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Encyclopedia > Daimyo
Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. Mannequins in building in Aizuwakamatsu
Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. Mannequins in building in Aizuwakamatsu
A Daimio paying a state visit, illustration from ca. 1860
A Daimio paying a state visit, illustration from ca. 1860

The daimyo (大名 daimyō?) (daimyō ) were the most powerful feudal rulers from the 10th century to the 19th century in Japan. The term "daimyo" literally means "great name." From the shugo of the Muromachi period through the sengoku to the daimyo of the Edo period, the rank had a long and varied history. The term "daimyo" is also sometimes used to refer to the leading figures of such clans, also called "warlords". It was usually, though not exclusively, from these warlords that a shogun arose or a regent was chosen. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1250x768, 358 KB) Samurai house 武家屋敷 with mannequins. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1250x768, 358 KB) Samurai house 武家屋敷 with mannequins. ... Matsudaira Katamori (松平容保), (February 15, 1836−December 5, 1893) was a samurai that lived in the last days of the Edo period and the early Meiji period. ... Aizuwakamatsu castle Aizuwakamatsu (会津若松市; -shi) is a city located in Fukushima, Japan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (940x606, 67 KB) Photo from Sketches of Japanese Manners and Customs, by J. M. W. Silver, Illustrated by Native Drawings, Reproduced in Fac-simile by Means of Chromo-lithography, published in London in 1867 Source: Project Gutenberg: This eBook is for... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (940x606, 67 KB) Photo from Sketches of Japanese Manners and Customs, by J. M. W. Silver, Illustrated by Native Drawings, Reproduced in Fac-simile by Means of Chromo-lithography, published in London in 1867 Source: Project Gutenberg: This eBook is for... Image File history File links Ja-daimyo. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shugo (守護) is an official post named by the Shogun, which oversees a province (kuni) in Japan. ... The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... The Sengoku period (Japanese: 戦国時代, Sengoku-jidai) or Warring States period, was a period of civil war in the history of Japan that spans from the middle 15th to the early 17th centuries. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Edo Period. ... Warlords may refer to: The plural of Warlord, a name for a figure who has military authority but not legal authority over a subnational region. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shogun ) is a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ...


The daimyo usually wore purples, ranging from dark to light depending on how high ranked they were. Dark and light purple preceded dark and light green, dark and light red, and finally black. The very highest daimyo were considered to be nobles.


Daimyo in the Edo period

After the Battle of Sekigahara in the year 1603 that marked the beginning of the Edo period, shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu reorganized roughly 200 daimyo and their territories, formerly provinces (kuni), into the han, and rated them based on their production of rice. Daimyo were those who headed han assessed at 10,000 koku (50,000 bushels) or more. Ieyasu also categorized the daimyo according to how close they were to the ruling Tokugawa family, who were known for their bravery: shinpan, who were related to the Tokugawa, the fudai, who had been vassals of the Tokugawa or allies in the battle, and the tozama, who opposed the Tokugawa but were defeated. Combatants Forces loyal to Toyotomi Hideyori Forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu Commanders Ishida Mitsunari, Mōri Terumoto, others Tokugawa Ieyasu, others Strength 81,890[] 88,888[] Casualties At least 40,000 dead Unknown; but moderate The Battle of Sekigahara ), popularly known as the Realm Divide ), was a decisive battle on October... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Edo Period. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shogun ) is a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu The Tokugawa clan crest Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu); 徳川 家康 (January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. ... Before the modern prefecture system was established, the land of Japan was divided into tens of kuni (国, countries), usually known in English as provinces. ... The Han ) were the fiefs of feudal clans of Japan that were created by Toyotomi Hideyoshi and existed until their abolition in 1871, three years after the Meiji Restoration. ... A koku ) is a unit of volume in Japan, equal to ten cubic shaku. ... A fudai daimyo (譜代大名) was a daimyo who was a hereditary vassal of the Tokugawa in Edo period Japan. ... Tozama were outside daimyo (lords) in Edo period Japan, not remotely belonging to the band of warriors, not connected to Tokugawa Ieyasu and not involved in the politics which concerned the Tokugawa government. ...


Around 1800, there were approximately 170 daimyo in Japan.


The shinpan were collaterals of Ieyasu, such as the Matsudaira, or descendants of Ieyasu other than in the main line of succession. Several shinpan, including the Tokugawa of Owari (Nagoya), Kii (Wakayama) and Mito, as well as the Matsudaira of Fukui and Aizu, held large han. The Matsudaira clan ) is a Japanese clan that originated in and took its name from Matsudaira county, in the old Mikawa province. ... Nagoya Castle Nagoya (名古屋市; -shi) is the fourth largest (third largest metropolitan region) and the third most prosperous city in Japan. ... Kii (紀伊国; -no kuni) or Kishu (紀州 kishū) was a province of Japan in the part of Honshu that is today Wakayama and the southern part of Mie Prefecture. ... Wakayama Prefecture ) is part of the Kii Peninsula in the Kinki region on Honshū island, Japan. ... , Mito (水戸市; -shi) is the capital of Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. ... Fukui Prefecture ) is located in the Chūbu region on Honshū island, Japan. ... Monument to the Byakkotai Samurai Aizu ) is a former feudal domain (Han), part of the modern-day Japanese prefecture of Fukushima, formerly a part of Mutsu province. ...


A few fudai daimyo, such as the Ii of Hikone, held large han, but many were small. The shogunate placed many fudai at strategic locations to guard the trade routes and the approaches to Edo. Also, many fudai daimyo took positions in the Edo shogunate, some rising to the position of rōjū. The fact that fudai daimyo could hold government positions while tozama, in general, could not was a main difference between the two. EDO may refer to: EDO Corporation, an American technology company Equal Division of the Octave, a system of musical tuning Extended Data Out DRAM, a type of Dynamic random access memory Edo may refer to: Edo State, a province in Nigeria Edo language, a language spoken in Nigeria The historical... The RōjÅ« (老中), usually translated as Elder, was one of the highest-ranking government posts in Tokugawa Japan. ...


Tozama daimyo held large fiefs, with the Kaga han of Ishikawa Prefecture, headed by the Maeda clan, assessed at 1,000,000 koku. Other famous tozama clans included the Mori of Chōshū, the Shimazu of Satsuma, the Date of Sendai, the Uesugi of Yonezawa, and the Hachisuka of Awa. Initially, the Tokugawa regarded them as potentially rebellious, but for most of the Edo period, marriages between the Tokugawa and the tozama, as well as control policies such as sankin kotai, resulted in peaceful relations. The article incorporates text from OpenHistory. ... Ishikawa Prefecture ) is located in the Chubu region on Honshu island, Japan. ... The Maeda Clan was one of the most powerful samurai families in Japan. ... Grave of Yamaguchi Mōri clan at Mount Koya The Mōri clan (毛利氏 Mōri-shi) was a family of daimyō, descended from Oe no Hiromoto and established themselves in Aki province. ... Nagato (Japanese: 長門国, Nagato no kuni), often called Choshu (é•·å·ž, ChōshÅ«), was a province of Japan. ... Grave of Shimazu family at Mount Koya. ... Satsuma (薩摩国; -no Kuni) was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of Kagoshima prefecture on the island of Kyushu. ... Grave of ÅŒshÅ« Sendai Date clan at Mount Koya The Date clan (伊達氏) was a samurai family. ... Sendai ) is the capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, and the largest city in the Tōhoku (northeast) region. ... The Uesugi were an important Japanese clan from the 15th century to the 19th century. ... Yonezawa (米沢市; -shi) is a city located in Yamagata, Japan. ... Hachisuka clan a japanese clan that originated in Owari province during the 16th century of the Sengoku Period. ... Awa (阿波国; -no kuni) was an old province of Japan in the area that is today a part of Tokushima prefecture on Shikoku. ... Sankin kōtai (参勤交代) was a policy of the shogunate during most of the Edo period of Japanese history. ...


Sankin kōtai

Sankin kōtai ("alternate attendance") was the system whereby the Tokugawa forced all daimyo to spend every other year at the Tokugawa court in Edo, and maintain their family members in Edo when they returned to their han. This increased political and fiscal control over the daimyo by Edo. As time went on in the Tokugawa period, many other systems of controlling the daimyo were put into place, such as mandatory contributions to public works such as road building. In addition, daimyo were forbidden to build ships and castles, and other shows of military power were often tightly controlled. Tokiwa bashi on the Nagasaki Kaido in Kitakyushu, used for sankin kotai Sankin kōtai (参勤交代) was a policy of the shogunate during most of the Edo period of Japanese history. ...


Upset by these controls, and often in bad economic situations because of things like sankin kotai, forced support of public works, and extravagant spending, several daimyo sided against the Tokugawa Shogunate during the Meiji Restoration. In 1869, the year after the Meiji Restoration, the daimyo, together with the kuge, formed a new aristocracy, the kazoku. In 1871, the han were abolished and prefectures were established, thus effectively ending the daimyo era in Japan. The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... The kuge (公家) was a Japanese aristocratic class that dominated the Japanese imperial court in Kyoto until the rise of the Shogunate in the 12th century at which point it was eclipsed by the daimyo. ... The kazoku (華族, lit. ... Occurring in 1871, the abolition of the han system and establishment of the prefecture system (廃藩置県, haihan-chiken; hai abolish + han + chi set down + ken prefecture) was an act to replace the traditional han system and introduce new local government. ... The prefectures of Japan are the countrys 47 sub-national jurisdictions: one metropolis (都 to), Tokyo; one circuit (道 dō), Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures (府 fu), Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures (県 ken). ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Daimyo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (664 words)
The term daimyo literally means "great name." From the shugo daimyo of the Kamakura period through the sengoku daimyo to the daimyo of the Edo period, the rank had a long and varied history.
Ieyasu also divided the daimyo into three groups, depending on how close they were to the ruling Tokugawa family: shinpan, who were related to the Tokugawa, the fudai daimyo, who had been vassals of the Tokugawa or allies in the battle, and the tozama daimyo, who opposed the Tokugawa but were defeated.
Tozama daimyo held large fiefs, with the Kaga han of Ishikawa Prefecture, headed by the Maeda clan, assessed at 1,000,000 koku.
daimyo on Encyclopedia.com (510 words)
DAIMYO [daimyo] [Jap.,=great name], the great feudal landholders of Japan, the territorial barons as distinguished from the kuge, or court nobles.
The daimyo who supported Ieyasu before the decisive battle of Sekigahara (1600) became the fudai, or hereditary vassals, and his opponents were known as tozama, or outside lords.
the daimyo, with their tastes for luxury and need for show in long stays at the court, were hard pressed by the limits of their incomes (in general, tax revenue from peasants and merchants in their fief).
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