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Encyclopedia > Damascus
Look up Damascus in
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Damascus
دمـشق
Damascus Skyline
Damascus Skyline

Seal
Nickname: (Al Fayhaa) The Fragrant City
Damascus' location within Syria
Damascus' location within Syria
Syria Syria
Governorates Damascus Governorate
Government
 - Governor Bishr Al Sabban
Area
 - City 573 km²  (221.2 sq mi)
 - Metro 1,200 km² (463.3 sq mi)
Elevation 600 m (1,969 ft)
Population (2005)
 - City 4,500,000 (~6,500,000 metro. area)
Time zone UTC/GMT +2 hours (UTC+3)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC)

Damascus(دمشق transliteration: Dimashq, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. It is among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world (see section: Ancient history), before Al Fayyum, and Gaziantep. Its current population is estimated at about 4.5 million.[citation needed] The city is a governorate by itself, and the capital of the governorate of Rif Dimashq (Rural Damascus). Damascus can mean: Damascus, the capital of Syria Damascus, Maryland Damascus, Oregon Damascus, Pennsylvania Damascus, Virginia Damascus steel Damascus Gloves, a U.S. glove manufacturer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 853 pixel, file size: 235 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Damascus Skyline I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... // A nickname is a name of a person or thing other than its proper name. ... Image File history File links Damascus-map. ... Syria has fourteen governorates, or muhafazat (singular: muhafazah). ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... This is a list of the oldest, still surviving, towns and cities in the world. ... Al Fayyum or El Faiyûm (Arabic: الفيوم ) is the capital of Al Fayyum Governorate, Egypt. ... Gaziantep (Kurdish: , informally, Antep) is the capital city of Gaziantep Province in Turkey. ... A governorate is a country subdivision. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Contents

Name

In Arabic, the city is called دمشق الشام Dimashq ash-Shām. Although this is often shortened to either Dimashq or ash-Shām by many, the citizens of Damascus, and of Syria and some other Arab neighbors, colloquially call the city ash-Shām. Ash-Shām is an Arabic term for north and for Syria. (Syria — particularly historical Greater Syria — is called Bilād ash-Shāmبلاد الشام, 'land of the north' — in Arabic, or 'land of Shem (son of Noah)' — in Arabic, but with Shem being from the native Syriac language.) The etymology of the ancient name 'Damascus' is uncertain, but it is suspected to be pre-Semitic. It is attested as Dimašqa in Akkadian, T-ms-ḳw in Egyptian, Dammaśq (דמשק) in Old Aramaic and Dammeśeq (דמשק) in Biblical Hebrew. The Akkadian spelling is the earliest attestation, found in the Amarna letters, from the 14th century BC. Later Aramaic spellings of the name often include an intrusive resh (letter r), perhaps influenced by the root dr, meaning 'dwelling'. Thus, the Qumranic Darmeśeq (דרמשק), and Darmsûq (ܕܪܡܣܘܩ) in Syriac.[1][2] “Arabic” redirects here. ... Compass rose with north highlighted and at top Look up North in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... This article describes the Biblical dialects of Hebrew. ... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... // Overview Events 1344 BCE – 1322 BCE -- Beginning of Hittite empire Rise of the Urnfield culture Significant persons Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt Suppiliulima, king of the Hittites Moses Inventions, discoveries, introductions Template:DecadesAndYearsBCE Category: ‪14th century BCE‬ ... Resh is the twentieth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Qumran (Hebrew:חירבת קומראן Khirbet Qumran) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


Geography

Satellite image of Damascus, with Umaween Square just above the centre. The Barada river can be seen entering the picture in the upper left corner, and the western half of the old city is in the centre of the right hand edge of the photograph. The modern district of Mezze extends north of the motorway on the centre of the left edge.

Damascus lies about 80 km inland from the Mediterranean Sea, sheltered by the Anti-Lebanon Mountains. It lies on a plateau 680 meters above sea-level. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x720, 232 KB) Summary Description: Satellite Picture of the city Damascus in Syria. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x720, 232 KB) Summary Description: Satellite Picture of the city Damascus in Syria. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Anti-Lebanon is a mountain range of Lebanon and Syria. ...


The old city of Damascus, enclosed by the city walls, lies on the south bank of the river Barada. To the south-east, north and north-east it is surrounded by suburban areas whose history stretches back to the Middle Ages: Midan in the south-west, Sarouja and Imara in the north and north-west. These districts originally arose on roads leading out of the city, near the tombs of religious figures. In the nineteenth century outlying villages developed on the slopes of Jabal Qasioun, overlooking the city, already the site of the Salihiyye district centred around the important shrine of Sheikh Muhi al-Din ibn Arabi. These new districts were initially settled by Kurdish soldiery and Muslim refugees from the European regions of the Ottoman Empire which had fallen under Christian rule Thus they were known as al-Akrad (the Kurds) and al-Muhajirin (the migrants). They lay two to three kilometres north of the old city. Barada is a fictional character from the Star Wars universe. ... Sarouja (Arabic: ) is a district in old Damascus. ... A view of Damascus from the slopes of Qasioun Mount Qasioun (Arabic: , transliterated as Jabal Qasioun) is a mountain overlooking the city of Damascus, Syria. ... For the Maliki scholar, see Ibn al-Arabi. ...


From the late nineteenth century on, a modern administrative and commercial centre began to spring up to the west of the old city, around the Barada, centred on the area known as al-merjeh or the meadow. Al-Merjeh soon became the name of what was initially the central square of modern Damascus, with the city hall on it. The courts of justice, post office and railway station stood on higher ground slightly to the south. A Europeanised residential quarter soon began to be built on the road leading between al-Merjeh and Salihiyye. The commercial and administrative centre of the new city gradually shifted northwards slightly towards this area.


In the twentieth century, newer suburbs developed north of the Barada, and to some extent to the south, invading the Ghouta oasis. From 1955 the new district of Yarmouk became a second home to thousands of Palestinian refugees. City planners preferred to preserve the Ghouta as far as possible, and in the later twentieth century some of the main areas of development were to the north, in the western Mezze district and most recently along the Barada valley in Dumar in the northwest and on the slopes of the mountains at Berze in the north-east. Poorer areas, often built without official approval, have mostly developed south of the main city.


Damascus is surrounded by an oasis, the Ghouta Cheease region (الغوطة al-ġūṭä), watered by the Barada. The Fijeh spring, west along the Barada valley, provides the city with drinking water. The Ghouta oasis has been decreasing in size with the rapid expansion of housing and industry in the city. It has also become polluted due to the city's traffic, industry, and sewage. For the English rock band, see Oasis (band). ...


History

Ancient City of Damascus*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Damascus at sunset
State Party Flag of Syria Syria
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv, vi
Reference 20
Region Arab States
Inscription History
Inscription 1979  (3rd Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
Region as classified by UNESCO.

A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 136 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Damascus ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Arab world. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

Ancient history

Excavations at Tell Ramad on the outskirts of the city have demonstrated that Damascus has been inhabited as early as 8000 to 10,000 BC. It is due to this that Damascus is considered to be among the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world. However, Damascus is not documented as an important city until the coming of the Aramaeans, Semitic nomads who arrived from the Arabian peninsula. It is known that it was the Aramaeans who first established the water distribution system of Damascus by constructing canals and tunnels which maximized the efficiency of the Barada river. The same network was later improved by the Romans and the Umayyads, and still forms the basis of the water system of the old part of Damascus today. It was mentioned in Genesis 14 as existing at the time of the War of the Kings. The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... The Arabian Peninsula Emirets towers in United Arab Emirates; the eastern part of Arabian Penisula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Chedorlaomer (Hebrew: כְדָרְלָעומֶר) is the name of the main figure in a narrative within Genesis concerning a civil war in Canaan. ...


According to the 1st century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in his twenty-one volume Antiquities of the Jews, Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ...

"Nicolaus of Damascus, in the fourth book of his History, says thus: "Abraham reigned at Damascus, being a foreigner, who came with an army out of the land above Babylon, called the land of the Chaldeans: but, after a long time, he got him up, and removed from that country also, with his people, and went into the land then called the land of Canaan, but now the land of Judea, and this when his posterity were become a multitude; as to which posterity of his, we relate their history in another work. Now the name of Abraham is even still famous in the country of Damascus; and there is shown a village named from him, The Habitation of Abraham."

Damascus is designated as having been part of the ancient province of Amurru in the Hyksos Kingdom, from 1720 to 1570 BC. (MacMillan, pp. 30-31). Some of the earliest Egyptian records are from the 1350 BC Amarna letters, when Damascus-(called Dimasqu) was ruled by king Biryawaza. In 1100 BC, the city became the center of a powerful Aramaean state called Aram Damascus. The Kings of Aram Damascus were involved in many wars in the area against the Assyrians and the Israelites. One of the Kings, Ben-Hadad II, fought Shalmaneser III at the Battle of Qarqar. The ruins of the Aramean town most probably lie under the eastern part of the old walled city. After Tiglath-Pileser III captured and destroyed the city in 732 BC, it lost its independence for hundreds of years, and it fell to the Neo-Babylonian Empire of Nebuchadnezzar starting in 572 BC. The Babylonian rule of the city came to an end in 538 BC when the Persians under Cyrus captured the city and made it the capital of the Persian province of Syria. “Abram” redirects here. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... An image representing the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I defeating the Hyksos in battle. ... (Redirected from 1350 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1350 BC - Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton rises to... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... Biryawaza was king of Damascus in the mid fourteenth century BCE. In the Amarna letters, he was ordered by his Egyptian overlords to take armed action against Labayas sons (EA 250). ... Aram Damascus was an Aramean state centered around Damascus in Syria, from the late 12th century BCE to 734 BCE. Sources for this state come from texts that can be divided into three categories: Assyrian annals, Aramean texts, and the Hebrew Bible. ... Languages Aramaic Religions Christianity Related ethnic groups other Semitic peoples The Assyrians (also called Syriacs or Aramaeans[11]) are an ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria, but many of whom have migrated to the Caucasus, North America and Western Europe during the... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... Hadadezer (or Hadad-Ezer or Adad-Idri) was the king of Damascus at the time of the battle of Karkar. ... Shalmaneser III (Å ulmānu-aÅ¡arÄ“du, the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent) was king of Assyria (859 BC-824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II. His long reign was a constant series of campaigns against the eastern tribes, the Babylonians, the nations of Mesopotamia and Syria... Combatants Assyria An alliance of 12 Kings Commanders Shalmaneser III Hadadezer Strength Assyrian records claim 100,000 troops; modern scholars believe Assyrian forces were smaller 60,000 infantry, 2,450 chariots, 1,900 horsemen, 10,000 camel riders Kurkh stela of Shalmaneser that reports battle of Karkar The Battle of... Tiglath-Pileser III — stela from the walls of his palace (British Museum, London) Tiglath-Pileser III (Akkadian: TukultÄ«-Apil-EÅ¡arra) was a prominent king of Assyria in the 8th century BC (ruled 745–727 BC) and is widely regarded as the founder of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC - 730s BC - 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC Events and Trends 739 BC - Hiram II becomes king of Tyre 738 BC - King Tiglath-Pileser III... Through the centuries of Assyrian domination, Babylonia enjoyed a prominent status, or revolting at the slightest indication that it did not. ... An engraving inside an onyx-stone-eye in a Marduk statue that might depict Nebechandrezzar II Nebuchadrezzar II, more often called Nebuchadnezzar () (c 630-562 BC), was a ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned c. ... The name Cyrus (or Kourosh in Persian) may refer to: [[Cyrus I of Anshan]], King of Persia around 650 BC [[Cyrus II of Persia | Cyrus the Great]], King of Persia 559 BC - 529 BC — See also Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition Cyrus the Younger, brother to the Persian king...


Greco-Roman

Damascus first came under western control with the giant campaign of Alexander the Great that swept through the near east. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, Damascus became the site of a struggle between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic empires. The control of the city passed frequently from one empire to the other. Seleucus Nicator, one of Alexander's generals, had made Antioch the capital of his vast empire, a decision that led Damascus' importance to decline compared with the newly founded Seleucid cities such as Latakia in the north. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Ptolemy, one of Alexander the Greats generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 BC. In 305 BC he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as Soter (saviour). ... Seleucus I (surnamed for later generations Nicator, in Greek:Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ) (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Roundabout in Latakia Latakia (Arabic: اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah, Greek:Λαοδικεία) is the principal port city of Syria. ...


In 64 BC, Pompey and the Romans annexed the western part of Syria. They occupied Damascus and subsequently incorporated it into the league of ten cities known as the Decapolis because it was considered such an important center of Greco-Roman culture. According to the New Testament, St. Paul was on the road to Damascus when he received a vision, was struck blind and as a result converted to Christianity. In the year 37, Roman Emperor Caligula transferred Damascus into Nabataean control by decree. The Nabataean king Aretas IV Philopatris ruled Damascus from his capital Petra. However, around the year 106, Nabataea was conquered by the Romans, and Damascus returned to Roman control. For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The oval forum and cardo of Gerasa (Jerash) The Decapolis (Greek: deka, ten; polis, city) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in Syria and Judea (renamed Palestine in 135 AD). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Events March 18 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius will and proclaims Caligula Roman Emperor. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... Aretas IV Philopatris was the King of the Nabataeans from roughly 9 BC to AD 40. ... Petra (from petra, rock in Greek; Arabic: البتراء, Al-Butrā) is an archaeological site in Jordan, lying in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba), the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. ... For other uses, see number 106. ...


Damascus became a metropolis by the beginning of the second century and in 222 it was upgraded to a colonia by the Emperor Septimius Severus. With the coming of the Pax Romana, Damascus and the Roman province of Syria in general began to prosper. Damascus's importance as a caravan city was evident with the trade routes from southern Arabia, Palmyra, Petra, and the silk routes from China all converging on it. The city satisfied the Roman demands for eastern luxuries. Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Roman Empire at its greatest extent with the conquests of Trajan Pax Romana (27 BCE-180 CE), Latin for the Roman peace, was the long period of relative peace experienced by the Roman Empire. ... The Arabian Peninsula Emirets towers in United Arab Emirates; the eastern part of Arabian Penisula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... Early morning panorama of Palmyra. ... Petra (from petra, rock in Greek; Arabic: البتراء, Al-Butrā) is an archaeological site in Jordan, lying in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba), the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. ...


Little remains of the architecture of the Romans, but the town planning of the old city did have a lasting effect. The Roman architects brought together the Greek and Aramaean foundations of the city and fused them into a new layout measuring approximately 1500 by 750 meters, surrounded by a city wall. The city wall contained seven gates, but only the eastern gate (Bab Sharqi) remains from the Roman period. Roman Damascus lies mostly at depths of up to five meters below the modern city.


The old borough of Bab Tuma was developed at the end of the Roman/Byzantine era by the local Eastern Orthodox community. According to the Acts of the Apostles, Saint Paul and Saint Thomas both lived in that neighborhood. Roman Catholic historians also consider Bab Tuma to be the birthplace of several Popes such as John V and Gregory III. Saint Thomas’s Gate also known as “Bab Tuma” is the oldest borough of Damascus itself the oldest city in the world, and owes its name to Thomas, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... The name Saint Paul may refer to one of several possible meanings or references, though it is most commonly used to refer to the Biblical Paul of Tarsus. ... St. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Saint Thomas’s Gate also known as “Bab Tuma” is the oldest borough of Damascus itself the oldest city in the world, and owes its name to Thomas, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ. ... This is a list of Popes of the Roman Catholic Church. ... John V was the name of a number of leaders: John V of Alexandria John V of Portugal John V Palaeologus John V, Duke of Brittany Pope John V Patriarch John V of Constatinople This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the... Saint Gregory III, pope (731-741), a Syrian by birth, succeeded Gregory II in March 731. ...


From the Muslim conquest to the Fatimids

Alsayyida Zaynab shrine dome
Alsayyida Zaynab shrine dome

Damascus was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate forces in 634 A.D. Immediately thereafter, the city's power and prestige reached its peak when it became the capital of the Umayyad Empire, which extended from Spain to India from 661 to 750. In 744, the last Umayyad caliph, Marwan II, moved the capital to Harran in the Jazira,[3] and Damascus was never to regain the political prominence it had held in that period. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Combatants Rashidun Caliphate Byzantine empire. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to certain of the Caliphs. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... Events February - Hildeprand succeeds Liutprand as king of the Lombards. ... The Califate in 750 From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923 Courtesy of The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (750-688) (Arabic: مروان ابن محمد ابن مروان) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. ... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is a district of Åžanlıurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey, near the border with Syria, 24 miles (44 kilometres) southeast of the city of Åžanlıurfa, at the end of a long straight road across the roasting hot plain of Harran. ... Al Jazira (Arabic, الجزيرة) is the traditional Arabic name for the region of northeastern modern-day Syria and northwestern modern-day Iraq. ...


After the fall of the Umayyads and the establishment of the Abbasid caliphate in 750, Damascus was ruled from Baghdad, although in 858 al-Mutawakkil briefly established his residence there with the intention of transferring his capital there from Samarra. However, he soon abandoned the idea. As the Abbasid caliphate declined, Damascus suffered from the prevailing instability, and came under the control of local dynasties. In 875 the ruler of Egypt, Ahmad ibn Tulun, took the city, with Abbasid control being re-established only in 905. In 945 the Hamdanids took Damascus, and not long after it passed into the hands of Muhammad bin Tughj, founder of the Ikhshidid dynasty. In 968 and again in 971 the city was briefly captured by the Qaramita. Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Events Patriarch Ignatius is imprisoned and (December 25) deposed to be succeeded by patriarch Photius I. Louis the German invades West Francia, hoping to secure Aquitaine from his brother Charles the Bald, but fails. ... Al-Mutawakkil Ala Allah Jafar bin al-Mutasim (821–861) (Arabic: المتوكل على الله جعفر بن المعتصم) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned (in Samarra) from 847 until 861. ... Map showing Samarra near Baghdad Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq ( ). It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Salah ad Din Governorate, 125 km north of Baghdad and, in 2002, had an estimated population of 201,700. ... Events December 29 - Charles the Bald, king of west Danes capture Lindisfarne and arrive in Cambridge. ... which is in mecca the city Category: ... Alternate meaning: Area code 905 Events Births Deaths Categories: 905 ... Buwayhid dynasty takes control of Baghdad. ... Hamdanid Dynasty: Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (Al-Jazirah) and Syria (890-1004). ... Muhammad bin Tughj (882 - 969) (also transliterated Mohamed Ben Tagh and many other ways) was the founder of the Ikhshidid dynasty of Egypt, ruling the country from 935 until his death. ... The Ikhshidid dynasty of Egypt (sometimes transliterated other ways) ruled Egypt from 935 to 969. ... Events Births Emperor Kazan of Japan Ethelred II of England Romanus Argyrus, later Romanus III of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Events Births Deaths Culen of Scotland Categories: 971 ... The Qarmatians (from Arabic qaramita قرامطة, also spelled Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians etc. ...


Fatimids, the Crusades and the Seljuks

The statue of Saladin in front of Damascus citadel.
The statue of Saladin in front of Damascus citadel.

In 970, the Fatimid Caliphs in Cairo gained control of Damascus. This was to usher in a turbulent period in the city's history, as the Berber troops who formed the backbone of the Fatimid forces became deeply unpopular among its citizens. The presence in Syria of the Qaramita and occasionally of Turkish military bands added to the constant pressure from the Bedouin. For a brief period from 978, Damascus was self-governing, under the leadership of a certain Qassam and protected by a citizen militia. However, the Ghouta was ravaged by the Bedouin and after a Turkish-led campaign the city once again surrendered to Fatimid rule. From 1029 to 1041 the Turkish military leader Anushtakin was governor of Damascus under the Fatimid caliph Al-Zahir, and did much to restore the city's prosperity. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: , Turkish: ) (c. ... Download high resolution version (1280x853, 261 KB)The Azem Palace in Damascus File links The following pages link to this file: Damascus User:Zeledi ... Download high resolution version (1280x853, 261 KB)The Azem Palace in Damascus File links The following pages link to this file: Damascus User:Zeledi ... Azem Palace courtyard Azem Palace (Arabic: ) is a palace in Damascus, Syria which was originally built in 1750 as a residence for the Ottoman governor of Damascus Asad Pasha al-Azem. ... Events Major volcano eruption in Mashu Japan Devastating decade long famine begins in France Byzantine Emperor John I successfully defends the Eastern Roman Empire from massive barbarian invasion Construction completed on Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo, worlds oldest Islamic university Births Leif Ericson, Norse explorer Seyyed Razi, important Muslim... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ), a name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western... Events Badìa Fiorentina, an abbey in Italy, is founded by Willa, Margravine of Tuscany. ... Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam (Arabic: عزّ الدين القسّام) (1882-1935) was born in Latakia, Syria and immigrated to the British Mandate of Palestine. ... ˤAlÄ« az-Zāhir (20 June 1005 – 13 June 1036) (Arabic: الظاهر بالله) was the Seventh Caliph of the Fātimids (1021 - 1036). ...


It appears that during this period the slow transformation of Damascus from a Graeco-Roman city layout - characterised by blocks of insulae — to a more familiar Islamic pattern took place: the grid of straight streets changed to a pattern of narrow streets, with most residents living inside harat closed off at night by heavy wooden gates to protect against criminals and the exactions of the soldiery. Remains of the top floors of an insula near the Capitolium and the Aracoeli in Rome. ...


With the arrival of the Seljuk Turks in the late 11th century, Damascus again became the capital of independent states. It was ruled by a Seljuk dynasty from 1079 to 1104, and then by another Turkish dynasty - the Burid Emirs, who withstood a siege of the city during the Second Crusade in 1148 . In 1154 Damascus was conquered from the Burids by the famous Zengid Atabeg Nur ad-Din of Aleppo, the great foe of the Crusaders. He made it his capital, and following his death, it was acquired by Saladin, the ruler of Egypt, who also made it his capital. Saladin rebuilt the citadel, and it is reported that under his rule the suburbs were as extensive as the city itself. It is reported by Ibn Jubayr that during the time of Saladin, Damascus welcomed seekers of knowledge and industrious youth from around the world, who arrived for the sake of "undistracted study and seclusion" in Damascus' many colleges. The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... The Burid Dynasty was a Turkish dynasty which ruled over Damascus in the early 12th century. ... The Siege of Damascus took place over only four days, from July 23 to July 27, 1148, during the Second Crusade. ... The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. ... The Zengid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Seljuk Turkish origin, which ruled parts of Northern Iraq and Syria during the 12th and 13th centuries. ... al-Malik al-Adil Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (1118 – May 15, 1174), also known as Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, etc. ... Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: , ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-Dīn Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: , Turkish: ) (c. ... Ibn Jubayr (1145-1217) (Arabic: ) was an Arab-Spanish geographer, traveler, and poet. ...


In the years following Saladin's death, there were frequent conflicts between different Ayyubid sultans ruling in Damascus and Cairo. Damascus steel gained a legendary reputation among the Crusaders, and patterned steel is still "damascened". The patterned Byzantine and Chinese silks available through Damascus, one of the Western termini of the Silk Road, gave the English language "damask". The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Damascus steel is a steel used in Middle Eastern swordmaking from about 1100 to 1700 AD. Damascus swords were of legendary sharpness and strength, and were apocryphally claimed to be able to cut through more ordinary European swords and even rock. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... “Silk Route” redirects here. ...


Mamluk rule

Ayyubid rule (and independence) came to an end with the Mongol invasion of Syria in 1260, and Damascus became a provincial capital of the Mamluk Empire, ruled from Egypt, following the Mongol withdrawal. The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for...


Timurlank

Khan as'ad Pacha built in 1749
Khan as'ad Pacha built in 1749

In 1400 Timur, the Mongol conqueror, besieged Damascus. The Mamluk sultan dispatched a deputation from Cairo, including Ibn Khaldun, who negotiated with him, but after their withdrawal he put the city to sack. The Umayyad Mosque was burnt and men and women taken into slavery. A huge number of the city's artisans were taken to Timur's capital at Samarkand. These were the luckier citizens: many were slaughtered and their heads piled up in a field outside the north-east corner of the walls, where a city square still bears the name burj al-ruus, originally "the tower of heads". Download high resolution version (1280x853, 218 KB)Built in 1749 by asad Pacha el Azem File links The following pages link to this file: Damascus User:Zeledi ... Download high resolution version (1280x853, 218 KB)Built in 1749 by asad Pacha el Azem File links The following pages link to this file: Damascus User:Zeledi ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan Tīmūr bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - Tēmōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405), known in the West as Tamerlane, was a 14th century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent,[1][2][3][4] conqueror of much of western and central Asia, and founder... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ...


Rebuilt, Damascus continued to serve as a Mamluk provincial capital until 1516 .


The Ottoman conquest

The destroyed Christian quarter of Damascus, 1860.
The destroyed Christian quarter of Damascus, 1860.

In early 1516, the Ottoman Turks, wary of the danger of an alliance between the Mamluks and the Persian Safavids, started a campaign of conquest against the Mamluk sultanate. On 21 September, the Mamluk governor of Damascus fled the city, and on 2 October the khutba in the Umayyad mosque was pronounced in the name of Selim I. The day after, the victorious sultan entered the city, staying for three months. On 15 December, he left Damascus by Bab al-Jabiya, intent on the conquest of Egypt. Little appeared to have changed in the city: one army had simply replaced another. However, on his return in October 1517, the sultan ordered the construction of a mosque, taqiyya and mausoleum at the shrine of Shaikh Muhi al-Din ibn Arabi in Salihiyya. This was to be the first of Damascus' great Ottoman monuments. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Khutba (خطبة) is an Arabic term referring to the Islamic sermon delivered either before the Friday Salah (see: Jumuah) and after the Eid Salat. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Within Islamic tradition, the concept of Taqiyya (التقية - fear, guard against)[1] refers to a controversial dispensation allowing believers to conceal their faith when under threat, persecution or compulsion. ... For the Maliki scholar, see Ibn al-Arabi. ...


The Ottomans remained for the next 400 years, except for a brief occupation by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt from 1832 to 1840 . Because of its importance as the point of departure for one of the two great Hajj caravans to Mecca, Damascus was treated with more attention by the Porte than its size might have warranted — for most of this period, Aleppo was more populous and commercially more important. In 1560 the Taqiyya al-Sulaimaniyya, a mosque and khan for pilgrims on the road to Mecca, was completed to a design by the famous Ottoman architect Sinan, and soon afterwards a madrasa was built adjoining it. Ibrahim Pasha (Arabic: ابراهيم باشا) ‎ (1789 – 10 November 1848), a 19th century general of Egypt. ... This article is about the Islamic tradition. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. ... Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: , ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... A caravanserai (also spelt caravansarai, caravansary Persian كاروانسرا, Turkish: kervansaray), means home or shelter for caravans (caravan meaning a group or convoy of soldiers, traders or pilgrims engaged in long distance travel). ... For other uses, see Sinan (disambiguation). ... Madrassa in the Gambia The word madrassa in the Arabic language (and other languages of the Islamic nations such as Persian, Turkish, Indonesian etc. ...


Perhaps the most notorious incident of these centuries was the massacre of Christians in 1860, when fighting between Druze (most probably supported by foreign countries to weaken the economical power) and Maronites in Mount Lebanon spilled over into the city. Some thousands of Christians were killed, with many more being saved through the intervention of the Algerian exile Abd al-Qadir and his soldiers, who brought them to safety in Abd al-Qadir's residence and the citadel. The Christian quarter of the old city, including a number of churches, was burnt down. The Christian inhabitants of the notoriously poor and refractory Midan district outside the walls were, however, protected by their Muslim neighbours. 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzÄ« or durzÄ«, plural دروز, durÅ«z; ‎, Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion is said to have begun as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܶܐ in Syriac, Mawarinah in Arabic) are members of one of the Eastern Rites of the Catholic church. ... For other uses, see Mount Lebanon (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Rise of Arab nationalism

In the early years of the twentieth century, nationalist sentiment in Damascus, initially cultural in its interest, began to take a political colouring, largely in reaction to the turkicisation programme of the Committee of Union and Progress government established in Istanbul in 1908 . The hanging of a number of patriotic intellectuals by Jamal Pasha, governor of Damascus, in Beirut and Damascus in 1915 and 1916 further stoked nationalist feeling, and in 1918, as the forces of the Arab Revolt and the British army approached, residents fired on the retreating Turkish troops. Turkification is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something or someone who is not a Turk becomes one, voluntarily or by force. ... Foundation: 1894 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: ), initially a secret society established as the Committee of Ottoman Union (İttihad-ı Osmanî Cemiyeti in 1889 by the medical students İbrahim Temo, Abdullah Cevdet, İshak Sükuti and Hüseyinzade Ali, became was a political... Jamal Pasha (1872 – 1922), known in the Arab world as Jamal the Butcher, was a notorious Turkish military leader and commander of the Ottoman Fourth Army, which was stationned in Damascus, during World War I. He was known among the local Arab inhabitants as al-Saffah, the Blood Shedder, being... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


Modern

The Turkish Hospital in Damascus on 1 October 1918, shortly after the entry of the 4th Australian Light Horse Regiment.
The Turkish Hospital in Damascus on 1 October 1918, shortly after the entry of the 4th Australian Light Horse Regiment.

On 1 October 1918, the forces of the Arab revolt led by Nuri as-Said entered Damascus. The same day, Australian soldiers from the 4th and 10th Light Horse Regiments reinforced with detachments from the British Yeomanry Mounted Division entered the city and accepted its surrender from the Turkish appointed Governor Emir Said (installed as Governor the previous afternoon by the retreating Turkish Commander)[1][2]. A military government under Shukri Pasha was named. Other British forces including T. E. Lawrence followed later that day, and Faisal ibn Hussein was proclaimed king of Syria. Political tension rose in November 1917, when the new Bolshevik government in Russia revealed the Sykes-Picot Agreement whereby Britain and France had arranged to partition the Arab east between them. A new Franco-British proclamation on 17 November promised the "complete and definitive freeing of the peoples so long oppressed by the Turks." The Syrian Congress in March adopted a democratic constitution. However, the Versailles Conference had granted France a mandate over Syria, and in 1920 a French army crossed the Anti-Lebanon Mountains, defeated a small Syrian defensive expedition at the Battle of Maysalun and entered Damascus. The French made Damascus capital of their League of Nations Mandate of Syria. Image File history File linksMetadata 4ALHinDamascus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 4ALHinDamascus. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... Emir Faisals party at Versailles, during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. ... The Australian Light Horse in Palestine during World War I The Australian Light Horse soldiers were mounted infantry who served during the Second Boer War and World War I. The Light Horse differed from cavalry in that they usually fought dismounted, using their horses as transport to the battlefield and... The Yeomanry Mounted Division was a Territorial Army cavalry division formed in Palestine in mid-1917 from three yeomanry mounted brigades. ... // T. E. Lawrence in the white silk robes of the Sherifs of Mecca. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then... The Paris Peace Conference, 1919, negotiated the treaties ending World War I. The Paris Peace Conference, 1946, negotiated the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, with Germanys World War II allies and co-belligerents in Europe. ... Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... Battle of Maysalun Conflict Franco-Syrian War Date July 23, 1920 Place Maysalun Pass, Anti-Lebanon mountains (Syria) Result French Victory The Battle of Maysalun, also called The Battle of Maysalun Pass, took place between Syrian and French forces some 12 miles west of Damascus on July 23, 1920. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ...


When in 1925 the Druze revolt in the Hauran spread to Damascus, the French repressed it brutally, bombing and shelling the city. The area of the old city between Souk al-Hamidiyya and Souk Midhat Pasha was burned to the ground, with many deaths, and has since then been known as al-Hariqa ("the fire"). The old city was surrounded with barbed wire to prevent rebels infiltrating from the Ghouta, and a new road was built outside the northern ramparts to facilitate the movement of armoured cars. Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzī or durzī, plural دروز, durūz; ‎, Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion is said to have begun as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of... Hauran, also Hawran or Houran, (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: ) is the southern region of modern-day Syria. ... Al-Hamidiyah Souk (Arabic سوق الاحمدية) is the largest and the central souk in the Syrian capital Damascus. ...


On 21 June 1941, Damascus was captured from the Vichy French forces by the Allies during the Syria-Lebanon campaign. is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later... Combatants Australia U.K. British India British Palestine  Czechoslovakia Government-in-Exile Free France Vichy France Mandate of Syria Mandate of Lebanon Commanders Henry Maitland Wilson Henri Dentz Strength Approximately 35,000 troops Australian: 18,000 British: 9,000 Indian: 2,000 Free French: 5,000 Between 35,000 and...


In 1945 the French once more bombed Damascus, but on this occasion British forces intervened and the French agreed to withdraw, thus leading to the full independence of Syria in 1946 . Damascus remained the capital.


Historical sites

Ananias Chapel.
Ananias Chapel.
Shrine of Zaynab bint Ali.
Shrine of Zaynab bint Ali.
The Minaret of the Bride, Umayyad Mosque in old Damascus.
The Minaret of the Bride, Umayyad Mosque in old Damascus.

Damascus has a wealth of historical sites dating back to many different periods of the city's history. Since the city has been built up with every passing occupation, it has become almost impossible to excavate all the ruins of Damascus that lie up to 8 feet below the modern level. The Citadel of Damascus is located in the northwest corner of the Old City. The street called straight (referred to in the conversion of St. Paul in Acts 9:11), also known as the Via Recta, was the decumanus (East-West main street) of Roman Damascus, and extended for over 1500 meters. Today, it consists of the street of Bab Sharqi and the Souk Medhat Pasha, a covered market. The Bab Sharqi street is filled with small shops and leads to the old Christian quarter of Bab Touma (St. Thomas's Gate). Souq Medhat Pasha is also a main market in Damascus and was named after Medhat Pasha, the Ottoman governor of Damascus who renovated the Souq. At the end of the Bab Sharqi street, one reaches the House of Ananias, an underground chapel that was the cellar of Ananias's house. Image File history File links Damascus, Syria - Ananias Chapel in the basement of the Ananias house. ... Image File history File links Damascus, Syria - Ananias Chapel in the basement of the Ananias house. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 651 KB) en: Damascus, Syria - Umayyad Mosque, northern arcade of the courtyard and the Minaret of the Bride. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 651 KB) en: Damascus, Syria - Umayyad Mosque, northern arcade of the courtyard and the Minaret of the Bride. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... In Roman city planning, a Decumanus Maximus was an east-west-oriented road in a Roman city, military camp, or colonia. ... The Death of Ananias, by Masaccio Ananias, and his wife Sapphira, were, according to the Acts of the Apostles, members of the Early Christian church. ...


The Umayyad Mosque, also known as the Grand Mosque of Damascus, is one of the largest mosques in the world, and one of the oldest sites of continuous prayer since the rise of Islam. A shrine in the mosque is said to contain the head of John the Baptist. The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus by night St Johns Shrine inside the Mosque The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal) The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque (Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير, transl. ... Bold text St. ...


A heavily visited site is the tomb of Zaynab bint Ali. Hundreds of thousands of Shia Muslims visit it every year. Zaynabs name in Arabic Calligraphy Zaynab bint Ali (Arabic: زينب بنت علي ) (Urdu: زينب بنت على ) was the daughter of the 4th Caliph, the first Shia imam, Ali, and granddaughter of Muhammad. ...


The walls and gates of Damascus

The old city of Damascus is surrounded by ramparts on the northern and eastern sides and part of the southern side. There are eight extant city gates, the oldest of which dates back to the Roman period. These are, clockwise from the north of the citadel:

  • Bab al-Faraj ("the gate of deliverance"),
  • Bab al-Faradis ("the gate of the orchards", or "of the paradise")
  • Bab al-Salam ("the gate of peace"), all on the north boundary of the old city
  • Bab Tuma ("Touma" or "Thomas's Gate") in the north-east corner, leading into the Christian quarter of the same name,
  • Bab Sharqi ("eastern gate") in the east wall, the only one to retain its Roman plan
  • Bab Kisan in the south-east, from which tradition holds that Saint Paul made his escape from Damascus, lowered from the ramparts in a basket; this gate is now closed and a chapel marking the event has been built into the structure,
  • al-Bab al-Saghir (the small gate) in the south.
  • Bab al-Jabiya at the entrance to Souq Midhat Pasha, in the south-west.

Two other areas outside the walled city also bear the name "gate": Bab Mousalla and Bab Sreija, both to the south-west of the walled city. Saint Thomas’s Gate also known as “Bab Tuma” is the oldest borough of Damascus itself the oldest city in the world, and owes its name to Thomas, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ. ...


Subdivisions

Almarja Square in downtown Damascus
Almarja Square in downtown Damascus

Damascus is divided into many districts. Among them there are: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 543 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) en: Damascus, Syria - the column at Al Merjeh square sl: Damask, Sirija - steber na trgu Al Merdžeh I took the photo myself File links... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 543 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) en: Damascus, Syria - the column at Al Merjeh square sl: Damask, Sirija - steber na trgu Al Merdžeh I took the photo myself File links...

  • Al-Amara
  • Al-Baramkah
  • Al-Mazraa
  • Al-Mezzah
  • Al-Meedan
  • Al-Muhajreen
  • Alshaghoor
  • Al-Tijara
  • Barzeh
  • Abu Remaneh
  • Al Malki
  • Kafarsooseh
  • Mashrooa Dummar
  • Rukn Aldeen
  • Sarouja

Sarouja (Arabic: ) is a district in old Damascus. ...

Education

Damascus is the main center of education in Syria. It is home to Damascus University, which is the oldest and by far the largest university in Syria. After the enactment of legislation allowing private secondary institutions, several new universities were established in the city and in the surrounding area. The University of Damascus (Arabic: جامعة دمشق jāmi‘atu-d-dimashq) is the largest university in Syria, located in the capital Damascus. ...


Universities

Damascus National Museum.
Damascus National Museum.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... The University of Damascus (Arabic: جامعة دمشق jāmi‘atu-d-dimashq) is the largest university in Syria, located in the capital Damascus. ... The Syrian Virtual University is a Syrian educational institution established by the Syrian Ministry of Higher Education. ... HIAST (Higher Institute for Applied Science and Technology), was established in 1983 in Damascus, Syria. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Transportation

Al-Hijaz Station
Al-Hijaz Station

The main airport is Damascus International Airport, approximately 20 km away from the city center, with connections to many Asian, Europe, African, and recently, South American cities. Streets in Damascus are often narrow, mostly in the older parts of the city, and speed bumps are widely used to limit the speed. Image File history File links Damascus, Syria: Hejaz railway station, starting point of the Hejaz Railway I took the photo myself File links The following pages link to this file: Hejaz railway ... Image File history File links Damascus, Syria: Hejaz railway station, starting point of the Hejaz Railway I took the photo myself File links The following pages link to this file: Hejaz railway ... Damascus International Airport (Arabic, مطار دمشق الدولي) (IATA: DAM, ICAO: OSDI) is a public airport located in Damascus, the capital of Syria. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Public transport in Damascus depends extensively on minibuses. There are about one hundred lines that operate inside the city and some of them extend from the city center to nearby suburbs. There is no schedule for the lines, and due to the limited number of official bus stops, buses will usually stop wherever a passenger needs to get on or off. The number of buses serving the same line is relatively high, which minimizes the waiting time. Lines are not numbered, rather they are given captions mostly indicating the two end points and possibly an important station along the line. ... A bus stop or omnibus stop is a designated place where a public transport bus stops for the purpose of allowing passengers to board or leave the bus. ...


Al-Hijaz railway station, lies in the city center. Currently this station is closed, and railway connections with other cities take place in a suburb.


Since the early 1990s, there have been many plans to construct an underground system in Damascus, but no plan was taken seriously due to both financial and technical limitations.


Culture

People

Three Damascene women; lady wearing qabqabs, a Druze, and a peasant, 1873.
Three Damascene women; lady wearing qabqabs, a Druze, and a peasant, 1873.

The majority of the population in Damascus came as a result of rural-urban migration. It is believed that the local people of Damascus, called Damascene, are about 1.5 million. Damascus is considered by most people to be a very safe city. Haggling is common, especially in the traditional souks. Corruption is widespread, but in the past few years there have been aims at combating it, by both the government and non-governmental organizations. Tea, Mate (popular caffeinated beverage made from Yerba mate), and Turkish Coffee are the most common beverages in Damascus. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzī or durzī, plural دروز, durūz; ‎, Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion is said to have begun as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of... Rural-urban migration is the migration of people from rural areas into cities. ... Haggling is the process of negotiating the price of something (eg, an piece of merchandise or a service) with the intent of getting a better deal than the stated price. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Mate may refer to: Relationships: Mate (term), a term for a friend, especially in the United Kingdom and Australasia; also used to address strangers One of a pair of animals, sometimes also applied to a human partner; see mating Nautical: A deck officer on a merchant marine vessel, usually ranked... A cup of Turkish coffee served at an İstanbul terrace. ...

Religion

The majority of Damascenes - about 75 % - are Sunni Muslims. It is believed that there are more than two thousand mosques in Damascus, the most famous one being the Umayyad Mosque, formerly a Byzantine cathedral dedicated to Saint John the Baptist. There are some Christian districts, such as Bab Tuma, Kassaa, and Ghassani, with many churches, most notably the ancient St. Paul's Church. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus by night St Johns Shrine inside the Mosque The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal) The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque (Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير, transl. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Saint Thomas’s Gate also known as “Bab Tuma” is the oldest borough of Damascus itself the oldest city in the world, and owes its name to Thomas, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ. ... The Ghassanids (Arabic: ‎) were Arab Christians that emigrated in the year 250 from Yemen to the Hauran, in southern Syria. ... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ... St Pauls Church is a generic name for hundreds of churches. ...


Museums

  • Damascus National Museum
  • Azem Palace
  • Military Museum
  • Museum of Arabic Calligraphy

Azem Palace courtyard Azem Palace (Arabic: ) is a palace in Damascus, Syria which was originally built in 1750 as a residence for the Ottoman governor of Damascus Asad Pasha al-Azem. ...

Leisure activities

Parks and gardens

Tishreen Park is by far the largest park in Damascus. It is home to the yearly held Damascus Flower Show. Other parks include Aljahiz, Altijara and Alwahda.


Damascus oasis is also a popular destination for recreation. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Cafe culture

Cafes are popular meeting spots for Damascene, where Arghilehs (water pipes) and popular beverages are served. Card games, Tables (backgammon variants), and chess are common in these cafes. This article is about a traditional smoking pipe. ... // For the game on The Price Is Right, see Card Game (pricing game). ... Tables is a general name given to a class of board games similar to backgammon, played on a board with two rows of 12 vertical markings called points. Players roll dice to determine the movement of pieces. ... Backgammon is a board game for two players in which pieces are moved according to the roll of dice. ... For other uses, see Chess (disambiguation). ...


Sports

Popular sports include football, basketball, swimming and table tennis. Damascus is home to many sports clubs, such as: Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the sport. ... This article concentrates on human swimming. ... “Ping Pong” redirects here. ...

Al-Jaish (Arabic: الجيش) is a football club based in Damascus, Syria, founded in 1947. ... Al-Wahda (Arabic: ‎) is a Syrian football club based in Damascus. ... Al Majd is an Syrian football club based in Damascus, Syria. ... Barada is a fictional character from the Star Wars universe. ...

Nearby attractions

  • Madaya

Madaya is a small mountainous town in Syria, located at an altitude of 169-08 meters. ...

Born in Damascus

Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets
Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets

Download high resolution version (1280x853, 241 KB)Damascus by night viewed from a hill File links The following pages link to this file: Damascus User:Zeledi ... Download high resolution version (1280x853, 241 KB)Damascus by night viewed from a hill File links The following pages link to this file: Damascus User:Zeledi ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Nicolaus of Damascus (Nikolāos Damaskēnos) was a Greek historical and philosophical writer who lived in the Augustan Age. ... John of Damascus (Greek: Ιωάννης Δαμασκήνος/Ioannês Damaskinos; Arabic: Yaḥyā ibn Manṣūr; Latin: Iohannes Damascenus or Johannes Damascenus also known as John Damascene, Χρυσορρόας/Chrysorrhoas, streaming with gold—i. ... The Death of Ananias, by Masaccio Ananias, and his wife Sapphira, were, according to the Acts of the Apostles, members of the Early Christian church. ... Sophronius of Jerusalem Sophronius (born 560 in Damascus - died March 11, 638 in Jerusalem) was the Patriarch of Jerusalem from 634 until his death. ... The term Patriarch of Jerusalem can refer to the holders of one of three offices: The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, who is one of the Roman Catholic patriarchs of the east The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, who is one of nine highest-ranking Eastern Orthodox bishops, called patriarchs The Armenian... Damascius, the last of the Neoplatonists, was born in Damascus about AD 480. ... Yasser Seirawan Yasser Seirawan (Arabic: ) (born March 24, 1960) is a chess grandmaster and 4-time US-champion. ... Sheikh Ahmed Muhammad Amin Kuftaro (December 1915 _ September 1, 2004) was the Grand Mufti of Syria, the highest Muslim religious official in that nation. ... A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... Ikram Antaki (July 9, 1948 - October 31, 2000) was a noted Mexican writer of Syrian origin. ... Ghada Al Samman {{Ar: غادة السمّان}} is an Arab Syrian writer journalist and novelist born in Damascus in 1942 to a prominent and conservative Damascene family, she is remotely related to Nizar Qabbani the famous poet. ... Nizar Kabbani Nizar Tawfiq Kabbani (21 March 1923 – 30 April 1998) (Arabic:نزار قباني) was a Syrian diplomat, poet and publisher. ... Michel ‘Aflaq Michel ‘Aflaq (1910 - June 23, 1989) was the ideological founder of Ba’athism, a form of Arab nationalism. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Salah al-Din al-Bitar ( 1911), a Sunni Muslim, co-founder of the Bath Party in Syria. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Constantin Zureiq (born Damascus 1909-2000), a prominent Arab intellectual and academic, was one of the pioneering theorists of modern Arab nationalism. ... Zakaria tamer(Arabic: ‎ (born January 2nd, 1931) is a Syrian writer. ...

Town twinning (sister cities)

Further reading

  • Jill, Duchess of Hamilton, First to Damascus: The story of the Australian Light Horse and Lawrence of Arabia (2002) ISBN 0-7318-1071-6
  • Yohanan Aharoni & Michael Avi-Yonah, "The MacMillan Bible Atlas", Revised Edition, (1968 & 1977 by Carta Ltd.).

Current State of Old Damascus

In spite of the recommendations of UNESCO, World Heritage Center Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official mentioned) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...

  • SOUK EL ATIK in protected buffer zone has been destroyed in 3 days in November 2006
  • KING FAYSAL STREET, a traditional hand-craft region, in protected buffer zone, near the walls of Old Damascus, between the Citadel and Bab Touma is menaced by a project of motorway.

http://www.britishsyriansociety.org/dam2020/recommendations.asp

  • In 2007, the Old City of Damascus notably the borough of Bab Tuma has been recognized by The World Monument Fund as one of the most endangered sites in the world. http://www.worldmonumentswatch.org/

References

  1. ^ (in Book Reviews) Ancient Damascus: A Historical Study of the Syrian City-State from Earliest Times Until Its Fall to the Assyrians in 732 B. C. E., Wayne T. Pitard. Review author: Paul E. Dion, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 270, Ancient Syria. (May, 1988), p. 98
  2. ^ The Stele Dedicated to Melcarth by Ben-Hadad of Damascus, Frank Moore Cross. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 205. (Feb., 1972), p. 40.
  3. ^ Hugh Kennedy, The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Damascus

Maps

Photography

  • The modern side of Damascus, newer buildings, the traffic, streets, shops, smiling Syrians.
  • The ancient side of Damascus, hours spent walking through the famous old city.
  • Discovering the colorful life inside the Damascene souk.
  • In and around the magnificent Umayyad Mosque.
  • Visiting the splendid Azem Palace.

Information

  • Syria News Wire: Named after the ancient Saroujah area of Damascus, this site has daily tales from the streets of Damascus
  • Damascus Syria News
  • Damascus online
  • Ancient Route history of Damascus
  • Oldamascus.com, a web site devoted to the city
  • An article about a large scale restoration project
  • Australian War Memorial
  • [3]

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