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Encyclopedia > Damnatio memoriae
Tondo of the Severan family, with portraits of Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla, and Geta. Geta's face has been deleted, because of the damnatio memoriae ordered by his own brother and murderer Caracalla.
Tondo of the Severan family, with portraits of Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla, and Geta. Geta's face has been deleted, because of the damnatio memoriae ordered by his own brother and murderer Caracalla.

Damnatio memoriae is the Latin phrase literally meaning "damnation of memory", in the sense of removed from the remembrance. It was a form of dishonor that could be passed by the Roman Senate upon traitors or others who brought discredit to the Roman State. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1069x1087, 1311 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexander Severus Septimius Severus Caracalla Publius Septimius Geta Severan Tondo ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1069x1087, 1311 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexander Severus Septimius Severus Caracalla Publius Septimius Geta Severan Tondo ... Look up tondo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Severan dynasty is a lineage of Roman Emperors, reigning several decades from the late 2nd century to the early 3rd century. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Julia Domna (170-217) was member of the Severan dynasty of the Roman Empire. ... Caracalla (April 4, 186 – April 8, 217) was Roman Emperor from 211 – 217. ... Publius Septimius Geta (March 7, 189–December 211), was a Roman Emperor co-ruling with his father Septimius Severus and his older brother Caracalla from 209 to his death. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation. ... Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. ...

Contents

Explanation

The sense of the expression Damnatio memoriae and of the sanction is to cancel every trace of the person from the life of Rome, as if he had never existed, in order to preserve the honour of the Urbs; in a city that stressed the social appearance, respectability and the pride of being a civis romanus as a fundamental requirement of the citizen, it was perhaps the severest punishment. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


Practice

In Ancient Rome, the practice of damnatio memoriae was the condemnation of Roman elites and Emperors after their deaths. If the Senate or a later Emperor did not like the acts of an individual, they could have their property seized, their names erased and their statues reworked. Because there is an economic incentive to seize property and rework statues anyway, historians and archaeologists have had difficulty determining when damnatio memoriae actually took place. This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled the Roman Empire. ...


The practice of damnatio memoriae was rarely, if ever, an official practice. All political figures have both allies and enemies, thus it was difficult to implement the practice completely. For instance, the Senate wanted to condemn the memory of Caligula, but Claudius prevented this. Nero was declared an enemy of the state by the Senate, but then given an enormous funeral honoring him after his death by Vitellius. While statues of some Emeperors are destroyed or reworked after their death, others are erected. Historians sometimes use the phrase de facto damnatio memoriae when the condemnation is not official. The only emperor that is known to have officially received a damnatio memoriae was Domitian. Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31, 12 – January 24, 41), more commonly known by his nickname Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from 37 to 41. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Vitellius, Museo Nazionale della Civiltà Romana, Rome Aulus Vitellius Germanicus (September 24, 15–December 22, 69) was Roman Emperor from April 17 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the four emperors. He was the son of Lucius Vitellius, who had... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ...


Similar practices in other societies

After
A photograph with Soviet commissar Nikolai Yezhov was retouched[citation needed] after he fell from favor and was executed in 1940.
  • The cartouches of the heretical 18th dynasty pharaoh Akhenaten were mutilated by his successors. Earlier in that same dynasty, Thutmose III carried out a similar attack on his step-mother Hatshepsut late in his sole reign. However, only engravings and statuary of her as a crowned king of Egypt were attacked. Anything depicting her as a queen was left unharmed (and the campaign ended after his son by a secondary queen was crowned co-regent), so this was not strictly speaking damnatio memoriae.[1] There is also some debate whether this defacement was Thutmose's doing at all, since most of the damage is estimated to have happened some 47 years into this reign.
  • Herostratus set fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus to become famous. The Ephesus leaders decided that his name should never be repeated again, under pain of death.
  • Marino Faliero, fifty-fifth Doge of Venice, was condemned to damnatio memoriae after a failed coup d'état.
  • More modern examples of damnatio memoriae in actual practice was the removal of portraits, books, doctoring people out of pictures, and any other traces of Josef Stalin's opponents during the Great Purge. In a twist of fate, Stalin himself was edited out of some propaganda films when Khruschev became the leader of The Soviet Union.
  • A famous example of the concept of damnatio memoriae in modern usage is the "vaporization" of "unpersons" in George Orwell's dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four in the quote "He did not exist; he never existed".

Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... The classical definition of a person is a human being regarded as an individual. ... Image File history File links The_Commissar_Vanishes_1. ... Image File history File links The_Commissar_Vanishes_2. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Commissar is the English translation of an official title (комисса́р) used in Russia after the Bolshevik revolution and in the Soviet Union, as well as some other Communist countries. ... Yezhov along Moscow-Volga channel. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a cartouche is an oblong enclosure with a vertical line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name, coming into use during the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty under Pharaoh Sneferu. ... Neferkheperre-waenre Beautiful are the Manifestations of Re[2] the one of Re Nomen Akhenaten Servant of the Aten[1] (after Year 4 of his reign) Amenhotep Horus name Kanakht-Meryaten The strong bull, beloved of the Aten Nebty name Wernesytemakhetaten Great of kingship in Akhetaten Golden Horus Wetjesrenenaten Who... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issues Neferure Father Thutmose I... Herostratus was a young man who set fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus (currently in the territory of Turkey) in his quest for fame on July 21, 356 BC. The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus was built of marble, and was considered the most beautiful of some thirty... The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey: Some stacked remnants recreate columns, but nothing remains of the original temple The Temple of Artemis (also Greek Artemision, and Latin Artemisium) was built around 550 BC at Ephesus (present day Turkey), and is listed in as one of... Historical Map of Ephesus, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888 Ephesus (Greek: , Turkish: ), was one of the cities of Ionia in Asia Minor, located in Lydia where the Cayster River (Küçük Menderes) flows into the Aegean Sea. ... Marino Faliero was the fifty-fifth Doge of Venice, appointed on 11 September 1354. ... Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century For about a thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux, as the major Italian parallel Duce and the English Duke. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... (Russian, in full: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин [Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin]; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the late 1930s. ... From George Orwells book Nineteen Eighty-Four, unperson is the newspeak term for a person who has been not only killed by the state, but effectively erased from existence. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- and τόπος, alternatively, cacotopia[1], kakotopia or anti-utopia) is a fictional society that is the antithesis of utopia. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... Nineteen Eighty-Four (commonly written as 1984) is a dystopian novel by the English writer George Orwell, published in 1949. ...

See also

Disappear redirects here. ... Damnatio memoriae was the ancient Roman practice of erasing the names of disgraced individuals from public memory. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Peter F. Dorman, "The Proscription of Hapshepsut", from Hapshepsut: From Queen To Pharoah, ed. Catherine H. Roehrig, Metropolitan Museum of Art (NY), pp.267-269

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Damnatio memoriae - Definition, explanation (280 words)
Damnatio memoriae (Latin for "damnation of memory", in the sense of removed from the remembrance) was a form of dishonor that could be passed by the Roman Senate upon traitors or others who brought discredit to the Roman Empire.
Upon passage of the damnatio memoriae, the person's name was stricken from any rolls of honor on which he may have appeared (some of them were called memoriae), and in the case of the Roman Emperors so condemned, their statues were destroyed and their name removed from public buildings.
Marino Faliero, fifty-fifth Doge of Venice, was condemned to damnatio memoriae after a failed coup d'état.
Definition of Damnatio memoriae (294 words)
Damnatio memoriae (Latin for "damnation of memory", in the sense of removed from the remembrance) was a form of dishonor which could be passed by the Roman Senate upon traitors or others who brought discredit to the Roman Empire.
Upon passage of the damnatio memoriae, the person's name was stricken from any rolls of honor he may have appeared on (some of them were called memoriae), and in the case of the Roman Emperors so condemned, their statues were destroyed and their name removed from public buildings.
Marino Faliero, fifty-fifth Doge of Venice, was condemned to damnatio memoriae after a failed coup d'etat.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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