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Encyclopedia > Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri

Dante Alighieri, painted by Giotto in the chapel of the Bargello palace in Florence. This oldest portrait of Dante was painted during his lifetime before his exile from his native city.
Born mid-May to mid-June 1265
Florence
Died 13-14 September 1321
Ravenna, Italy
Occupation Statesman, Poet, language theorist
Nationality Italian
Dante Alighieri, detail from a Luca Signorelli's affresco della cappella di San Brizio, Duomo, Orvieto.
Dante Alighieri, detail from a Luca Signorelli's affresco della cappella di San Brizio, Duomo, Orvieto.
A portrait of Dante, from a fresco in Palazzo dei Giudici, Florence.
A portrait of Dante, from a fresco in Palazzo dei Giudici, Florence.

Dante Alighieri, or simply Dante (mid-May to mid-June 1265September 13/14, 1321), was an Italian poet from Florence. His central work, the Divina Commedia (originally called "Commedia" and later called "Divina" (divine) by Boccaccio hence "Divina Commedia"), is considered the greatest literary work composed in the Italian language and a masterpiece of world literature. In Italian he is known as "the Supreme Poet" (il Sommo Poeta). Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio are also known as "the three fountains" or "the three crowns". Dante is also called the "Father of the Italian language". The first biography written on him was by Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375), who wrote the Trattatello in laude di Dante. People named Dante: Dante Alighieri (1265–1321), 13th-14th century Florentine poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828–1882), 19th century English painter Dante (Oscar Eliason) (1869–1899), an American magician popular in the late 19th century Dante (Harry August Jansen) (1883–1955), an American magician popular in the early 20th century... Drawing of Dante Alighieri. ... Giotto di Bondone (c. ... the Bargello For the type of embroidery, please visit Bargello (needlework) The Bargello palace was built in 1255 to house first the Capitano del Populo and later, in 1261, the Podestà, the highest magistrate of the Florence City Council, Italy. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Events Births September 29 - John of Artois, Count of Eu, French soldier (d. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... This article is about work. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... fresco of the Last Judgment (1499) in Orvieto Cathedral Luca Signorelli (c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (936x1084, 1037 KB) [edit] Summary Dante Alighieris first portrait known, Palazzo dei Giudici, Firenze [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dante Alighieri Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (936x1084, 1037 KB) [edit] Summary Dante Alighieris first portrait known, Palazzo dei Giudici, Firenze [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dante Alighieri Metadata This... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Births September 29 - John of Artois, Count of Eu, French soldier (d. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera), from the Latin meaning great work,[1] refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer, and most commonly one who has contributed a very large amount of material. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 - December 21, 1375) was a Florentine author and poet, the greatest of Petrarchs disciples, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poems in the vernacular. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... Italian ( , or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people,[4] primarily in Italy. ... This article is about (usually written) works. ... From the c. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 - December 21, 1375) was a Florentine author and poet, the greatest of Petrarchs disciples, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poems in the vernacular. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ...

Contents

Life

The exact date of Dante's birth is unknown, although it is generally believed to be around 1265. This can be deduced from autobiographic allusions in La Vita Nuova, "the Inferno" (Halfway through the journey we are living, implying that Dante was around 35 years old, as the average lifespan according to the Bible (Psalms, 89, 10) is 70 years, and as the imaginary travel took place in the 1300 Dante must have been born around 1265). Some verses of "the Paradise" also provide a possible clue that he was born under the sign of Gemini - "As I revolved with the eternal twins, I saw revealed from hills to river outlets, the threshing-floor that makes us so ferocious", Paradise XXII 151-154), but these cannot be considered definitive statements by Dante about his birth. However, in 1265 the Sun was in Gemini approximately during the period 11 May to 11 June. His birth date is listed as "probably in the end of May" by Robert Hollander in "Dante" in Dictionary of the Middle Ages, volume 4. In summary, most students of Dante's life believe that he was born between about the middle of May and about the middle of June 1265, but there is little likelihood a definite date will ever be known. La Vita Nuova (English: New Life) is a book of verse written by Dante Alighieri, roughly around the year of 1293. ... Look up inferno, Inferno, infernal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gemini may refer to In astronomy: Gemini (constellation), one of the constellations of the zodiac Gemini (astrology), the astrological sign Project Gemini, the second US manned spaceflight program Gemini Observatory, northern and southern hemisphere twin large telescopes In film and television: Gemini (2002 film), a Tamil film starring Vikram and... Paradise, Jan Bruegel Paradise is an English word from Persian roots that is generally identified with the Garden of Eden or with Heaven. ... Dictionary of the Middle Ages: Supplement 1 (2003) The Dictionary of the Middle Ages is a 13-volume encyclopedia of the Middle Ages published by the American Council of Learned Societies between 1982 and 1989, with a supplemental volume added in 2003. ...

Mural of Dante in the Uffizi Gallery, by Andrea del Castagno, c. 1450.
Mural of Dante in the Uffizi Gallery, by Andrea del Castagno, c. 1450.

Dante pretended that his family descended from the ancient Romans (Inferno, XV, 76), but the earliest relative he could mention by name was Cacciaguida degli Elisei (Paradiso, XV, 135), of no earlier than about 1100. Dante's father, Alighiero di Bellincione, was a White Guelph (see politics section) who suffered no reprisals after the Ghibellines won the Battle of Montaperti in the mid 13th century. This suggests that Alighiero or his family enjoyed some protective prestige and status. Download high resolution version (777x1200, 134 KB)Fresco, transferred to wood, of Dante Alighieri from the Uffizi Gallery Florence. ... Download high resolution version (777x1200, 134 KB)Fresco, transferred to wood, of Dante Alighieri from the Uffizi Gallery Florence. ... The Uffizi Gallery (Italian Galleria degli Uffizi) is a palace or palazzo in Florence, holding one of the most famous museums in the world. ... Our Lady of the Assumption with Sts Miniato and Julian (1450) Panel, 150 x 158 cm Staatliche Museen, Berlin Andrea del Castagno (c. ... Cacciaguida degli Elisei (1091? - c. ... The Battle of Montaperti was fought on September 4, 1260, between Florence and Siena in Tuscany as part of the conflict between the Guelphs and Ghibellines. ...


Dante's family was prominent in Florence, with loyalties to the Guelphs, a political alliance that supported the Papacy and which was involved in complex opposition to the Ghibellines, who were backed by the Holy Roman Emperor. The poet's mother was Bella degli Abati. She died when Dante was not yet ten years old, and Alighiero soon married again, to Lapa di Chiarissimo Cialuffi. It is uncertain whether he really married her, as widowers had social limitations in these matters. This woman definitely bore two children, Dante's brother Francesco and sister Tana (Gaetana). When Dante was 12, in 1277, he was promised in marriage to Gemma di Manetto Donati, daughter of Messer Manetto Donati. Contracting marriages at this early age was quite common and involved a formal ceremony, including contracts signed before a notary. Dante had already fallen in love with another girl, Beatrice Portinari (known also as Bice). Years after his marriage to Gemma he met Beatrice again. He had become interested in writing verse, and although he wrote several sonnets to Beatrice, he never mentioned his wife Gemma in any of his poems. The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting, respectively, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting, respectively, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. ... A US Embossed Notary Seal. ...


Dante fought in the front rank of the Guelph cavalry at the battle of Campaldino (June 11, 1289). This victory brought forth a reformation of the Florentine constitution. To take any part in public life, one had to be enrolled in one of “the arts”. So Dante entered the guild of physicians and apothecaries. In following years, his name is frequently found recorded as speaking or voting in the various councils of the republic. The Battle of Campaldino was a battle between the Guelphs and Ghibellines on June 11, 1289. ...


Dante had several children with Gemma. As often happens with significant figures, many people subsequently claimed to be Dante's offspring; however, it is likely that Jacopo, Pietro, Giovanni, Gabrielle Alighieri, and Antonia were truly his children. Antonia became a nun with the name of Sister Beatrice.


Education and poetry

Not much is known about Dante's education, and it is presumed he studied at home. It is known that he studied Tuscan poetry, at a time when the Sicilian School (Scuola poetica siciliana), a cultural group from Sicily, was becoming known in Tuscany. His interests brought him to discover the Occitan poetry of the troubadours and the Latin poetry of classical antiquity (with a particular devotion to Virgil). For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... In a literary context, the term Sicilian School identifies a small community of Sicilian, and to a lesser extent, mainland Italian poets gathered around Frederick II, most of them belonging to his court, the Magna Curia. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... For the article about the night club in West Hollywood, California, see: Troubadour (nightclub). ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ...


During the "Secoli Bui" (Dark Ages), Italy had become a mosaic of small states, Sicily being the largest one, at the time under the Angevine dominations, and as far (culturally and politically) from Tuscany as Occitania was: the regions did not share a language, culture, or easy communications. Nevertheless, we can assume that Dante was a keen up-to-date intellectual with international interests. Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. ... Counts of Anjou, c. ... A version of the flag frequently used by Occitan activists. ...

Statue of Dante at the Uffizi, Florence.
Statue of Dante at the Uffizi, Florence.

When he was nine years old he met Beatrice Portinari, daughter of Folco Portinari, with whom he fell in love "at first sight", and apparently without even having spoken to her. He saw her frequently after age 18, often exchanging greetings in the street, but he never knew her well; he effectively set the example for the so-called "courtly love". It is hard now to understand what this love actually comprised, but something extremely important for Italian culture was happening. It was in the name of this love that Dante gave his imprint to the Stil Novo and would lead poets and writers to discover the themes of Love (Amore), which had never been so emphasized before. Love for Beatrice (as in a different manner Petrarch would show for his Laura) would apparently be the reason for poetry and for living, together with political passions. In many of his poems, she is depicted as semi-divine, watching over him constantly. When Beatrice died in 1290, Dante tried to find a refuge in Latin literature. The Convivio reveals that he had read Boethius's De consolatione philosophiae and Cicero's De amicitia. He then dedicated himself to philosophical studies at religious schools like the Dominican one in Santa Maria Novella. He took part in the disputes that the two principal mendicant orders (Franciscan and Dominican) publicly or indirectly held in Florence, the former explaining the doctrine of the mystics and of Saint Bonaventure, the latter presenting Saint Thomas Aquinas' theories. This "excessive" passion for philosophy would later be criticized by the character Beatrice, in Purgatorio, the second book of the Comedy. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (729x1280, 451 KB) Summary Dante Alighieri (c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (729x1280, 451 KB) Summary Dante Alighieri (c. ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... Although the details surrounding the life of Beatrice Portinari, pronounced bay-a-treech-eh, (1266-1290) are subject to much dispute, there is little doubt she was a major influence in Dante Alighieris life, influencing particularly his works of La Vita Nuova and La Divina Commedia. ... Court of Love in Provence in the 14th Century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). ... From the c. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Convivio is a work written by Dante Alighieri roughly between 1294 and 1307. ... For other people of the same name, see Boethius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... The Romanesque-Gothic facade, completed by Leon Battista Alberti in 1470 Santa Maria Novella is a church in Florence. ... The Mendicant (or Begging) Orders are religious orders which depend directly on the riches of the people for their livelihood. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (Italian: San Bonaventura) (1221 – 15 July 1274), born John of Fidanza (Italian: Giovanni di Fidanza), was the eighth Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called the Franciscans. ... Aquinas redirects here. ...


At 18, Dante met Guido Cavalcanti, Lapo Gianni, Cino da Pistoia, and soon after Brunetto Latini; together they became the leaders of Dolce Stil Novo ("The Sweet New Style"). Brunetto later received a special mention in the Divine Comedy (Inferno, XV, 28), for what he had taught Dante. Nor speaking less on that account, I go With Ser Brunetto, and I ask who are His most known and most eminent companions. Some fifty poetical components by Dante are known (the so-called Rime, rhymes), others being included in the later Vita Nuova and Convivio. Other studies are reported, or deduced from Vita Nuova or the Comedy, regarding painting and music. Cavalcanti and Dante Guido Cavalcanti (c. ... Lapo Gianni (died after 1328) was an Italian poet who lived in Florence in the 13th-14th centuries. ... Cino (dei Sighibuldi) da Pistoia (1270 - Italian poet and friend of Dante. ... Brunetto Latini (c. ... Dolce Stil Novo (Italian for The Sweet New Style) is the name given to the most important literary movement of 13th century Italy. ... The Rime is a collection of lyrical poems written by Dante Alighieri in the Italian language. ...


Florence and politics

Dante, like most Florentines of his day, was embroiled in the Guelph-Ghibelline conflict. He fought in the battle of Campaldino (June 11, 1289), with the Florentine Guelphs against Arezzo Ghibellines, then in 1294 he was among the escorts of Charles Martel d'Anjou (son of Charles of Anjou) while he was in Florence. The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting, respectively, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Battle of Campaldino was a battle between the Guelphs and Ghibellines on June 11, 1289. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Arezzo (Latin Arretium) is an old city in central Italy, capital of the province of the same name, located in Tuscany. ... Charles Martel ( September 8, 1271 - Naples August 12, 1295), also known as Charles I Martel, Charles Martel d Anjou, and (in Italian) Carlo Martello was the son of king Charles II of Naples and Maria of Hungary, the daughter of King Stephen V of Hungary. ... Charles I (March 1227 - January 7, 1285) was the posthumous son of King Louis VIII of France, created Count of Anjou by his elder brother King Louis IX in 1246, thus founding the second Angevin dynasty. ...


To further his political career, he became a pharmacist. He did not intend to actually practice as one, but a law issued in 1295 required that nobles who wanted public office had to be enrolled in one of the Corporazioni delle Arti e dei Mestieri, so Dante obtained admission to the apothecaries' guild. This profession was not entirely inapt, since at that time books were sold from apothecaries' shops. As a politician, he accomplished little, but he held various offices over a number of years in a city undergoing political unrest.


After defeating the Ghibellines, the Guelphs divided into two factions: the White Guelphs (Guelfi Bianchi) — Dante's party, led by Vieri dei Cerchi — and the Black Guelphs (Guelfi Neri), led by Corso Donati. Although initially the split was along family lines, ideological differences rose based on opposing views of the papal role in Florentine affairs, with the Blacks supporting the Pope and the Whites wanting more freedom from Rome. Initially the Whites were in power and expelled the Blacks. Corso Donati is the brother of Gemma Donati, wife of the great poet, Dante Alighieri. ...


In response, Pope Boniface VIII planned a military occupation of Florence. In 1301, Charles de Valois, brother of Philip the Fair king of France, was expected to visit Florence because the Pope had appointed him peacemaker for Tuscany. But the city's government had treated the Pope's ambassadors badly a few weeks before, seeking independence from papal influence. It was believed that Charles de Valois would eventually have received other unofficial instructions. So the council sent a delegation to Rome to ascertain the Pope's intentions. Dante was one of the delegates. Pope Boniface VIII (c. ... Charles III of Valois (March 12, 1270 – December 16, 1325) was the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon. ... “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


Exile and death

A recreated death mask of Dante Alighieri (in Palazzo Vecchio, Florence).
A recreated death mask of Dante Alighieri (in Palazzo Vecchio, Florence).

Boniface quickly dismissed the other delegates and asked Dante alone to remain in Rome. At the same time (November 01, 1301), Charles de Valois entered Florence with Black Guelphs, who in the next six days destroyed much of the city and killed many of their enemies. A new Black Guelph government was installed and Messer Cante dei Gabrielli di Gubbio was appointed Podestà of Florence. Dante was condemned to exile for two years, and ordered to pay a large fine. The poet was still in Rome, where the Pope had "suggested" he stay, and was therefore considered an absconder. He did not pay the fine, in part because he believed he was not guilty, and in part because all his assets in Florence had been seized by the Black Guelphs. He was condemned to perpetual exile, and if he returned to Florence without paying the fine, he could be burned at the stake. (The city council of Florence finally passed a motion rescinding Dante's sentence in June 2008.[1]) Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 95 KB) Summary Deathmask of Dante Alighieri (c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 95 KB) Summary Deathmask of Dante Alighieri (c. ... For an episode of the television series Rome, see Death Mask (Rome). ... Palazzo Vecchio The Palazzo Vecchio is the town hall of Florence, Italy. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Events February 7 - Edward of Caernarvon (later King Edward II of England) becomes the first Prince of Wales End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fushimi, emperor of Japan Emperor Go-Nijō ascends to the throne of Japan Dante was sent into Exile in Florence. ... Charles de Valois is the name of several people: Charles of Valois (1270 – 1325) Charles of Valois, Duc dOrléans (1394 – 1465) Charles de Valois, Duc dOrléans (1522 – 1545) Charles de Valois, Duke of Angoulême (1573 – 1650) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles... The Gabrielli are an Italian feudal family from Gubbio, in Umbria. ... Gubbio is a town and comune in the far northeastern part of the Italian province of Perugia, (Umbria), . At 522 m (1713 ft) above sea-level, it clings to the first slope of Mt. ... The Palace of the Podestà in Florence, known as the Palazzo Vecchio or the Palazzo della Signoria Podestà is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities, since the later middle ages, mainly as Chief magistrate of a city state (like otherwise styled counterparts in other cities...


The poet took part in several attempts by the White Guelphs to regain power, but these failed due to treachery. Dante, bitter at the treatment he received from his enemies, also grew disgusted with the infighting and ineffectiveness of his erstwhile allies, and vowed to become a party of one. At this point, he began sketching the foundation for the Divine Comedy, a work in 100 cantos, divided into three books of thirty-three cantos each, with a single introductory canto. Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... A canto is a significant section of a long poem or the highest part in a piece of choral music. ...

Statue of Dante in the Piazza di Santa Croce in Florence.
Statue of Dante in the Piazza di Santa Croce in Florence.

He went to Verona as a guest of Bartolomeo I della Scala, then moved to Sarzana in Liguria. Later, he is supposed to have lived in Lucca with Madame Gentucca, who made his stay comfortable (and was later gratefully mentioned in Purgatorio, XXIV, 37). Some speculative sources say that he was also in Paris between 1308 and 1310. Other sources, even less trustworthy, take him to Oxford. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,920 × 2,560 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,920 × 2,560 pixels, file size: 1. ... This page is about the city in Italy; for other uses, see Verona (disambiguation). ... Bartolomeo I della Scala (died March 7 or March 8, 1304) was lord of Verona from 1301, a member of the Scaliger family. ... Sarzana is a town and comune in the Province of La Spezia, of Liguria, Italy, 15 km east of Spezia, on the railway to Pisa, at the point where the railway to Parma diverges to the north. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... For the Chrono Trigger character, see Lucca (Chrono Trigger). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ...


In 1310, the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII of Luxembourg, marched 5,000 troops into Italy. Dante saw in him a new Charlemagne who would restore the office of the Holy Roman Emperor to its former glory and also re-take Florence from the Black Guelphs. He wrote to Henry and several Italian princes, demanding that they destroy the Black Guelphs. Mixing religion and private concerns, he invoked the worst anger of God against his city, suggesting several particular targets that coincided with his personal enemies. It was during this time that he wrote the first two books of the Divine Comedy. Henry VII, (In German: Heinrich; in Italian: Arrigo), ca. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ...


In Florence, Baldo d'Aguglione pardoned most of the White Guelphs in exile and allowed them to return; however, Dante had gone too far in his violent letters to Arrigo (Henry VII), and he was not recalled.

The memorial tomb for Dante Alighieri at Basilica di Santa Croce in Florence.
The memorial tomb for Dante Alighieri at Basilica di Santa Croce in Florence.

In 1312, Henry assaulted Florence and defeated the Black Guelphs, but there is no evidence that Dante was involved. Some say he refused to participate in the assault on his city by a foreigner; others suggest that he had become unpopular with the White Guelphs too and that any trace of his passage had carefully been removed. In 1313, Henry VII died, and with him any hope for Dante to see Florence again. He returned to Verona, where Cangrande I della Scala allowed him to live in a certain security and, presumably, in a fair amount of prosperity. Cangrande was admitted to Dante's Paradise (Paradiso, XVII, 76). Image File history File links DanteflorenceCEL.jpg Summary Photograph by Cheryl Lemanski Licensing This image is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License v. ... Image File history File links DanteflorenceCEL.jpg Summary Photograph by Cheryl Lemanski Licensing This image is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License v. ... The Cenotaph, London. ... Façade. ... Cangrande I della Scala, proper name Can Francesco della Scala (c. ...

Dante's tomb in Ravenna, built in 1780.
Dante's tomb in Ravenna, built in 1780.

In 1315, Florence was forced by Uguccione della Faggiuola (the military officer controlling the town) to grant an amnesty to people in exile, including Dante. But Florence required that as well as paying a sum of money, these exiles would do public penance. Dante refused, preferring to remain in exile. When Uguccione defeated Florence, Dante's death sentence was commuted to house arrest, on condition that he go to Florence to swear that he would never enter the town again. Dante refused to go. His death sentence was confirmed and extended to his sons. Dante still hoped late in life that he might be invited back to Florence on honourable terms. For Dante, exile was nearly a form of death, stripping him of much of his identity. He addresses the pain of exile in Paradiso, XVII (55-60), where Cacciaguida, his great-great-grandfather, warns him what to expect: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 1,011 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 1,011 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Uguccione della Faggiuola (born ~1250, Massa Trabaria, Tuscany (Italy); died November 1, 1319, Vicenza) was chief magistrate of Pisa, Lucca and Forlì (1297). ... For other uses, see Penance (disambiguation). ...

. . . Tu lascerai ogne cosa diletta ". . . You shall leave everything you love most:
più caramente; e questo è quello strale this is the arrow that the bow of exile
che l'arco de lo essilio pria saetta. shoots first. You are to know the bitter taste
Tu proverai sì come sa di sale of others' bread, how salty it is, and know
lo pane altrui, e come è duro calle how hard a path it is for one who goes
lo scendere e 'l salir per l'altrui scale . . . ascending and descending others' stairs . . ."

As for the hope of returning to Florence, he describes it wistfully, as if he had already accepted its impossibility, (Paradiso, XXV, 1–9):

Se mai continga che 'l poema sacro If it ever come to pass that the sacred poem
al quale ha posto mano e cielo e terra, to which both heaven and earth have set their hand
sì che m'ha fatto per molti anni macro, so as to have made me lean for many years
vinca la crudeltà che fuor mi serra should overcome the cruelty that bars me
del bello ovile ov'io dormi' agnello, from the fair sheepfold where I slept as a lamb,
nimico ai lupi che li danno guerra; an enemy to the wolves that make war on it,
con altra voce omai, con altro vello with another voice now and other fleece
ritornerò poeta, e in sul fonte I shall return a poet and at the font
del mio battesmo prenderò 'l cappello . . . of my baptism take the laurel crown...

Of course it never happened. Prince Guido Novello da Polenta invited him to Ravenna in 1318, and he accepted. He finished the Paradiso, and died in 1321 (at the age of 56) while returning to Ravenna from a diplomatic mission to Venice, perhaps of malaria contracted there. Dante was buried in Ravenna at the Church of San Pier Maggiore (later called San Francesco). Bernardo Bembo, praetor of Venice in 1483, took care of his remains by building a better tomb. A laurel wreath decorating a memorial at the Folketing, the national parliament of Denmark. ... Da Polenta is the name of a castle in Romagna, and of an old noble Italian family. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...

Cenotaph in Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence.
Cenotaph in Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence.

On the grave, some verses of Bernardo Canaccio, a friend of Dante, dedicated to Florence: The Cenotaph, London. ... The Basilica di Santa Croce (Basilica of the Holy Cross) is the principal Franciscan church in Florence, Italy, and a minor basilica of the Roman Catholic Church. ...

parvi Florentia mater amoris
"Florence, mother of little love"

Eventually, Florence came to regret Dante's exile, and made repeated requests for the return of his remains. The custodians of the body at Ravenna refused to comply, at one point going so far as to conceal the bones in a false wall of the monastery. Nevertheless, in 1829, a tomb was built for him in Florence in the basilica of Santa Croce. That tomb has been empty ever since, with Dante's body remaining in Ravenna, far from the land he loved so dearly. The front of his tomb in Florence reads Onorate l'altissimo poeta - which roughly translates as "Honour the most exalted poet". The phrase is a quote from the fourth canto of the Inferno, depicting Virgil's welcome as he returns among the great ancient poets spending eternity in Limbo. The continuation of the line, L'ombra sua torna, ch'era dipartita ("his spirit, which had left us, returns"), is poignantly absent from the empty tomb. Façade. ... The Cenotaph, London. ...


Recently, a recreation of Dante's face was made, showing that his features were much more ordinary than once thought.[2]


Works

Dante, poised between the mountain of purgatory and the city of Florence, displays the famous incipit Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita in a detail of Domenico di Michelino's painting, Florence 1465.
Dante, poised between the mountain of purgatory and the city of Florence, displays the famous incipit Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita in a detail of Domenico di Michelino's painting, Florence 1465.
See also Category:Works by Dante Alighieri.

The Divine Comedy describes Dante's journey through Hell (Inferno), Purgatory (Purgatorio), and Paradise (Paradiso), guided first by the Roman poet Virgil and then by Beatrice, the subject of his love and of another of his works, La Vita Nuova. While the vision of Hell, the Inferno, is vivid for modern readers, the theological niceties presented in the other books require a certain amount of patience and knowledge to appreciate. Purgatorio, the most lyrical and human of the three, also has the most poets in it; Paradiso, the most heavily theological, has the most beautiful and ecstatic mystic passages in which Dante tries to describe what he confesses he is unable to convey (e.g., when Dante looks into the face of God: "all'alta fantasia qui mancò possa" - "at this high moment, ability failed my capacity to describe," Paradiso, XXXIII, 142). Download high resolution version (1053x684, 156 KB)Dante (detail), Domenico di Michelino, Florence 1465 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (1053x684, 156 KB)Dante (detail), Domenico di Michelino, Florence 1465 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Although the details surrounding the life of Beatrice Portinari, pronounced bay-a-treech-eh, (1266-1290) are subject to much dispute, there is little doubt she was a major influence in Dante Alighieris life, influencing particularly his works of La Vita Nuova and La Divina Commedia. ... La Vita Nuova (English: New Life) is a book of verse written by Dante Alighieri, roughly around the year of 1293. ...


Dante wrote the Comedy in a new language he called "Italian", based on the regional dialect of Tuscany, with some elements of Latin and of the other regional dialects. By creating a poem of epic structure and philosophic purpose, he established that the Italian language was suitable for the highest sort of expression. In French, Italian is nicknamed la langue de Dante. Publishing in the vernacular language marked Dante as one of the first (among others such as Geoffrey Chaucer and Giovanni Boccaccio) to break from standards of publishing in only Latin (the languages of liturgy, history, and scholarship in general). This break allowed more literature to be published for a wider audience - setting the stage for greater levels of literacy in the future. Italian ( , or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people,[4] primarily in Italy. ... Chaucer redirects here. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ...

Profile portrait of Dante, by Sandro Botticelli (1444–1510).
Profile portrait of Dante, by Sandro Botticelli (1444–1510).

Readers often cannot understand how such a serious work may be called a "comedy". In Dante's time, all serious scholarly works were written in Latin (a tradition that would persist for several hundred years more, until the waning years of the Enlightenment) and works written in any other language were assumed to be more trivial in nature. Furthermore, the word "comedy," in the classical sense, refers to works which reflect belief in an ordered universe, in which events not only tended towards a happy or "amusing" ending, but an ending influenced by a Providential will that orders all things to an ultimate good. By this meaning of the word, the progression of Dante's pilgrimage from Hell to Paradise is the paradigmatic expression of comedy, since the work begins with the pilgrim's moral confusion and ends with the vision of God. Botticelli redirects here. ... The word Enlightment redirects here. ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ...


Dante's other works include the Convivio ("The Banquet")[3] a collection of his longest poems with an (unfinished) allegorical commentary; Monarchia,[1], which was condemned and burned after Dante's death[4][5] by the Papal Legate Bertrando del Poggetto and which serves as a monumental political philosophy treatise describing a monarchial global political organization and its relationship to the Roman Catholic Church; De vulgari eloquentia ("On the Eloquence of Vernacular"),[6] on vernacular literature, partly inspired by the Razos de trobar of Raimon Vidal de Bezaudun; and, La Vita Nuova ("The New Life")[2], the story of his love for Beatrice Portinari, who also served as the ultimate symbol of salvation in the Comedy. The Vita Nuova contains many of Dante's love poems in Tuscan, which was not unprecedented; the vernacular had been regularly used for lyric works before, during all the thirteenth century. However, Dante's commentary on his own work is also in the vernacular - both in the Vita Nuova and in the Convivio - instead of the Latin that was almost universally used. Convivio is a work written by Dante Alighieri roughly between 1294 and 1307. ... De vulgari eloquentia (On Vernacular Speech) is the title of an important essay by Dante Alighieri, written in Latin and initially meant to consist in four books, but aborted after the second. ... Raimon Vidal de Bezaudu(n) (Catalan: Ramon Vidal de Besalú, French: Raymond Vidal de Besaudun; c. ... La Vita Nuova (English: New Life) is a book of verse written by Dante Alighieri, roughly around the year of 1293. ... Although the details surrounding the life of Beatrice Portinari, pronounced bay-a-treech-eh, (1266-1290) are subject to much dispute, there is little doubt she was a major influence in Dante Alighieris life, influencing particularly his works of La Vita Nuova and La Divina Commedia. ...


Note: References to Divina Commedia are in the format (book, canto, verse), e.g., (Inferno, XV, 76).

Dante by Erminio Blotta, at Blvd. Oroño Rosario, Argentina
Dante by Erminio Blotta, at Blvd. Oroño Rosario, Argentina

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (969x1279, 510 KB) Summary Imagen del busto de Dante Alighieri, en mármol, del escultor Erminio Blotta, en el Bv. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (969x1279, 510 KB) Summary Imagen del busto de Dante Alighieri, en mármol, del escultor Erminio Blotta, en el Bv. ... Erminio Blotta (1892-11-08 – 1976-01-23) was an Argentine sculptor of Italian origin. ... Rosario is the largest city in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina. ...

In popular culture

Dante and the Divine Comedy have been a source of inspiration for countless artists for almost seven centuries. As one of the best-known and greatest artistic works in the Western tradition, its influence on culture is difficult to overestimate. Dante Alighieri and his masterpiece, The Divine Comedy, have been a source of inspiration for countless artists for almost seven centuries. ...


References

  1. ^ Malcolm Moore "Dante's infernal crimes forgiven", Daily Telegraph, 17 June 2008. Retrieved on 18 June 2008.
  2. ^ Pullella, Philip. "Dante gets posthumous nose job - 700 years on", Reuters, 12 January 2007. Retrieved on 2007-11-05. 
  3. ^ Banquet. danteonline.it. Retrieved on May 12, 2008.
  4. ^ Anthony K. Cassell The Monarchia Controversy. The Monarchia stayed on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum from its inception until 1881.
  5. ^ Giuseppe Cappelli,La divina commedia di Dante Alighieri, in Italian.
  6. ^ Dante Online - Le Opere

Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Title page of Index Librorum Prohibitorum (Venice 1564). ...

Published resources

  • Gardner, Edmund Garratt (1921). Dante, London, Pub. for the British academy by H. Milford, Oxford University Press. From Internet Archive.
  • Scott, John A. Dante's Political Purgatory, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
  • Whiting, Mary Bradford (1922). Dante the Man and the Poet. Cambridge, England. W. Heffer & Sons, ltd. From Internet Archive.

Edmund Garratt Gardner, (1869-1935), was an English writer who specialised in Italian history related topics. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ...

External links

Wikisource
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Dante Alighieri
Literature Portal

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Biography

Rich resources

Works online

Divine Comedy online

About Dante's works

Other

  • Henry Holiday's 'Dante and Beatrice' painting
  • "Italian Scientists Give Dante a Makeover", Italian scientists reconstruct Dante's face. CBS News.
  • DANTE ALIGHIERI -- In Tribute to the Century of Youth By Daisaku Ikeda
Persondata
NAME Alighieri, Dante
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Durante degli Alighieri; Dante
SHORT DESCRIPTION Italian poet
DATE OF BIRTH c. 1 June 1265
PLACE OF BIRTH Florence, Italy
DATE OF DEATH September 13-14, 1321
PLACE OF DEATH Between Ravenna and Venice
Dante Alighieri (1265 - 1321)
Works in Latin: De vulgari eloquentia - De Monarchia - Eclogues - Letters
Works in Italian: La Vita Nuova - Le Rime - Convivio
Divina Commedia: Inferno - Purgatorio - Paradiso

For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Events Births September 29 - John of Artois, Count of Eu, French soldier (d. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... De vulgari eloquentia (On Vernacular Speech) is the title of an important essay by Dante Alighieri, written in Latin and initially meant to consist in four books, but aborted after the second. ... La Vita Nuova (English: New Life) is a book of verse written by Dante Alighieri, roughly around the year of 1293. ... Convivio is a work written by Dante Alighieri roughly between 1294 and 1307. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Dante Alighieri - MSN Encarta (941 words)
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), Italian poet, and one of the supreme figures of world literature, who was admired for the depth of his spiritual vision and for the range of his intellectual accomplishment.
Dante was born in Florence between late May and early June 1265, into a family of the lower nobility.
Dante’s political hopes were strongly aroused by the arrival in Italy in 1310 of Henry VII, king of Germany and Holy Roman emperor.
Dante Alighieri (4445 words)
Dante thus grew up amidst the triumphs of the Florentine democracy, in which he took some share fighting in the front rank of the Guelph cavalry at the battle of Campaldino (11 June, 1289), when the Tuscan Ghibellines were defeated by the forces of the Guelph league, of which Florence was the head.
Dante's vehement denunciation of the ecclesiastical corruption of his times, and his condemnation of most of the contemporary popes (including the canonized Celestine V) to hell have led to some questioning as to the poet's attitude towards the Church.
Dante may be said to have made Italian poetry, and to have stamped the mark of his lofty and commanding personality upon all modern literature.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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