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Encyclopedia > Daguerreotype
L’Atelier de l'artiste. An 1837 daguerreotype by Daguerre.
L’Atelier de l'artiste. An 1837 daguerreotype by Daguerre.
The best-known image of Edgar Allan Poe was a daguerreotype taken in 1848, shortly before his death.
The best-known image of Edgar Allan Poe was a daguerreotype taken in 1848, shortly before his death.
The first photograph ever taken of Abraham Lincoln was a daguerreotype made in 1846 or 1847.
The first photograph ever taken of Abraham Lincoln was a daguerreotype made in 1846 or 1847.

The daguerreotype is an early type of photograph, developed by Louis Daguerre, in which the image is exposed directly onto a mirror-polished surface of silver bearing a coating of silver halide particles deposited by iodine vapor. In later developments bromine and chlorine vapors were also used, resulting in shorter exposure times. The daguerreotype is a negative image, but the mirrored surface of the metal plate reflects the image and makes it appear positive in the proper light. Thus, daguerreotypy is a direct photographic process without the capacity for duplication. Image File history File links Daguerreotype_Daguerre_Atelier_1837. ... Image File history File links Daguerreotype_Daguerre_Atelier_1837. ... Louis Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (1787 - 1851) was the Basque artist and chemist who is recognized for his invention of the Daguerreotype process of photography. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1190x1490, 419 KB) en: Daguerreotype of Edgar Allan Poe 1848, first published 1880. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1190x1490, 419 KB) en: Daguerreotype of Edgar Allan Poe 1848, first published 1880. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Download high resolution version (741x1024, 98 KB)Abraham Lincoln, probably in 1846 or 1847 From the Library of Congress: http://hdl. ... Download high resolution version (741x1024, 98 KB)Abraham Lincoln, probably in 1846 or 1847 From the Library of Congress: http://hdl. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Louis Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (November 18, 1787 – July 10, 1851) was the French artist and chemist who is recognized for his invention of the Daguerreotype process of photography. ... A mirror, reflecting a vase. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... A silver halide is one of the compounds formed between silver and one of the halogens, usually silver bromide (AgBr), silver chloride (AgCl) and silver iodide (AgI). ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ... “Bromo” redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ...


While the daguerreotype was not the first photographic process to be invented, earlier processes required hours for successful exposure, making daguerreotype the first commercially viable photographic process and the first to permanently record and fix an image with exposure time compatible with portrait photography. An example of a late 19th century family portrait. ...


The daguerreotype is named after one of its inventors, French artist and chemist Louis J.M. Daguerre, who announced its perfection in 1839 after years of research and collaboration with Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, applying and extending a discovery by Johann Heinrich Schultz (1724): a silver and chalk mixture darkens when exposed to light. The French Academy of Sciences announced the daguerreotype process on January 9 of that year. A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Louis Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (1787 - 1851) was the Basque artist and chemist who is recognized for his invention of the Daguerreotype process of photography. ... Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (March 7, 1765 – July 5, 1833) was a French inventor, most noted as a pioneer in photography. ... Johann Heinrich Schultz is credited with the discovery that certain silver salts, most notably silver chloride and silver nitrate, darken in the presence of light. ... Louis XIV visiting the Académie in 1671 The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Daguerre's French patent was acquired by the French Government. In Britain, Miles Berry, acting on Daguerre's behalf, obtained a patent for the daguerreotype process on August 14, 1839. Almost simultaneously, on August 19, 1839 the French Government announced the invention a gift "Free to the World". is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ...

Contents

Daguerreotype process

The daguerreotype is a unique photographic image allowing no reproduction of the picture. Preparation of the plate prior to image exposure resulted in the formation of a layer of photo-sensitive silver halide, and exposure to a scene or image through a focusing lens formed a latent image. The latent image was made visible, or "developed", by placing the exposed plate over a slightly heated (about 75C) cup of mercury. A silver halide is one of the compounds formed between silver and one of the halogens, usually silver bromide (AgBr), silver chloride (AgCl) and silver iodide (AgI). ... Latent Image can mean a few things: Latent image, a photographic term Latent image, a bondage magazine Latent Image, a fifth season episode of Star Trek: Voyager This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ...


The mercury vapour condensed on those places where the exposure light was most intense, in proportion with the areas of highest density in the image. This produced a picture in an amalgam, the mercury vapour attaching itself to the altered silver iodide. Removal of the mercury image by heat validates this chemistry. The developing box was constructed to allow inspection of the image through a yellow glass window while it was being developed. For other uses, see Amalgamation. ...


The next operation was to "fix" the photographic image permanently on the plate by dipping in a solution of hyposulphite of soda – known as "fixer" or "hypo". The image produced by this method is so delicate it will not bear the slightest handling. Practically all daguerreotypes are protected from accidental damage by a glass-fronted case. It was discovered by experiment that treating the plate with heated gold chloride both tones and strengthens the image, although it remains quite delicate and requires a well-sealed case to protect against touch as well as oxidation of the fine silver deposits forming the blacks in the image. The best-preserved daguerreotypes dating from the nineteenth century are sealed in robust glass cases evacuated of air and filled with a chemically inert gas, typically nitrogen. In chemistry, sodium sulfite is a soluble compound of sodium. ... Gold(III) chloride, traditionally called auric chloride, is one of the most common compounds of gold. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


Proliferation

Daguerreotype photography spread rapidly across the United States but not in the United Kingdom, where Louis Daguerre controlled the practice with a patent. Richard Beard, who bought the British patent from Miles Berry in 1841, closely controlled his investment, selling licenses throughout the country and prosecuting infringers. Louis Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (November 18, 1787 – July 10, 1851) was the French artist and chemist who is recognized for his invention of the Daguerreotype process of photography. ... Richard Beard opened Englands first professional photography studio in London in 1841. ...


In the early 1840s the invention was introduced in a period of months to practitioners in the United States by Samuel Morse, inventor of the telegraph code. A flourishing market in portraiture sprang up, predominantly the work of itinerant practitioners who travelled from town to town. For the first time in history people could obtain an exact likeness of themselves or their loved ones for a modest cost, making portrait photographs extremely popular with those of modest means. Their wealthy counterparts continued to commission painted portraits by fine artists, considering the new photographic portraits inferior in much the same way their ancestors had viewed printed books as inferior to hand-scribed books centuries earlier. In some ways they were right, in other ways wrong; the vast bulk of 19th century portrait photography effected by itinerant practitioners was of inferior artistic quality, yet the work of many portrait painters was of equally dubious artistic merit, and although photographic images were monochrome, they offered a technical likeness of the sitter no portrait painter could achieve. Portrait of Samuel F. B. Morse by Mathew Brady, between 1855 and 1865 Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American inventor, and painter of portraits and historic scenes; he is most famous for inventing the electric telegraph and Morse code. ... Telegraph and Telegram redirect here. ... Roman-Egyptian funeral portrait of a young boy A portrait is a painting (portrait painting), photograph (portrait photography), or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. ... A photograph of a sign in grayscale The same photograph in black and white Monochrome comes from the two Greek words mono (μωνο, meaning one), and chroma (χρωμα, meaning surface or the color of the skin). A monochromatic object has a single color. ...

Six daguerreotypes show a view of San Francisco, California in 1853.

The first erotic photographs and the first experimenters in stereo photography also utilized daguerreotypes. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 150 pixelsFull resolution (2356 × 441 pixel, file size: 122 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 150 pixelsFull resolution (2356 × 441 pixel, file size: 122 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... “San Francisco” redirects here. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Erotica, from the Greek eros, love, are works of art, including literature, photography, film, sculpture and painting, that deal substantively with erotically stimulating or arousing descriptions. ...


The daguerreotype is commonly, erroneously, believed to have been the dominant photographic process into the late part of the 19th century. Evidence from the period proves it was only in widespread use for approximately a decade before being superseded by other processes:

  • The Calotype, introduced in 1841; a negative-positive process using a paper negative.
  • The Ambrotype, introduced in 1854; a positive image on glass, with a black backing.
  • The Tintype or Ferrotype.
  • The Collodion process, introduced in 1848; a negative-positive process using silver salt impregnated Collodion on a glass plate.

The Calotype was an early photographic process introduced in 1841 by William Fox Talbot, using paper sheets covered with silver chloride. ... Many ambrotypes were made by unknown photographers, such as this American example of a small girl holding a flower, circa 1860. ... This is a ferrotype, circa 1870, possibly made in Philadelphia, of an African-American man leaning on a hitching post. ... This is a ferrotype, circa 1870, possibly made in Philadelphia, of an African-American man leaning on a hitching post. ... The collodion process is an early photographic process which gave way in the late 19th century to todays gelatin emulsion process. ... // Collodion is a solution of nitrocellulose in ether or acetone, sometimes with the addition of alcohols. ...

Demise

The intricate, complex, labor-intensive daguerreotype process itself helped contribute to the rapid move to the ambrotype and tintype. The resulting reduction in economy of scale made daguerreotypes expensive and unaffordable for the average person. According to Mace (1999), the rigidity of these images stems more from the seriousness of the activity than a long exposure time, which he says was actually only a few seconds (Early Photographs, p. 21). The daguerreotype's lack of a negative image from which multiple positive "prints" could be made was a limitation also shared by the tintype and ambrotype, and was not a factor in the daguerreotype's demise until the introduction of the calotype. Unlike film and paper photography however, a properly sealed daguerreotype can potentially last indefinitely. The Calotype was an early photographic process introduced in 1841 by William Fox Talbot, using paper sheets covered with silver chloride. ...


Daguerreotype cameras are expensive. In May 2007, an anonymous buyer paid 588,613 euros (792,000 USD) for an original 1839 camera made by Susse Frères (Susse brothers), Paris, at an auction in Vienna, Austria, making it the world's oldest and most expensive commercial photographic apparatus.[1][2]


Living art

Some daguerreotypes—such as those by Southworth & Hawes of Boston, or George S. Cook of Charleston, South Carolina—are considered masterpieces in the art of photography. A daguerreotype of Edgar Allan Poe was featured on the PBS show Antiques Roadshow and appraised at US $30,000 to $50,000. Southworth & Hawes was an early photographic firm in Boston, 1843-1863. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude... Photography [fÓ™tÉ‘grÓ™fi:],[foÊŠtÉ‘grÓ™fi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Antiques Roadshow is a British human interest television show in which antique appraisers travel to various regions of the United Kingdom and appraise antiques brought in by local residents. ...


Daguerreotypy continues to be practiced by enthusiastic photographers to this day, although in much smaller numbers; there are thought to be fewer than 100 worldwide. Its appeal lies in the "magic mirror" effect of light reflected from the polished silver plate through the perfectly sharp silver image, and in the sense of achievement derived from the dedication and hand-crafting required to make a daguerreotype.


The Daguerreobase

The Daguerreobase is a database registration system (currently only available in Dutch) for daguerreotypes, developed by the Nederlands fotomuseum (Rotterdam, The Netherlands). It can be used by conservators and researchers as well as viewed by those interested. Its aim is to disclose historic and technical information about the daguerreotype on a worldwide level. The project was initiated by Hans de Herder, head of the conservation department of the Nederlands fotomuseum from its instigation in 1994 until 2005. It was further developed by Belgian photo conservator Herman Maes, De Herder's successor, Boudewijn Ridder and Nickel van Duijvenboden. Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - City 319 km²  (123. ...


References

  1. ^ LOT 2 - Le Daguerréotype Susse Frères. WestLicht Auction (May 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
  2. ^ Oldest/Most Expensive Camera. Media Speak, Inc. (2007-05-28). Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
  • Coe, Brian 'The Birth of Photography', Ash & Grant, 1976

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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daguerreotype - definition of daguerreotype in Encyclopedia (705 words)
While the daguerreotype was not the first photographic process to be developed, images of earlier processes tended to fade quickly when exposed to light.
The daguerreotype photographic process was one of the first to permanently record and affix an image, and became the first commercially used photographic process.
The daguerreotype is named after its inventor, French artist and chemist Louis J.M. Daguerre, who announced its perfection (after years of experimentation) in 1839 (the French Academy of Sciences announced the process on January 9 of that year).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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