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Encyclopedia > Dalmatian language
Dalmatian
Spoken in: Croatia, Montenegro 
Region: Adriatic coast
Language extinction: 10 June 1898, when Tuone Udaina was killed
Language family: Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Italo-Dalmatian
     Dalmatian
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: roa
ISO 639-3: dlm 
Major cities where Dalmatian was spoken

Dalmatian is an extinct Romance language formerly spoken in the Dalmatia region of Croatia, and as far south as Kotor (Cattaro) in Montenegro. Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is is a language which has stopped changing in grammar, vocabulary, and the complete meaning of a sentence. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Tuone Udaina (or Antonio Udina in Italian) was the last native speaker of the Dalmatian language. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Italo-Western is the largest sub-group of Romance languages. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1094x857, 319 KB) Summary Dalmatian language -- major cities where it was spoken. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1094x857, 319 KB) Summary Dalmatian language -- major cities where it was spoken. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Coordinates Mayor Marija Ćatović (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 335 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 1,331 22,947 {{{density}}} No. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006...


The Dalmatian speakers lived in the coastal towns: Zadar, Trogir, Split, Dubrovnik and Kotor (Zara, Traù, Spalato, Ragusa and Cattaro in Venetian, and Italian), each of these cities having a local dialect, and also on the islands of Krk, Cres and Rab (Veglia, Cherso and Arbe) For other uses, see Zadar (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms Trogir (Italian Traù, Latin Tragurium, Greek Tragurion, Hungarian Tengerfehérvár) is a historic town and harbour on the Adriatic coast in Split-Dalmatia county, Croatia, with a population of 10,907 (2001) and a total municipality population of 13,322 (2001). ... For other uses, see Split (disambiguation). ... Nickname: 1995 map of Dubrovnik The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia Coordinates: , Country Croatia County Dubrovnik-Neretva county Government  - Mayor Dubravka Å uica (HDZ) Area  - City 143. ... Coordinates Mayor Marija Ćatović (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 335 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 1,331 22,947 {{{density}}} No. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Location of Krk in Croatia Krk (Italian Veglia, Latin Curicta) is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea, located near Rijeka in the Bay of Kvarner and part of the Primorje-Gorski Kotar county. ... Location of Cres in Croatia Cres (Italian Cherso, Latin Crepsa) is an Adriatic island in Croatia. ... Rab (Croatia) Coat of arms The historic town center of Rab For other uses, see Rab (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Dialects

Almost every city developed its own dialect; however, most disappeared before they were recorded, so the only information we have on them are some words borrowed into Croatian local dialects.


The most important dialects we have information on are:

  • Vegliot — a northern dialect, spoken on the island of Krk (Veglia in Italian, Vikla in Dalmatian)
  • Ragusan — a southern dialect, spoken at Dubrovnik (Ragusa in both Italian and Dalmatian)

The first two (being the Northern and the Southern dialects) are the best known and it appears they were separated for over 500 years. About the other dialects, almost nothing is known as they became extinct before they were recorded. The dialect of Zara disappeared because of the strong Venetian influence and the other dialects due to the assimilation by Slavic language speakers. Location of Krk in Croatia Krk (Italian Veglia, Latin Curicta) is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea, located near Rijeka in the Bay of Kvarner and part of the Primorje-Gorski Kotar county. ... Nickname: 1995 map of Dubrovnik The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia Coordinates: , Country Croatia County Dubrovnik-Neretva county Government  - Mayor Dubravka Å uica (HDZ) Area  - City 143. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


However, Istriot or Istro-Romance — is said to be a dialect of Dalamatian or closely related to Dalmatian, is spoken on the west coast of the peninsula of Istria in the villages in Rovinj (Rovigno) and Vodnjan (Dignano). Presently only 1,000 people speak it, and it is seriously endangered. Istriot is a Romance language spoken in the Western Region on the coast of the Istrian Peninsula (especially in the towns of Rovinj (Rovigno) and Vodnjan (Dignano)), on the upper northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. ... Rovinj, seen from Campanile of Sv. ... Rovinj, seen from Campanile of Sv. ... Vodnjan, a town in the south-western part of Istria (Croatia), 10 km north of Pula; elevation 135 m. ... Dignano is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 80 km northwest of Trieste and about 25 km west of Udine. ...


Ragusan

Ragusan is the Southern dialect. Its name is derived from the Italian name of Dubrovnik, Ragusa. We know about it from two letters, from 1325 and 1397, and other medieval texts, which show a language influenced heavily by Venetian. The available sources include hardly 260 Ragusan words. Surviving words include pen (bread), teta (father), chesa (house) and fachir (to do), which were quoted by an Italian, Fillipo Diversi, the head of school of Dubrovnik in the 1430s. Events January 7:Alfonso IV becomes the King of Portugal. ... Events February 10 - John Beaufort becomes Earl of Somerset. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Events and Trends A map of Europe in the 1430s. ...


The Republic of Dubrovnik had at one time an important fleet, but its influence decreased. We know that the language was in trouble in the face of Croatian expansion, as the Ragusan Senate decided that all debates had to be held in lingua veteri ragusea (ancient Ragusan language) and the use of the lingua sclava (Croatian) was forbidden. Nevertheless, in the 16th century, Ragusan fell out of use and became extinct. The Republic of Dubrovnik, also known as the Republic of Ragusa, was a maritime city-state that was based in the city of Dubrovnik from the 14th century until 1808. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


Vegliot

Vegliot (the native name being Viklasun[1]) is the Northern dialect and it is derived from the Italian name of Krk, Veglia, an island in Kvarner. On the inscription dating from the beginning of the 4th century, Krk is named as "Splendissima civitas Curictarum". The Croatian name derives from the Roman name (Curicum, Curicta), while the younger title Vecla – Vegla – Veglia (meaning "Old Town") was created in the medieval Romanesque period. Location of Krk in Croatia Krk (Italian Veglia, Latin Curicta) is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea, located near Rijeka in the Bay of Kvarner and part of the Primorje-Gorski Kotar county. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ...


The last speaker of any Dalmatian dialect was Tuone Udaina Burbur (in Italian: Antonio Udina), who was killed by a landmine on June 10, 1898. His language was studied by an Italian scholar, Matteo Giulio Bartoli, who visited him in 1897 and wrote down approximately 2800 words, stories, and accounts of his life, which were published in a book that has provided much information on the vocabulary, phonology, and grammar of the language. Bartoli wrote in Italian and published a translation in German (Das Dalmatische) in 1906. The Italian language manuscripts were lost, and the work was not retranslated into Italian until 2001. Tuone Udaina (or Antonio Udina in Italian) was the last native speaker of the Dalmatian language. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Matteo Giulio Bartoli (22 November 1873, Albona dIstria, Austria-Hungary - 23 January 1946 Turin) was an Italian linguist. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


History

The Romans gradually occupied the territory of Illyria between 229 BC and 155. The traders and the authorities spoke Latin and the inhabitants mostly abandoned their language for Latin (in fact, the "Vulgar Latin"). It is noteworthy that there were some Roman Emperors of Illyrian origin; the best known are Aurelian, Diocletian and Constantine I. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 234 BC 233 BC 232 BC 231 BC 230 BC - 229 BC - 228 BC 227 BC... Events Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius starts a new war against the Parthians Pope Anicetus succeeds Pope Pius I First year of Yongshou era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Dio Cassius, Roman historian Cao Cao, future ruler of the Kingdom of Wei Deaths July 11 - Pope Pius I Saint Polycarp... Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... Lucius Domitius Aurelianus[1] (September 9, 214–September 275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on...


After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Illyrian towns continued to speak Latin and their language evolved relatively independent from other Romance languages, progressing toward a regional variant and finally to a distinct language. The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...


The earliest reference on the language dates from the 10th century and it is estimated that about 50,000 people spoke it at that time. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ...


Other languages influenced the Dalmatian, but without erasing its Latin roots (superstrates): the Slavs, then the Venetians. Several cities of the regions have Italian names, and other mostly the romanized Illyrian ones. The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) comprise the languages of the Slavic peoples. ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ...


The oldest preserved documents written in Dalmatian are some 13th century inventories, in the Ragusan dialect. A letter of the 14th century from Zadar shows strong Venetian influence, which was also the cause of its extinction soon after. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...


Characteristics

Once thought to be a language that bridged the gap between the Romanian language and Italian, it was only distantly related to the nearby Romanian dialects, such as the nearly extinct Istro-Romanian, also spoken in nearby Istria, Croatia. Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... Istro-Romanian is a Romance language used in a few villages in the peninsula of Istria, on the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ...


Some of its features are quite archaic; for example, Dalmatian is one of the two Romance languages (the other one is Sardinian) that did not palatalise /k/ and /g/ before /e/ and /i/: Latin cenare > Vegliot: kenur (to dine). This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Some of its words have been preserved as borrowings in South Slavic languages, chiefly in Croatian, and also a few in Albanian.


Similarities to Romanian

Among the similarities with Romanian, there are some consonant shifts that can be found among the Romance languages only in Dalmatian and Romanian:

source destination Latin Vegliot Romanian Italian Meaning
/kt/ /pt/ octo guapto opt otto eight
/gn/ /mn/ cognatus comnut cumnat cognato cognate
/ks/ /ps/ coxa copsa coapsa coscia thigh

There are a few words of Vulgar Latin origin that can't be found in other Romance languages, such as:

  • *ex-cotere > Romanian 'scoate' Dalmatian 'skutro' (to take out), not found in other Romance language (except Friulian 'scuedi', meaning "to ask somebody to give something owed" and Italian 'scuotere' "to shake (sthg.)" and 'riscuotere' "to ask somebody to give something owed")
  • Lat. singulus > Dalmatian sanglo, Romanian singur (alone), most other Romance languages using derivations of solus:

Friulian (friulano in Italian, Furlan in Friulian) is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaetian languages family, spoken in the north-east of Italy (Friuli-Venezia Giulia province) by about 600,000 people. ...

Vocabulary

Dalmatian kept Latin words related to urban life, lost in Romanian, such as čituot (city). The Dalmatians retained an active urban society in their city states, whereas the Romanians were driven into small mountain settlements during the Great Migrations of the Dark Ages. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Also, unlike Romanian, Dalmatian did not keep any substrate words of Thracian or Illyrian origin, as the speakers are considered to have been almost initially colonists, not a Romanized population.


Major influences on the language were the Rhaeto-Romance languages[citation needed], then Venetian as Venice's commercial influence grew. The Chakavian dialect and Dubrovnik Jekavian dialect in Croatia, which was spoken outside the cities since the Slavs migrated, gained importance in the cities by the 16th century, and it eventually completely replaced Dalmatian as a day-to-day language. Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is one of the four national languages of Switzerland, along with German, Italian and French. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... Nickname: 1995 map of Dubrovnik The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia Coordinates: , Country Croatia County Dubrovnik-Neretva county Government  - Mayor Dubravka Å uica (HDZ) Area  - City 143. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


Grammar

An analytic trend can be observed in Dalmatian: nouns and adjectives began losing their gender and number inflections, the noun declension disappeared completely and the verb conjugations began to follow the same path; however, the verb kept genders (masculine and feminine) and numbers. An isolating language is a language in which the vast majority of morphemes are free morphemes and are considered to be full-fledged words. By contrast, in a synthetic language, a word is composed of agglutinated or fused morphemes that denote its syntactic meanings. ...


The definite article is used as a preposition, unlike the Eastern Romance languages (like Romanian) which have it postposed to the noun. Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzards 1996 performance released on video and CD. The video/DVD and CD performances were both recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, England. ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ...


Language sample

Here are examples of the Lord's prayer in Latin, Dalmatian, Italian, Istro-Romanian and Romanian: The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Map of Istro-Romanian, made by Puşcariu in 1926 Istro-Romanian is a Romance language used in a few villages in the peninsula of Istria, on the upper northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. ...

Latin Dalmatian Italian Istro-Romanian Romanian
Pater noster, qui es in caelis: Tuota nuester, che te sante intel sil, Padre nostro, che sei nei cieli, Ciace nostru car le şti en cer, Tatăl nostru care eşti în ceruri,
sanctificetur Nomen Tuum; sait santificuot el naun to. sia santificato il tuo nome. neca se sveta nomelu teu. sfiinţească-se numele tău.
adveniat Regnum Tuum; Vigna el raigno to. Venga il tuo regno. Neca venire craliestvo to. Vie împărăţia ta.
fiat voluntas Tua, sicut in caelo, et in terra. Sait fuot la voluntuot toa, coisa in sil, coisa in tiara. Sia fatta la tua volontà, come in cielo così in terra. Neca fie volia ta, cum en cer, aşa şi pre pemint. Facă-se voia ta, precum în cer, aşa şi pe pământ.
Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie; Duote costa dai el pun nuester cotidiun. Dacci oggi il nostro pane quotidiano Pera nostre saca zi de nam astez. Pâinea noastră cea de toate zilele dă-ne-o nouă astăzi.
et dimitte nobis debita nostra, E remetiaj le nuestre debete, E rimetti a noi i nostri debiti, Odproste nam dutzan, şi ne iartă nouă păcatele noastre,
Sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris; coisa nojiltri remetiaime a i nuestri debetuar. come noi li rimettiamo ai nostri debitori. ca şi noi odprostim a lu nostri dutznici. precum şi noi iertăm greşiţilor noştri.
et ne nos inducas in tentationem; E naun ne menur in tentatiaun, E non ci indurre in tentazione, Neca nu na tu vezi en napastovanie, Şi nu ne duce pe noi în ispită,
sed libera nos a Malo. miu deleberiajne dal mal. ma liberaci dal male. neca na zbăveşte de zvaca slabe. ci ne mântuieşte de cel rău.

External links

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ...

References

  1. ^ Bartoli, 2000
  • Bartoli, Matteo Giulio, (1906) Das Dalmatische (2 vols), Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna
  • Bartoli, Matteo Giulio. (2000) Il Dalmatico, Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Italy (translation from the German original)
  • Fisher, John. (1975). Lexical Affiliations of Vegliote, Rutherford, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press ISBN 0-8386-7796-7
  • Hadlich, Roger L. (1965) The phonological history of Vegliote, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press
  • Price, Glanville. (April 2000) Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe. ISBN 0-631-22039-9; Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK;

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dalmatian language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1296 words)
Dalmatian is an extinct Romance language formerly spoken along the Dalmatian coast of Croatia and as far south as Kotor in Montenegro.
His language was studied by an Italian scholar, Matteo Giulio Bartoli who visited him in 1897 and wrote down thousands of words, stories, accounts of his life, which were published in a book, with Italian translation, which provides much information on the vocabulary, phonology and grammar of the language.
An analytization trend can be observed in Dalmatian: Nouns and adjectives began losing their gender and number inflictions, the noun declination disappeared completely and the verb conjugations began to follow the same path, however, the verb kept genders (masculine and feminine) and numbers.
Dalmatian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (742 words)
A Dalmatian is a breed of dog, noted for its white coat with (usually) fl spots.
Dalmatians are famed for their loyalty, good memories, and kindly natures.
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