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Odin (Old Norse Óðinn) is considered the highest god in Norse mythology and Norse paganism, like West Germanic Woden continuing Proto-Germanic *Wodanaz Odin, Wotan, Wodan, Woden or Oden is usually considered the supreme god of Germanic and Norse mythology. ... Woden is the Old English name as used by the Anglo-Saxons for the Germanic god known more commonly as the Norse god Odin. ... Wotan is the name for the North Germanic god known in Norse as Odin. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... A deity or a god, is a postulated preternatural being, usually, but not always, of significant power, worshipped, thought holy, divine, or sacred, held in high regard, or respected by human beings. ... Norse or Scandinavian mythology comprises the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on Iceland, where the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Norse paganism or Nordic religion is a termed used to abbreviate the religion preferably amongst the Germanic tribes living in Nordic countries under pre-Christian period that are supported by archaeology findings and early written materials. ... A god of the Anglo-Saxon /Early English tribes brought with them from continental Europe, around the 5th and 6th centuries until conversion to Christianity in the 8th and 9th centuries CE. Woden is the carrier-off of the dead, but not necessarily with the attributes of his Norse equivalent... Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, ca 500 BC-50 BC. The area south of Scandinavia is the Jastorf culture Proto-Germanic, the proto-language believed by scholars to be the common ancestor of the Germanic languages, includes among its descendants Dutch, Yiddish... The 6th century Vadstena bracteate, showing a horse, a bird and a human head commonly identified as an early form of Scandinavian Odin. ...


His name is related to óðr, meaning "excitation," "fury" or "poetry," and his role, like many of the Norse pantheon, is complex: he is god of both wisdom and war. He is also attested as being a god of magic, poetry, victory, and the hunt. Ódr (ON: Óðr) is the husband of Freyja in Norse mythology. ... A Pantheon (Greek: παν, pan, all + Θεός, Theos, God), is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Greek mythology, Norse mythology, and Egyptian mythology. ... Wisdom is the ability to make correct judgments and decisions. ... The only atomic weapons ever used in war - the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombs over Hiroshima (August 6) and Nagasaki immediately killed over 120,000 people. ... Magic or sorcery are terms referring to the alleged influencing of events and physical phenomena by supernatural, mystical, or paranormal means. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: ποιεω (poieo) = I create) is traditionally a written art form (although there is also an ancient and modern poetry which relies mainly upon oral or pictorial representations) in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ...

Odin, the wanderer.
Odin, the wanderer.

Contents

Odin, the wanderer. ... Odin, the wanderer. ...


Characteristics

Odin is an ambivalent deity; Old Norse (Viking Age) connotations of Odin lie with "poetry, inspiration" as well as with "fury, madness": Several myths do associate Odin with wisdom and poetry. Odin left his eye in the purifying waters of Mimir's spring for wisdom. Odin gives to worthy poets the mead of inspiration from the vessel Óð-rœrir.[1] The Viking Age is the name of the period between 793 and 1066 AD in Scandinavia and Britain, following the Germanic Iron Age (and the Vendel Age in Sweden). ...


Odin is associated with the concept of the Wild Hunt, a noisy, bellowing movement across the sky, leading a host of the slain, directly comparable to Vedic Rudra. The wild hunt: Åsgårdsreien (1872) by Peter Nicolai Arbo The Wild Hunt was a folk myth prevalent in former times across Northern Scandinavia, Germany and Britain. ... The religion of the Vedic civilization is the predecessor of classical Hinduism, usually included in the term. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Odin taking the dead Sinfjötli to Valhalla.

Consistent with this, Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda depicts Odin as welcoming the great dead warriors who have died in battle into his hall, Valhalla. These fallen, the einherjar, are assembled by Odin to support the gods in the final battle of the end of the world, Ragnarök. Image File history File links http://runeberg. ... Image File history File links http://runeberg. ... Odin taking the dead Sinfjötli to Valhalla Sinfjötli (Old Norse) or Fitela (Anglo-Saxon) was born out of the incestuous relationship between Sigmund and his sister Signy. ... In this illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript Heimdallr is shown guarding the gate of Valhalla. ... Snorri Sturluson (1178 â€“ September 23, 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet and politician. ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... In this illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript Heimdallr is shown guarding the gate of Valhalla. ... In Norse mythology, Einherjar (or Einheriar) referred to the spirits of warriors who had died bravely in battle. ... Look up Ragnarok in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


He was also a god of war, appearing throughout Norse myth as the bringer of victory. In the Norse sagas, Odin sometimes acts as the instigator of wars, sending his valkyries to influence the battle toward the end that he desires. At the battlefields, the valkyries are also charged with selecting the dead in order to gather the best warriors in Valhalla. Sometimes Odin himself appears in person. The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: sögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ... This article is about the Valkyries, figures of Norse mythology. ...


Odin was also a shapechanger, able to alter his skin and form in any way he liked. He was said to travel the world as an old man with a staff, one-eyed, grey-bearded, and wearing a wide-brimmed hat, and a healer, hinting at shamanistic origins. Shapeshifting, transformation or transmogrification refers to a change in the form or shape of a person. ... A man with a full beard A beard is the hair that grows on a mans chin, cheeks, neck, and the area above the upper lip (the opposite is a clean-shaven face). ... Shamanism is a range of traditional beliefs and practices that involve the ability to diagnose, cure, and sometimes cause human suffering because of a special relationship with, or control over, spirits. ...


Origins

Main article: Wodanaz
7th century depiction of Odin on a Vendel helmet plate, found in Uppland.
7th century depiction of Odin on a Vendel helmet plate, found in Uppland.
The 7th century Tängelgarda stone shows Odin leading a troop of warriors all bearing rings. Valknut symbols are drawn beneath his horse, which at this time still has the normal number of legs.
The 7th century Tängelgarda stone shows Odin leading a troop of warriors all bearing rings. Valknut symbols are drawn beneath his horse, which at this time still has the normal number of legs.

Worship of Odin dates to Proto-Germanic paganism. The Roman historian Tacitus probably refers to Odin when he talks of Mercury. The reason is that, like Mercury, Odin was regarded as Psychopompos, "the leader of souls". The 6th century Vadstena bracteate, showing a horse, a bird and a human head commonly identified as an early form of Scandinavian Odin. ... Image File history File links Odin_Vendel_helmet. ... Image File history File links Odin_Vendel_helmet. ... Ohtheres mound Vendel is a parish in the Swedish province of Uppland. ... Uppland ( â–¶) is a historical province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The image stone at Tängelgarda, Lärbro parish, Gotland, Sweden (57°49′N 18°43′E) is decorated with a scene of warriors holding rings, one (possibly Odin) horsed, with Valknut symbols drawn beneath. ... Odin with Sleipnir, Valknuts are drawn beneath the horse (Tängelgarda stone) The valknut (Old Norse valr, slain warriors + knut, knot) is a symbol consisting of three interlocked triangles. ... Worship usually refers to specific acts of religious praise, honour, or devotion, typically directed to a supernatural being such as a god or goddess. ... Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, ca 500 BC-50 BC. The area south of Scandinavia is the Jastorf culture Proto-Germanic, the proto-language believed by scholars to be the common ancestor of the Germanic languages, includes among its descendants Dutch, Yiddish... Germanic paganism refers to the religion and mythology of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization, including Norse, Anglo-Saxon mythology, information obtained from archaeological finds and remnants of pre-Christian beliefs in the folklore of medieval and modern Germanic peoples. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius or Gaius Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... This article treats Mercury in cult practice and in archaic Rome. ... Many sets of religious beliefs have a particular spirit, deity, demon or angel whose responsibility is to escort newly-deceased souls to the afterlife, such as Heaven or Hell. ...


Parallels between Odin and Celtic Lugus have often been pointed out: both are intellectual gods, commanding magic and poetry. Both have ravens and a spear as their attributes, and both are one-eyed. Julius Caesar (de bello Gallico, 6.17.1), who mentions Mercury as the chief god of Celtic religion. A likely context of the diffusion of elements of Celtic ritual into Germanic culture is that of the Chatti, who lived at the Celtic-Germanic boundary in Hesse during the final centuries BC ( It must be remembered that Odin in his Proto-Germanic form was not the chief god, but that he only gradually replaced Tyr during the Migration period. Lugus was a deity worshipped in Gaul, Britain, Ireland, Spain and other ancient Celtic regions. ... A bust of Julius Caesar. ... Celtic Religion Celtic religion refers the pre-Christian religious beliefs and practices of the Celtic speaking peoples. ... The Chatti (also Catti) were an ancient Germanic tribe settled in central and northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony, along the upper reaches of the Weser river and in the valleys and mountains of the Eder, Fulda and Werra river regions, a district approximately corresponding to Hesse-Cassel, though probably... Hesse (German: Hessen) is one of Germanys sixteen federal states (Bundesländer) and has an area of 21,110 km² and just over six million inhabitants. ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ...


Although the precise etymology of Odin's name is debated, it is thought to be related to the word óðr, meaning "excitation" or "fury". Ódr (ON: Óðr) is the husband of Freyja in Norse mythology. ...


Scandinavian Óðinn emerged from Proto-Norse *Wōdin during the Migration period, Vendel artwork (bracteates, image stones) depicting the earliest scenes that can be aligned with the High Medieval Norse mythological texts. The context of the new elites emerging in this period aligns with Snorri's tale of the indigenous Vanir who were eventually replaced Aesir intruders from the Continent.[2] Proto-Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old Norse language. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Ohtheres mound Vendel is a parish in the Swedish province of Uppland. ... A bracteate (from the Latin bractea, a thin piece of metal) is a flat, thin, single-sided gold coin produced in Northern Europe predominantly during the Migration Period of the Germanic Iron Age, but the name is also used for later produced coins of silver produced in Central Europe during... A rune stone Rune stones are somewhat flat standing stones with runic stone carvings from the Iron Age (Viking Age) and early middle ages found in most parts of Scandinavia. ... Snorri Sturlason (1178 – September 23, 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet and politician. ... Vanir is the name of one of the two groups of gods in Norse mythology, the other and more well known being the Æsir. ... The Aesir (Old Norse Æsir, singular Áss, feminine Ásynja, feminine plural Ásynjur) are the principal pantheon of gods in Norse mythology. ...


Blót

It is attested in primary sources that sacrifices were made to Odin during blóts. Adam of Bremen relates that every ninth year, people assembled from all over Sweden to sacrifice at the Temple at Uppsala. Male slaves and males of each species were sacrificed and hanged from the branches of the trees. The Blót was the pagan Germanic sacrifice to Norse gods and Elves. ... Adam of Bremen (also: Adam Bremensis) was one of the most important German medieval chroniclers. ... The Temple at Uppsala was a temple in Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), near modern Uppsala, Sweden, that was created to worship the Norse gods of ancient times. ...


As the Swedes had the right not only to elect king but also to depose a king, the sagas relate that both king Domalde and king Olof Trätälja were sacrificed to Odin after years of famine. It has been argued that the killing of a combatant in battle was to give a sacrificial offering to Odin. The fickleness of Odin in battle was well-documented, and in Lokasenna, Loki taunts Odin for his inconsistency. The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ... Domalde was a Swedish king of the House of Ynglings, in Norse mythology. ... Olaf Tree Feller (Old Norse: Ólafr trételgja, Swedish: Olof Trätälja, Norwegian: Olav Tretelgja) was the son of the Swedish king Ingjald Ill-ruler of the House of Yngling according to Heimskringla. ... Lokasenna, known also as Lokis Flyting, is a poem in the Elder Edda. ... This picture, from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript, shows Loki with his invention - the fishing net. ...


Sometimes sacrifices were made to Odin to bring about changes in circumstance. A notable example is the sacrifice of King Víkar that is detailed in Gautrek's Saga and in Saxo Grammaticus' account of the same event. Sailors in a fleet being blown off course drew lots to sacrifice to Odin that he might abate the winds. The king himself drew the lot and was hanged. Víkar (Old Norse nominative case form Víkarr; Latin Wicarus) was a legendary Norwegian king who found himself and his ships becalmed for a long period. ... Gautreks saga (Gautreks Saga) is an Old Norse saga written towards the end of the 13th century which survives only in much later manuscripts. ... Saxo, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857—1945) Saxo Grammaticus (estimated. ...


Sacrifices were probably also made to Odin at the beginning of summer, since Ynglinga saga states one of the great festivals of the calendar is at sumri, þat var sigrblót "in summer, for victory"; Odin is consistently referred to throughout the Norse mythos as the bringer of victory. The Ynglinga saga was originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet Snorri Sturluson about 1225. ...


The Ynglinga saga also details the sacrifices made by the Swedish king Aun, who, it was revealed to him, would lengthen his life by sacrificing one of his sons every ten years; nine of his ten sons died this way. When he was about to sacrifice his last son Egil, the Swedes stopped him. Ane, On, One, Auchun or Aun the Old (Audhun, the same name as the A-S name Edwin) was the son of Jorund and one of the Swedish kings of the House of Yngling, the ancestors of Norways first king, Harald Fairhair. ... Ongenþeow, Ongentheow, Ongendþeow, Egil, Egill, Eigil, or Angantyr (- ca 515) was the name of one or two semi-legendary Swedish kings of the house of Scylfings, who appear in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian sources. ...


Edda

Odin riding Sleipnir.
Odin riding Sleipnir.

According to the Prose Edda, Odin was a son of Bestla and Borr and brother of Ve and Vili and together with these brothers he cast down the frost giant Ymir and created the world from Ymir's body. The three brothers are often mentioned together. "Wille" is the German word for "will" (English), "Weh" is the German word (Gothic wai) for "woe" (English: great sorrow, grief, misery) but is more likely related to the archaic German "Wei" meaning 'sacred'. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (592x764, 389 KB) Odin rides the eight-legged horse Sleipnir from the 18th century Icelandic manuscript NKS 1867 4to now in the care of the Danish Royal Library; taken from the English Wikipedia, see Image:Treated NKS sleipnir. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (592x764, 389 KB) Odin rides the eight-legged horse Sleipnir from the 18th century Icelandic manuscript NKS 1867 4to now in the care of the Danish Royal Library; taken from the English Wikipedia, see Image:Treated NKS sleipnir. ... The Ardre image stone is thought to show Odin entering Valhalla riding on Sleipnir In Norse mythology, Sleipnir is Odins magical eight-legged steed, and the greatest of all horses. ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... In Norse mythology, Bestla was an ancient frost giantess, a daughter of Bolthorn. ... Borr or Burr (sometimes anglicized Bor) in Norse mythology was the son of Búri and the father of Odin. ... Ve was one of the Æsir and a son of Bestla and Borr in Norse mythology. ... Vili was one of the Æsir and a son of Bestla and Borr in Norse mythology. ... For the moon of Saturn, see Ymir (moon). ...


Odin fathered his most famous son, Thor, on Jord 'Earth'. His wife and consort was the goddess Frigg, who in the best-known tradition was the loving mother of their son Balder. By the giantess Grid, Odin was the father of Vídar, and by Rind he was father of Vali. Also, many royal families claimed descent from Odin through other sons. For traditions about Odin's offspring, see Sons of Odin. Thor carries his hammer and wears his belt of strength (MS SÁM 66, 18th century). ... Jord was, in Norse mythology, the goddess of the Earth. ... Frigg spinning the clouds Frigg or Frigga was, in Norse mythology, said to be foremost among the goddesses, 1 the wife of Odin, queen of the Æsir, and goddess of the sky. ... Balders death is portrayed in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... In Norse mythology, Gríðr (sometimes Anglicized Grid) was a giantess who, aware of Lokis plans to get Thor killed at the hands of the giant Geirrod, sets out to help him by supplying him with a number of magical gifts. ... Vidar (Víðar, Viðarr, Widar) is the son of Odin and the giantess Grid (Jotun) in Norse mythology. ... In botany, a rind is the thick outer skin of various structures such as fruit. ... Various gods and men appear as Sons of Odin or Sons of Woden in old Old Norse and Old English texts. ...


According to the Hávamál Edda, Odin was also the creator of the Runic alphabet. It is possible that the legends and genealogies mentioning Odin originated in a real, prehistoric Germanic chieftain who was subsequently deified, but this is impossible to prove or disprove. Hávamál (The Words of the High One), (known also as The Sayings of Har, or the High Song of Odin), a work of Old Norse poetry, is a source document for the study of Norse mythology, being a set of rules for wise living (and survival) purportedly written... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...


Exploits

Odin with his ravens and weapons (MS SÁM 66, 18th century)
Odin with his ravens and weapons (MS SÁM 66, 18th century)

Odin is attributed with slaying Ymir to create Midgard, creating mankind, winning poetry for mankind, as well as discovering the runes. Many kings and royal houses claim to trace their lineage back to Odin. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (934x1184, 973 KB)Odin. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (934x1184, 973 KB)Odin. ... SÁM 66 (Stofnun Árna Magnússonar á Íslandi) is an 18th century manuscript now at the Árni Magnússon Institute, Iceland. ... For the moon of Saturn, see Ymir (moon). ... Midgard (The common English transliteration of Old Norse Miðgarðr), Midjungards (Gothic), Middangeard (Old English) and Mittilagart (Old High German), from Proto-Germanic *medja-garda (*meddila-, *medjan-, projected PIE *medhyo-gharto), is an old Germanic name for our world, the places inhabited men, with the literal meaning middle enclosure... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...


Odin sacrificed one of his eyes to Mímir, in exchange for a drink from the waters of wisdom in Mímir's well. Sacrifice for the greater good is a recurring theme in Norse mythology. Tyr sacrificed his hand to fetter Fenrisulfr, and similar to Odin, Heimdall sacrificed his hearing to Mimir. Mimir was a primal god of Norse mythology whose head was severed and sent to Odin during the war between the Aesir and the Vanir deities. ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... According to the Edda Fenrisulfr bites off the hand of Týr (John Bauer, 1911) In Norse mythology, the Fenrisulfr, Wolf of Fenrir, Fenris or simply Fenrir is a monstrous wolf, the son of Loki and the giantess Angrboða. ... Mimir was a primal god of Norse mythology whose head was severed and sent to Odin during the war between the Aesir and the Vanir deities. ...


Odin was said to have learned the mysteries of seid from the Vanic goddess and völva Freyja, despite the unwarrior-like connotations of using magic. In Lokasenna, Loki derides Odin for practicing seid, implying it was woman's work. (Another example of this may be found in the Ynglinga saga where Snorri opines that men who used seid were ergi or unmanly.) Seid (Old Norse: seiðr, sometimes anglicized as seidhr, seidh, seidr, seithr or seith) was a form of shamanism practised by pre-Christian Norse and arguably other Germanic cultures and continued in modern times by people who practice the reconstructionist beliefs of Ásatrú or heathenry. ... Vanir is the name of one of the two groups of gods in Norse mythology, the other and more well known being the Æsir. ... The völva, vala, wala (Old High German), seiðkona, or wicce was a female shaman in Norse mythology, and among the Germanic tribes. ... Freya, in an illustration to Wagners operas by Arthur Rackham. ... Lokasenna, known also as Lokis Flyting, is a poem in the Elder Edda. ... This picture, from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript, shows Loki with his invention - the fishing net. ... The Ynglinga saga was originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet Snorri Sturluson about 1225. ... Ergi and argr are two Old Norse terms of insult, denoting effeminacy or other unmanly behavior. ...


Odin's quest for wisdom can also be seen in his work as a farmhand for a summer, for Baugi, and his seduction of Gunnlod in order to obtain the mead of poetry. (See Fjalar and Galar for more details.) In Norse mythology, Baugi was a Jotun and brother of Suttung, who had hidden the mead of poetry after obtaining it from Fjalar and Galar, who had murdered Suttungs father (Baugis uncle: Gilling). ... In Norse mythology, Gunnlod was a daughter of Suttung, who was set guard by her father in the cavern where he housed the mead of poetry. ... In Norse mythology, Fjalar and his brother, Galar, were dwarves who killed Kvasir and turned his blood into the mead of poetry, which inspired poets. ...


In the Rúnatal, a section of the Hávamál, Odin is attributed with discovering the runes. He was hung from the tree called Yggdrasill whilst pierced by his own spear. He hung for nine days and nights, a significant number in Norse magical practice (there were, for example, nine realms of existence), thereby learning nine (later eighteen) magical songs and eighteen magical runes. Hávamál (Sayings of Hár, Sayings of the high one) is one of the poems of the Poetic Edda. ... Hávamál (The Words of the High One), (known also as The Sayings of Har, or the High Song of Odin), a work of Old Norse poetry, is a source document for the study of Norse mythology, being a set of rules for wise living (and survival) purportedly written... Yggdrasil In Norse Mythology, Yggdrasil (also Mimameid and Lerad) was the World tree, a gigantic tree (often suggested to be an ash, an interpretation generally accepted in the modern Scandinavian mind), thought to hold all of the different worlds, such as Asgard, Midgard, Utgard and Hel. ... Yggdrasil (Beneath its roots are the nine worlds of the universe, plus three magic wells) Hvergelmir Mímisbrunnr Urdarbrunnr Highest level Álfheim Asgard Valhalla Vanaheim Middle level Jotunheim Gastropnir Thrymheim Utgard Midgard Nidavellir and Svartalfheim (may be the same) Lower level Helheim Muspelheim Ginnungagap (Former gap between Muspelheim and Niflheim...


Some scholars see this scene as influenced by the story of Christ's crucifixion; and others note the similarity to the story of Buddha's enlightenment. In Shamanism, the traversal of the axis mundi by the shaman to bring back mystic knowledge is a common pattern. We know that sacrifices, human or otherwise, to the gods were commonly hung in or from trees, often transfixed by spears. (See also: Peijainen) Additionally, one of Odin's names is Ygg, and the norse name for the World Ash —Yggdrasill—therefore means "Ygg's (Odin's) horse". Another of Odin's names is Hangatýr, the god of the hanged. This page is about the title. ... Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the victim was tied or nailed to a large wooden cross (Latin: crux) and left to hang there until dead. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... Mount Kailash, depicting the holy family of Shiva and Ganesha The axis mundi (world axis), in religion or mythology, is the center of the world and/or the connection between heaven and earth. ... In Finland, Peijainen is the ritual burial of a bear that has been communally brought down and has died. ... Yggdrasil In Norse Mythology, Yggdrasil (also Mimameid and Lerad) was the World tree, a gigantic tree (often suggested to be an ash, an interpretation generally accepted in the modern Scandinavian mind), thought to hold all of the different worlds, such as Asgard, Midgard, Utgard and Hel. ...


Attributes

Odin entering Valhalla riding on Sleipnir (Ardre image stone).
Odin entering Valhalla riding on Sleipnir (Ardre image stone).

Attributes of Odin are Sleipnir, an eight-legged horse, and the severed head of Mimir, which foretold the future. He employed Valkyrjur to gather the souls of warriors fallen in battle (the Einherjar), as these would be needed to fight for him in the battle of Ragnarok. They took the souls of the warriors to Valhalla (the hall of the fallen), Odin's residence in Asgard. One of the Valkyries, Brynhild, was expelled from his service but, out of compassion, Odin placed her in a hall surrounded by a ring of fire to ensure that only the bravest man could seek her hand in marriage. She was rescued by Sigurd. Hod, a blind god who had accidentally killed his brother, Balder, was then killed by another of Odin's children, Vali, whose mother was Rind, a giantess who bore him fully grown and vowing not to even bathe before he had exacted vengeance on Hod. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... In this illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript Heimdallr is shown guarding the gate of Valhalla. ... The Ardre image stone is thought to show Odin entering Valhalla riding on Sleipnir In Norse mythology, Sleipnir is Odins magical eight-legged steed, and the greatest of all horses. ... The largest of the Ardre image stones The Ardre image stones are a collection of ten 8th century rune and image stones. ... The Ardre image stone is thought to show Odin entering Valhalla riding on Sleipnir In Norse mythology, Sleipnir is Odins magical eight-legged steed, and the greatest of all horses. ... Mimir was a primal god of Norse mythology whose head was severed and sent to Odin during the war between the Aesir and the Vanir deities. ... This article is about the Valkyries, figures of Norse mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Einherjar (or Einheriar) referred to the spirits of warriors who had died bravely in battle. ... Look up Ragnarok in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In this illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript Heimdallr is shown guarding the gate of Valhalla. ... In Norse mythology, Asgard (Old Norse: Ásgarðr) is the realm of the gods, the Æsir, thought to be separate from the realm of the mortals, Midgard. ... In Norse mythology, Brünnehilde was a shieldmaiden and a Valkyrie. ... In Norse mythology, Sigurd (also Siegfried) was a legendary hero, as well as the central character in the Volsunga saga, Nibelungenlied and Richard Wagners opera, Siegfried, which see for more details. ... Loki tricks Höðr into shooting Baldr. ... Balders death is portrayed in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... In botany, a rind is the thick outer skin of various structures such as fruit. ...


Odin has a number of magical artifacts associated with him: the dwarven spear Gungnir, which never misses its target, a magical gold ring (Draupnir), from which every ninth night eight new rings appear, an eight-legged horse (Sleipnir) and two ravens Huginn and Muninn (Thought and Memory), who travel the world to acquire information at his behest. He also commands a pair of wolves named Geri and Freki, to whom he gives his food since he consumes nothing but wine. From his throne, Hlidskjalf (located in Valaskjalf), Odin could see everything that occurred in the universe. In Norse mythology, Gungnir (also Gungni, Grungnir or Gungner) was the name of Odins spear. ... Draupnir is a golden arm ring possessed by Odin, the ruling god of Norse mythology. ... The Ardre image stone is thought to show Odin entering Valhalla riding on Sleipnir In Norse mythology, Sleipnir is Odins magical eight-legged steed, and the greatest of all horses. ... Hugin and Munin are a pair of ravens associated with the Norse god Odin. ... Geri and Freki (also spelled Gere and Freke) are a pair of wolves, companions of the god Odin in Norse mythology. ... In Norse mythology, Hlidskjalf (also spelt Hlidhskjalf) is Odins throne where none may sit save Odin himself and his wife Frigg. ... This is one of Odins Halls, a great dwelling built and roofed with pure silver. ...


The Valknut is a symbol associated with Odin. Odin with Sleipnir, Valknuts are drawn beneath the horse (Tängelgarda stone) The valknut (Old Norse valr, slain warriors + knut, knot) is a symbol consisting of three interlocked triangles. ...


Names

The Norsemen gave Odin many nicknames; this was in the Norse skaldic tradition of kennings, a poetic method of indirect reference, as in a riddle. See List of names of Odin. The name Alföðr ("Allfather", "father of all") appears in Snorri Sturluson's Younger Edda. (It probably originally denoted Tiwaz, as it fits the pattern of referring to Sky Fathers as "father".) According to Bernhard Severin Ingemann, Odin is known in Wendish mythology as Woda or Waidawut. The skald was a member of a group of courtly poets, whose poetry is associated with the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking age, who composed and performed renditions of aspects of what we now characterise as Old Norse poetry. ... This article is about kenning as a poetic notion. ... Odin was referred to by many names in the skaldic tradition. ... Snorri Sturluson (1178 â€“ September 23, 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet and politician. ... This colourful front page of the Prose Edda in an 18th century Icelandic manuscript shows Odin, Heimdallr, Sleipnir and other figures from Norse mythology. ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... The sky father is a recurring theme in pagan and neopagan mythology. ... Bernhard Severin Ingemann (born May 28, 1789 in Thorkildstrup, Falster, Denmark; died February 24, 1862 in Sorø) was a Danish novelist and poet. ... Baba Yaga, by Ivan Bilibin. ...


Odin and Jesus

The 13th century eddaic account of Odin likely contains some Christian elements. The scene where Odin hangs from a tree as a sacrifice to himself has been suggested to reflect the crucifixion of Jesus, down to the detail of having his side pierced with a spear; however, archeological evidence, such as the above mentioned Tollund Man, clearly establish that this form of sacrifice existed before the time of Christ and thus is most likely developed independently. Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the victim was tied or nailed to a large wooden cross (Latin: crux) and left to hang there until dead. ... Jesus is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help take it from Good to Featured article status. ... Tollund Man, showing his remarkable preservation. ...


Other inconsistencies, such as that Odin was hung by a rope from a tree whereas Jesus was nailed to a cross (both wood, but in different contexts) further supports an independent origin of the myth. It is still likely that early Germanic Christians connected the two myths, moulding their image of Christ after Odin and vice versa, an effect that is also suggested by the Anglo-Saxon Dream of the Rood which portrays Christ as a Germanic warrior-king. By Germanic Christianity is that phase in the history of Northern Europe understood, when the Germanic peoples of the Migration period and Viking Age adopted Christianity. ... The Dream of the Rood is one of the earliest Christian poems in the corpus of Old English poetry and an intriguing example of the genre of dream poetry. ...


Odin's son Balder, a god of light, shares some of Jesus' traits as a youthful "dying and rising" god, but unlike in the case of latter, his resurrection fails and he has to remain in the underworld. The Havamal account of Odin's sacrifice positions Odin in the otherwise unique Pauline Christian attributes of a "father god" who suffers and defeats death. Balders death is portrayed in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... The category life-death-rebirth deity also known as a dying-and-rising god is a convenient means of classifying the many divinities in world mythology who are born, suffer death or an eclipse or other death-like experience, pass a phase in the underworld among the dead, and are... An early portrait of the Apostle Paul. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life, teachings, and actions of Jesus of Nazareth, known by Christians as Jesus Christ, as recounted in the New Testament. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Death is the cessation of physical life in a living organism, or the state of the organism after that event. ...


The similarity of Odin and Jesus was resurrected by Richard Wagner. Wagner's association of Odin with Jesus is treated in the Notes of the Seminar Given in 1928–1930 of Carl Jung. Recently, the German NPD issued T-Shirts labeled Odin statt Jesus ("Odin rather than Jesus") that were popular among the extreme right, but also among apolitical Neo-Pagans. Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 in Leipzig – February 13, 1883 in Venice) was an influential German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ... Carl Jung around 1910, Source: Prints & Photographs Division Library of Congress Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) (IPA:) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of Analytical Psychology. ... There is open debate on rather facism is rightwing or not. ...


Persisting beliefs in Odin

Snorri Sturluson's record of the Edda is striking evidence of the climate of religious tolerance in medieval Iceland, but even he feels compelled to give a rational account of the Aesir in his preface. In this scenario, Snorri speculates that Odin and his peers were originally refugees from Troy, etymologizing Aesir as derived from Asia. Some scholars believe that Snorri's version of Norse mythology is an attempt to mould a more shamanistic tradition into a Greek mythological cast. In any case, Snorri's writing (particularly in Heimskringla) tries to maintain an essentially scholastic neutrality. That Snorri was correct was one of the last of Thor Heyerdahl's archeo-anthropological theories (see The search for Odin). Snorri Sturluson (1178 â€“ September 23, 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet and politician. ... Walls of the excavated city of Troy Troy ( Ancient Greek Τροία Troia or Τροάς Troas also Ίλιον; Latin: Troia, Ilium) is a legendary city, scene of the Trojan War, described in the Trojan War cycle, especially in the Iliad, one of the two Ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Heimskringla is the Old Norse name of a collection of sagas recorded in Iceland around 1225 by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson (1179-1242). ... Thor Heyerdahl Thor Heyerdahl (October 6, 1914 in Larvik, Norway–April 18, 2002 in Colla Micheri, Italy) was a world-famous Norwegian marine biologist with a great interest in anthropology, who became famous for his Kon-Tiki Expedition in which he sailed by raft 4,300 miles from South America... The Search for Odin (Norwegian: Jakten pÃ¥ Odin) is the project title of Thor Heyerdahls last series of anthropological excavations, which took place in northern Europe. ...


The spread of Christianity was slow in Scandinavia, and it worked its way downwards from the nobility. Among common people, beliefs in Odin may have lingered for some time, and legends would be told until modern times.


The last battle where Scandinavians attributed a victory to Odin was the Battle of Lena in 1208 [3]. The former Swedish king Sverker had arrived with a large Danish army, and the Swedes discovered that the Danish army was more than twice the size of their own. Naturally, the Danes got the upper hand and they should have won. However, the Swedes claimed that they suddenly saw Odin riding on Sleipnir. Accounts vary on how Odin gave the Swedes victory, but in one version, he rode in front of their battle formation. The Battle of Lena took place January 31 1208, in Lena which is located in the Tidaholm Municipality in Westrogothia. ... Events Philip of Swabia King of Germany and rival Holy Roman Emperor to Otto IV, assassinated June 21 in Bamberg by German Count Otto of Wittelsbach because Philip had refused to give him his daughter in marriage. ... Sverker the younger Karlsson or Sverker den yngre Karlsson in Swedish (born c. ...


The bagler-saga, written in the 13th century concerning events in the first two decades of the 13th century, tells a story of a one-eyed rider with a broad-brimmed hat and a blue coat who asks a smith to shoe his horse. The suspicious smith asks where the stranger stayed during the previous night. The stranger mentions places so far distant that the smith does not believe him. The stranger says that he has stayed for a long time in the north and taken part in many battles, but now he is going to Sweden. When the horse is shod, the rider mounts his horse and says "I am Odin" to the stunned smith, and rides away. The next day, the battle of Lena took place. The context of this tale in the saga is that a peace-treaty has been signed in Norway, and Odin, a god of war, no longer has a place there. Håkon Håkonssons saga, written in the 1260s, describes how, at some point in the 1230s, Skule Baardsson has the skald Snorri Sturluson compose a poem comparing one of Skule's enemies to Odin, describing them both as bringers of strife and disagreement. These episodes do not necessary imply a continued belief in Odin as a god, but show clearly that his name was still widely known at this time. The Bagler faction which was made up of aristocracy, clergy and merchants contested with the Birkebeiners, essentially a faction of peasants, led by the pretender King Sverre, for control in a Norwegian civil war during the late 12th century. ... An illustration of Hákon, King of Norway, and his son Magnus, from Flateyjarbók HÃ¥kon IV (1204 – December 16, 1263), (Norwegian HÃ¥kon HÃ¥konsson, Old Norse Hákon Hákonarson) also called Haakon the Old. ... Skule Baardsson or Duke Skule (old norse Skúli Bárðarson) was an earl and a duke in Norway during the reign of king Haakon Haakonsson. ... Snorri Sturluson (1178 â€“ September 23, 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet and politician. ...


Scandinavian folklore also maintained a belief in Odin as the leader of the Wild Hunt (Åsgårdsreia in Norwegian). His main objective seems to have been to track down and kill the forest creature huldran or skogsrået. In these accounts, Odin was typically a lone huntsman, save for his two wolves. Originally, he was armed with a spear, but in later accounts this was sometimes changed to a rifle. Scandinavian folklore is the folklore of Sweden, Norway and Denmark. ... The wild hunt: Ã…sgÃ¥rdsreien (1872) by Peter Nicolai Arbo The Wild Hunt was a folk myth prevalent in former times across Northern Scandinavia, Germany and Britain. ... Huldra (the common Norwegian name) or Skogsrå (the common Swedish name) is a Scandinavian forest elf, or goddess if you will. ... A rifle is a firearm that uses a spiral groove cut into the barrel to spin a projectile (usually a bullet), thus improving accuracy and range of the projectile. ...


Modern age

Modern popular culture

Odin in the cartoon Valhalla
Odin in the cartoon Valhalla
Main article: Odin in popular culture

With the Romantic Viking revival of the early-to-mid 19th century, Odin's popularity increased again. Odin, under the German form of his name, Wotan (pronounced ['vo:ta:n]) is one of the main protagonists of Richard Wagner's opera cycle, Der Ring des Nibelungen. This depiction in particular has had influence on many subsequent fiction writers and has since resulted in varying references and allusions in multiple types of media. Image File history File links Odintegnefim. ... Image File history File links Odintegnefim. ... Valhalla is a comic book series published by Interpresse, written by Hans Rancke-Madsen, and illustrated by Peter Madsen. ... Odin appears frequently as a character in works of popular culture. ... Romanticism was a secular and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Early modern publications dealing with what we now call Viking culture appeared in the 16th century, e. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 in Leipzig – February 13, 1883 in Venice) was an influential German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ... Valkyrie Warrior Maiden by artist Arthur Rackham (1912) Der Ring des Nibelungen translated commonly into English as The Ring of the Nibelung or The Nibelungs Ring, is a series of four epic operas. ...


Germanic neopaganism

Odin, along with the other Germanic Gods and Goddesses, is worshipped by Germanic neopagans. His Norse form is particularly acknowledged in Ásatrú, the "faith in the Aesir", an officially recognized religion in Iceland and Denmark. It has been suggested that Heathenry be merged into this article or section. ... Ásatrú (Icelandic Æsir faith) is a new religious movement which is attempting to revive the pre-Christian Viking Age Norse religion as described in the Eddas. ... The Aesir (Old Norse Æsir, singular Áss, feminine Ásynja, feminine plural Ásynjur) are the principal pantheon of gods in Norse mythology. ...


Notes

  1. ^ _____. Skaldskaparmal, in Edda. Anthony Faulkes, Trans., Ed. (London: Everyman, 1996).

The second part of the Younger Edda of Snorri Sturluson. ...

Literature

  • H. R. Ellis Davidson, The Battle God of the Vikings, York (1972)
  • Hector Chadwick, The Cult of Othinn
  • Kris Kershaw, Odin, 2004, ISBN 3935581386
  • Horst Obleser, Odin, 1993, ISBN 392678914X

See also

Norse mythology Germanic paganism refers to the religion and mythology of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization, including Norse, Anglo-Saxon mythology, information obtained from archaeological finds and remnants of pre-Christian beliefs in the folklore of medieval and modern Germanic peoples. ... Odin was referred to by many names in the skaldic tradition. ... Many toponyms (place names) contain the name of *Wodanaz (Norse Odin, West Germanic Woden) Scandinavia Odense (Denmark) Odensbacken (Sweden) England: Wansdyke - Wodens embankment Grimsdyke - From Grim, hooded, a description of his appearance Wednesfield - Wodens field Wensley - Wodens meadow Wednesbury - Wodens burgh Woodnesborough, Kent - also translates as... Various gods and men appear as Sons of Odin or Sons of Woden in old Old Norse and Old English texts. ... Image File history File links Mjollnir_icon. ... Norse or Scandinavian mythology comprises the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on Iceland, where the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ...

List of Norse gods | Æsir | Vanir | Giants | Elves | Dwarves | Valkyries | Einherjar | Norns
Odin | Thor | Freyr | Freya | Loki | Balder | Tyr | Yggdrasil | Ginnungagap | Ragnarök
Sources:
Poetic Edda | Prose Edda | The Sagas | Volsung Cycle | Tyrfing Cycle
Rune stones | Old Norse language | Orthography | Later influence
Society:
Viking Age | Skald | Kenning | Blót | Seid | Numbers
The nine worlds of Norse mythology | People, places and things
Preceded by:
Gylfi
Mythological king of Sweden Succeeded by:
Njord

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