" (at the moment of), is used with the simple present or past tense to express a continuous state. Nevertheless, some Dari-speaking Afghans have recently adopted the structure used by Iranians. Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


History

Dari was the official language of the Sassanids' court. It emerged as the language of the Persians after the defeat of the Parthians by Ardeshir I in 226 CE. Dari is also referred to Middle Persian, or to a classic style of Persian language.. The term "middle" Persian suggests the existence of an Old Persian and a New Persian . Old Persian was the language of the Achaemenids, which was overshadowed by Greek after the conquests of Alexander the Great. After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... Wars of Alexander the Great Chaeronea – Thebes – Granicus – Miletus – Halicarnassus – Issus – Tyre – Gaugamela – Persian Gate – Sogdian Rock – Hydaspes River Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1][2] Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon (336–323 BC). ...


The Muslim conquests broke the continued chain of the Persian language and Arabic (for two hundred years, i.e. 7–8 century CE) became the official language. The Persians, however, did not forget their own language and little by little, Middle Persian was being shaped into New Persian (or Dari) was influenced by Arabic loanwords and was written in the Arabic script. New Persian (or Dari) became the main language of people of Transoxiana and Khorasan in 9th century, and later, it became widespread in other parts of Iran, as well as non-Iranian regions such as India, and Anatolia [5]. Therefore, Transoxiana and Khorasan are regarded by many as the birthplace of Persian language and Persian literature[6]. Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, a city which is known as The Pearl of Khorasan Greater Khorasan is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ...


The Old, Middle, and New Persian are and represent the same language at three stages of its history. The New Persian language is what is called today as Farsi or Dari. "Farsi" is the local name of the Persian of Iran and "Dari" is the local name of the Persian spoken in Afghanistan. The New Persian remains close to the Middle Persian in many respects. However, New Persian has taken many words from Arabic, as opposed to Middle Persian which was influenced, to a lesser degree, by Aramaic. The grammatical structure has also undergone minor changes, mainly in relations to verbal morphology and syntax. For example, in New Persian as in German, verbs usually end a sentence. Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ...


Opinions about Dari's emergence

There are different opinions concerning how Dari was formed and developed, and concerning the region where Dari came into existence. Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ...


Mohammad Taqi Bahar, a famous Iranian poet and scholar, writes in his book Sabk-Shenasi:[7]

Some people say that Dari is the same old Persian, others believe that Dari is a dialect of the Soghdi language common in the north of Amu Darya and Samarkand. While others, relying on the statements of Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa, believe that Dari was the language of Capital. It was the most fluent language of the Sassanid period and contained a large number of Eastern words, especially those of Balkh.

He continues: Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language spoken in Sogdiana (Zarafshan River Valley) in the modern day republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (chief cities: Samarkand, Panjikent, Ferghana). ... The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Abdullah Ibn Dhadawayh, also known as Ibn al-Muqaffa (d. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ...

As the people of Samarkand and Bukhara narrated books and poetries in Dari language after Islam and the poets of Khorasan also narrated their poems in this language, Dari came step by step from Khorasan to Persia (modern day Iran). I can say as a conclusion that Dari is the language of the people of Bukhara and Balkh.

Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa (d. 706) writes in his book Al-fehrest: Pahlavi refers to Pahla, which is the name of five cities: Isfahan, Ray, Hamadan, Mah-Nawand and Azerbaijan. But Dari is the language of citizens and that of Court. It is one of the languages of Khorasan and eastern regions (of Persia); the language style of Balkh has more influence on it. While Parsi (Farsi) is the language of Zoroastrian religious leaders, and the people of Persia (Iran) spoke in this language.[8] Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Friday Mosque in Herat, a city which is known as The Pearl of Khorasan Greater Khorasan is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Abdullah Ibn Dhadawayh, also known as Ibn al-Muqaffa (d. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Ray, is one of the oldest cities of Iran. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان ) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, a city which is known as The Pearl of Khorasan Greater Khorasan is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ...


Despite the confusing explanation of Ibn Muqaffa about Pahlavi, Dari and Farsi, we can still conclude that Dari was the language of eastern regions of Persia, i.e. Balkh. Parsi was the official language of the Zoroastrian religion, which is said to be the vehicle of literature later known as Dari. The differences between Parsi (Farsi) and Dari in accent, vocabulary, and expressions have evolved over time and is mostly like American English and British English. Today, Dari and Farsi are considered as two different dialects. By the 9th century, the Dari of Khorasan was the dominant speaking language of the Sassanian empire. In the Middle of the 8th century, Abu Muslim's Arab armies spoke Dari. And it is this language which kept a sense of unity among the Arabized Persians and thus emerged as a national identity through literature. Friday Mosque in Herat, a city which is known as The Pearl of Khorasan Greater Khorasan is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. ... Abu Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim al-Khurasani (Persian:أبو مسلم خراساني)(Arabic:أبو مسلم عبد الرحمن بن مسلم الخراساني) (ca. ... Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ...


According to Prof. Shahrestani, former president of the Faculty of Persian literature of Kabul University, Dari was formed during the rule of Behman Ibn-e Espandyar, one of the Kavi Kings in Balkh, who ruled probably before the Common Era. In several old books including Burhan-e Qāté, it is mentioned that “At the period of Behman’s ruling, son of Espandyar, people came from different regions to his court and did not understand each others’ languages. Therefore, he ordered the scholars to make a fluent Farsi language, and named it Dari.”[9] Hence, we can say with most certainty that Dari is almost a 2000-year-old language. Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Kabul University (Pashto: دکابل پوهنتون, Persian: دانشگاه کابل) is located in Kabul, Afghanistan. ... Kavi is the oldest script of Javanese language, and is derived from the Indic Brahmi. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... “Era Vulgaris” redirects here. ...


From a historical viewpoint, Dari was a developed form of Parti or Parthian Pahlavi having been influenced by Sogdian and Takhari languages[citation needed]. In comparison, Farsi was a developed form of Sassanian Pahlavi. The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ... The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language spoken in Sogdiana (Zarafshan River Valley) in the modern day republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (chief cities: Samarkand, Panjikent, Ferghana). ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ...


In 1951, some inscriptions were found in Surkh Kotal of Baghlan (200km north of Kabul) which demonstrate the similarities between Takhari and Dari languages[citation needed]. These inscriptions, written on a stone, were found in one of the Kushanian Temples, which are 1,800 years old[10]. The inscriptions contain 160 words in 25 lines, and are in Takhari (Modern classification: Tokharian B: Western Tocharian: Kushan Tocharian), written in Greek script. Surkh Kotal was located in the southern portion of Bactria. ... The city of Baghlan was established in Afghanistan in approximately 1960. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the Indo-European language group. ...


In all over Greater Iran (Persia) people called their spoken language Farsi, whereas they attributed the word "Dari" for a pure, original language with a correct structure. Zabihullah Safa, an Iranian scholar, reporting from the book "Burhān-é Qāté'" says: "Any word which does not have any error/mistake is called Dari e.g. اشکم و شکم، بگوی و گوی، اشتر و شتر, etc. So اشکم، بگوی and اشتر are Dari words. And some people believe that it was the language of some cities like Balkh, Bukhara, Badakhshan, and Merv". Another example can be Hafez Shirazi, a famous Persian poet who lived in Shiraz. He has called his language Parsi but has also called it Dari when trying to attribute his poems to a rich language. Greater Iran (in Persian: ایران بزرگ pron: Iran-e Bozorg, also ایران‌زمین pron: Iran-zameen) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to the entire region where Iranian languages are today spoken as a first language, or as a second language by a significant minority. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Badakhshan is a region comprising parts of northeastern Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Merv – Persian name: مرو; formerly Alexandria and Antiochia in Margiana (Greek: Αντιόχεια η Μαργιανή) – in current-day Turkmenistan, was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near todays Mary. ... Hafez, detail of an illumination in a Persian manuscript of the Divan of Hafez, 18th century. ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ...


Dari after Islam

With the advent of Islam, Arabic slowly replaced the Persian language. Pre-Islamic Persia is said to have had a strong poetic tradition, but little of it has survived, according to M. Boyce, because most of it was not written down. When Arabic became the scholarly language, Persian fell into disuse. Today, both Farsi and Dari contain equal combination of Arabic and Turkish vocabulary. The reason that Dari reserved its pure and original language style and expressions, while Farsi could not, is that the people of the eastern regions of Persia, i.e. Khorasan, had less contact and interaction with other foreign languages, although the language of the people of Transoxiana was affected by Russian. Farsi was influenced by some European languages — particularly by French — in the late years of the Qajar Dynasty and during the Pahlavi dynasty. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ...


An important difference between Dari and Farsi can be noticed after the 18th century. Before the 16th century, we do not observe any remarkable difference between the works written in different regions of Persia. Works written in Dari in India during the Moghul Empire had a different language style and usage of expressions than the works written in Farsi in Iran, whereas the language of the people of Khorasan reserved its old Khorasani style. Three distinct schools were created in Persian poetry and literature: Khorasani, Iraqi and Hindi. The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, a city which is known as The Pearl of Khorasan Greater Khorasan is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. ...


The earliest Dari writing goes back to 752 in letter form. However, by the 10th century, a tremendous amount of literature was written and translated into Dari. The first attempts to revive Persian were in poetic form. Among the first poets according to Tarikh-i Sistan, were Abu Hafas Soghdi, Mohammad ibn Wasif, and Hanzala-e Badghisi. The Lubab ul-Albab of Zahiriddin Nasr Muhammad Aufi claims one Abbas of Merv as the first poet, who composed a poem in honor of Khalifa al-Ma'mun on the occasion of his entry into that city of Merv in 809 A.D. Lubab ul-Albab (لباب الالباب) is a famous anthology written by Zahiriddin Nasr Muhammad Aufi in the early 13th century in eastern Persia. ... Sadiduddin Muhammad Aufi (سدید الدین محمد عوفی) (1171-1242) was a Persian historian, scientist, and author. ... Merv – Persian name: مرو; formerly Alexandria and Antiochia in Margiana (Greek: Αντιόχεια η Μαργιανή) – in current-day Turkmenistan, was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near todays Mary. ...


Ibn Wasif, a secretary of Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar of the Saffarid dynasty, praised the sultan on his recent victory in Herat and Phoshanj in Arabic verses. Not understanding his secretary of chancery, Yaqub asked: "Why must something be recited that I can't understand?" Thus, Ibn Wasif, to please the sultan, began writing in Dari. Hanzala and Ibn Wasif were the leading men, in local Persian courts, who led the way for a patriotic literary revival. The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ...


Much credit also goes to dynasties of Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids and Seljukids who encouraged poetry and had hundreds of poets in their courts. Most of the well-known Persian poets lived during those periods. The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between AD 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq;in Turkish Selçuklu, in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān ; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa;) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turkics and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th...


Political views on the language

Some people do not consider Afghan Persian itself to be a dialect or a language. They consider it to be the written language (written Persian, with no dialects), and Persian (locally: Fârsi) the spoken language (spoken Persian, which has many different dialects). It is also believed by some that Dari should not be called Afghan Persian, because:

Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Mahmoud Dowlatabadi Mahmoud Dowlatabadi (Persian: ), born 1940 in Dowlatabad, a village in the north-western part of the Khorasan Province, Iran, is an Iranian writer and actor. ...

Literature

  • G. Lazard in Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Darī - The New Persian Literary Language", Online Edition, (LINK)
  • S. Sakaria, Concise English - Afghan Dari Dictionary (Kabul: Ferozsons, 1965).

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.afghan-web.com/language/farsidari.html
  2. ^ G. Lazard in Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Darī - The New Persian Literary Language", Online Edition 2006, (LINK)
  3. ^ Ebn al-Nadim, ed. Tajaddod, p. 15; Khwārazmī, Mafātīh al-olum, pp. 116-17; Hamza Esfahānī, pp. 67-68; Yāqūt, Boldān IV, p. 846
  4. ^ "Afghānistān: (v.) languages" by L. Dupree, Encyclopædia Iranica Online Edition 2006.
  5. ^ Dr. Jalal Matini, Iranshenasi Magazine, No.2, Year 2002, LINK
  6. ^ Dr. Jalal Matini, Iranshenasi Magazine, No.2, Year 2002, LINK
  7. ^ Sabk-Shenasi (Vol.1), Taqi Mohammad Bahar, Amir Kabir's Publications, 1337 Tehran
  8. ^ History of the Philosophical Sciences of Iran", Haqiqat Abdul Rafi, Komash Publications, 1372 Tehran, page 39
  9. ^ Shahrestani, Shah Ali Akbar, Emergence and Development of Farsi-Dari language, 1999, New Delhi, India
  10. ^ Nicholas Sims-William, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London, Bactrian Documents from Ancient Afghanistan, 1997, LINK

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ...

External links

Wikimedia Incubator
Dari (Afghanistan) test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator
  • Dari Alphabet (www.afghan-web.com)
  • (Persian) International Symposium of Masters of Persian language discusses the name of this language
  • Persian speaking people and the names of persian language

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Afghanistan - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (5918 words)
Afghanistan is a mosaic of ethnic groups, and a crossroads between the East and West.
Afghanistan is a land-locked and mountainous country in central Asia, with plains in the north and southwest.
By the early 1700s, the region of modern Afghanistan was controlled by several ruling groups: Uzbeks to the north, Safavids to the west and the remaining larger area by the Mughals or self ruled by local Afghan tribes.
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