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Encyclopedia > Dagestan
Republic of Dagestan (English)
Республика Дагестан (Russian)

Location of the Republic of Dagestan in Russia
Coat of Arms Flag

Coat of arms of Dagestan

Flag of Dagestan
Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of Dagestan
Capital Makhachkala
Established January 20, 1921
Political status
Federal district
Economic region
Republic
Southern
North Caucasus
Code 05
Area
Area
- Rank
50,300 km²
52nd
Population (as of the 2002 Census)
Population
- Rank
- Density
- Urban
- Rural
2,576,531 inhabitants
22nd
51.2 inhab. / km²
42.8%
57.2%
Official languages Russian, languages of the peoples of Dagestan
Government
President Mukhu Aliyev
Chairman of the Government Shamil Zaynalov
Legislative body People's Assembly
Constitution Constitution of the Republic of Dagestan
Official website
http://www.e-dag.ru/

The Republic of Dagestan IPA: [dæɡɪˈstɑːn (IntEng), ˈdeɪɡəstæn (AmEng)] (Russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н; Avar: Дагъистанлъул ДжумхIурият, Daɣistanłul Džumħuriyat), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... It has been suggested that the section intro from the article Civil flag be merged into this article or section. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The coat of arms of Dagestan was instituted on 1994 October 20. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Dagestan. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Makhachkala (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the capital of the Republic of Dagestan. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ... Russia is divided into eleven economic regions (Russian: экономические районы, sing. ... The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ... Southern Federal District (Russian: Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... North Caucasus economic region (Russian: ; tr. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Here is a list of the 88 federal subjects of Russia in order of size. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Here is a list of the 89 federal subjects of Russia in order of population according to the 2002 census. ... Mukhu Aliyev Mukhu Gimbatovich Aliyev (Russian: ) (born August 6, 1940) is the President of Dagestan, a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on a Web server, usually accessible via the Internet or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML, that is almost always accessible... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The modern Avar language (self-designation магарул мац language of the mountains or Авар мац Avar language) belongs to the Avar-Andi-Tsez subgroup of the Alarodian Northeast-Caucasian (or Nakh-Dagestani) language family. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ...

Contents

Terminology

The direct romanization of the republic's name is Respublika Dagestan. It is the largest republic of Russia in the North Caucasus, both in area and population. There exist many possible systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language to English or the Latin alphabet. ... North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ...


The word Daghestan or Daghistan means "country of mountains", it is derived from the Turkic word dağ meaning mountain and Persian suffix -stan meaning "land of". The spelling Dagestan is a transliteration of the Russian name and is rather modern. Lyskamm, 4 527 m, Pennine Alps A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... The suffix -stan (spelled ـستان in the Perso-Arabic script) is Persian for place of, and -sthan (स्थान in the DevanāgarÄ« script) is a cognate Sanskrit suffix with the same meaning. ...


The republic's name in Persian and Arabic is داغستان. Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...


Geography

The republic is situated in the North Caucasus mountains. It is the southernmost part of Russia.

The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: ; Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Stavropol Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai). ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Bazardüzü Dağı is the highest mountain in Azerbaijan at 4,485 metres above sea level. ...

Time zone

Dagestan is located in the Moscow Time Zone (MSK/MSD). UTC offset is +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD). Image File history File links RTZ2. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Moscow Time (Russian: ) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ...

Rivers

Map of Dagestan
Map of Dagestan

There are over 1,800 rivers in the republic. Major rivers include: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (419x601, 19 KB)Map of Dagestan (self made) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (419x601, 19 KB)Map of Dagestan (self made) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

The Terek (Те́рек) is a major river in the Northern Caucasus, flowing through Georgia and Russia into the Caspian Sea. ...

Lakes

Dagestan has about 400 kilometers (249 mi) of coast line on the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18...


Mountains

Most of the Republic is mountainous, with the Greater Caucasus Mountains covering the south. The highest point is the Bazardyuzi peak at 4,466 m.


Natural resources

Dagestan is rich in oil, natural gas, coal, and many other minerals. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


Climate

The climate is hot and dry in the summer but the winters are hard in the mountain areas.

  • Average January temperature: +2 °C (35.6 °F)
  • Average July temperature: +30 °C (86 °F)
  • Average annual precipitation: 200 (northern plains) to 800 mm (in the mountains).

Administrative divisions

Cities and towns under republics jurisdiction Makhachkala (Махачкала́) (capital) city districts: Kirovsky (Ки́ровский) Urban settlements under the city districts jurisdiction: Leninkent (Ленинкент) Semender (Семендер) Sulak (Сулак) Shamkhal (Шамха́л) with 4 selsovets under the citys districts jurisdiction. ...

Demographics

A couple in traditional dress poses for a portrait in Dagestan. Photographed by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, circa 1907 to 1915.
A couple in traditional dress poses for a portrait in Dagestan. Photographed by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, circa 1907 to 1915.
Ethno-Linguistic groups in the Caucasus region
Ethno-Linguistic groups in the Caucasus region

Because its mountainous terrain impedes travel and communication, Dagestan is unusually ethnically diverse, and still largely tribal. Unlike most other parts of Russia, the population of Dagestan is rapidly growing. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x610, 81 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x610, 81 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

  • Population: 2,576,531 (2002)
    • Urban: 1,102,577 (42.8%)
    • Rural: 1,473,954 (57.2%)
    • Male: 1,242,437 (48.2%)
    • Female: 1,334,094 (51.8%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,074
  • Average age: 25.2 years
    • Urban: 25.1 years
    • Rural: 25.2 years
    • Male: 24.0 years
    • Female: 26.3 years
  • Number of households: 570,036 (with 2,559,499 people)
    • Urban: 239,338 (with 1,088,814 people)
    • Rural: 330,698 (with 1,470,685 people)
  • Vital statistics (2005)
    • Births: 40,814 (birth rate 15.5)
    • Deaths: 15,585 (death rate 5.9)

Ethnic groups

The people of Dagestan include a large variety of ethnic groups. According to the 2002 Census, Northeast Caucasians (including Avars, Dargins and Lezgins) make up 75% of the population of Dagestan. Kumyks and Nogais make up 16%, Russians 5% and Azeris 4%. Other ethnic groups each account for less than 0.5% of the total population. With such ethnic diversity, 90.4% of the population are Muslims. Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Avars or Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan, in which they are the predominant group. ... Dargwa language: It is a native to the region and spoken by 350,000 people in Western Dagestan with two dialects Dargwa and Lakh. ... Flag of the Lezgian people The Lezgins, also called the Lezgin, Lezgi, Lezgis, Lezgs, and Lezgians are an ethnic group who live mainly in southern Dagestan and northern Azerbaijan who speak the Lezgi language. ... Flag of the Kumyks Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. ... It has been suggested that Nogai Horde be merged into this article or section. ... Aside from a large Azeri community that is native to Russias Dagestan Republic, the majority of Azeris in Russia are fairly recent immigrants. ...

census 1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Avars 177,189 (22.5%) 230,488 (24.8%) 239,373 (22.5%) 349,304 (24.5%) 418,634 (25.7%) 496,077 (27.5%) 758,438 (29.4%)
Dargins 125,707 (16.0%) 150,421 (16.2%) 148,194 (13.9%) 207,776 (14.5%) 246,854 (15.2%) 280,431 (15.6%) 425,526 (16.5%)
Lezgins 90,509 (11.5%) 96,723 (10.4%) 108,615 (10.2%) 162,721 (11.4%) 188,804 (11.6%) 204,370 (11.3%) 336,698 (13.1%)
Laks 39,878 (5.1%) 51,671 (5.6%) 53,451 (5.0%) 72,240 (5.1%) 83,457 (5.1%) 91,682 (5.1%) 139,732 (5.4%)
Tabasarans 31,915 (4.0%) 33,432 (3.6%) 33,548 (3.2%) 53,253 (3.7%) 71,722 (4.4%) 78,196 (4.3%) 101,152 (4.3%)
Rutuls 10,333 (1.3%) 20,408 (2.2%) 6,566 (0.6%) 11,799 (0.8%) 14,288 (0.9%) 14,955 (0.8%) 24,298 (0.9%)
Aguls 7,653 (1.0%) 6,378 (0.6%) 8,644 (0.6%) 11,459 (0.7%) 13,791 (0.8%) 23,314 (0.9%)
Tsakhurs 3,531 (0.4%) 4,278 (0.4%) 4,309 (0.3%) 4,560 (0.3%) 5,194 (0.3%) 8,168 (0.3%)
Kumyks 87,960 (11.2%) 100,053 (10.8%) 120,859 (11.4%) 169,019 (11.8%) 202,297 (12.4%) 231,805 (12.9%) 365,804 (14.2%)
Nogais 26,086 (3.3%) 4,677 (0.5%) 14,939 (1.4%) 21,750 (1.5%) 24,977 (1.5%) 28,294 (1.6%) 38,168 (1.5%)
Russians 98,197 (12.5%) 132,952 (14.3%) 213,754 (20.1%) 209,570 (14.7%) 189,474 (11.6%) 165,940 (9.2%) 120,875 (4.7%)
Azeris 23,428 (3.0%) 31,141 (3.3%) 38,224 (3.6%) 54,403 (3.8%) 64,514 (4.0%) 75,463 (4.2%) 111,656 (4.3%)
Chechens 21,851 (2.8%) 26,419 (2.8%) 12,798 (1.2%) 39,965 (2.8%) 49,227 (3.0%) 57,877 (3.2%) 87,867 (3.4%)
Others 43,861 (5.6%) 52,031 (5.6%) 61,495 (5.8%) 63,787 (4.5%) 57,892 (3.6%) 58,113 (3.2%) 25,835 (1.0%)

There are also forty or so tiny groups such as the Ginukh, numbering 200, or the Akhwakh, who are members of a complex family of indigenous Caucasians. Notable are also the Hunzib or Khunzal people who live in only four towns in the interior. Avars or Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan, in which they are the predominant group. ... Dargwa language: It is a native to the region and spoken by 350,000 people in Western Dagestan with two dialects Dargwa and Lakh. ... Flag of the Lezgian people The Lezgins, also called the Lezgin, Lezgi, Lezgis, Lezgs, and Lezgians are an ethnic group who live mainly in southern Dagestan and northern Azerbaijan who speak the Lezgi language. ... The Laks are an ethnic group who live mostly in Dagestan. ... The Tabasarans are an ethnic group who live mostly in Dagestan, Russia. ... Rutuls (Рутульцы, or рутулы in Russian) are a people in Dagestan (Russia) and some parts of Azerbaijan. ... Aguls (Агулы in Russian) are a people in Dagestan, Russia. ... Media:Example. ... Flag of the Kumyks Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... Aside from a large Azeri community that is native to Russias Dagestan Republic, the majority of Azeris in Russia are fairly recent immigrants. ... This article covers the Chechen people as an ethnic group, not Chechen meaning citizens of Chechnya. ...


The lingua franca in Dagestan is Russian. Over thirty local languages are also commonly spoken.


History

In the old town of Derbent, a World Heritage Site.
In the old town of Derbent, a World Heritage Site.

The oldest records about the region refer to the state of Caucasian Albania in the south, with its capital at Derbent and other important centres at Chola, Toprakh Qala, and Urtseki. The northern parts were held by a confederation of pagan tribes. In the first few centuries AD, Caucasian Albania continued to rule over what is present day Azerbaijan and the area occupied by the present day Lezghians. It was fought over in classical times by Rome and the Persian Sassanids and was early converted to Christianity. Image File history File links Derbent_gate. ... Image File history File links Derbent_gate. ... Derbent is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Caucasian Albania (or Aghbania) was an ancient kingdom that covered what is now southern Dagestan and most of present-day Azerbaijan. ... Derbent is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... http://www. ... The Lezgins, also called the Lezgin, Lezgi, Lezgis, Lezgs, and Lezgians are an ethnic group who live mainly in southern Dagestan and northern Azerbaijan who speak the Lezgi language. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...


In the fifth century AD, the Sassanids gained the upper hand and constructed a strong citadel at Derbent, known henceforward as the Caspian Gates, while the northern part of Dagestan was overrun by the Huns, followed by the Eurasian Avars. It is not clear whether the latter were instrumental in the rise of the Christian kingdom in Central Dagestan highlands. Known as Sarir, this Avar-dominated state maintained a precarious existence in the shadow of Khazaria and the Caliphate until the ninth century, when it managed to assert its supremacy in the region. Derbent is built around a Sassanid fortress, the only one preserved in the world. ... The Caspian Gates in Derbant, Russia are identified with the Gates of Alexander. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Sarir or Serir was a medieval Christian state in the mountainous regions of modern-day Dagestan. ... Avars or Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan, in which they are the predominant group. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...


In 664, the Persians were succeeded in Derbent by the Arabs who clashed with the Khazars over control of Dagestan. Although the local population rose against the Arabs of Derbent in 905 and 913, Islam was eventually adopted in urban centres, such as Samandar and Kubachi (Zerechgeran), from where it steadily penetrated into the highlands. By the 15th century, Albanian Christianity had died away, leaving a tenth-century church at Datuna as the sole monument to its existence. Muslims performing salah (prayer) Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th-century Arab religious and political figure. ... Samandar (also Semender) was a city in Khazaria on the western edge of the Caspian Sea, south of Atil and north of the Caucasus. ...


Due to Muslim pressure and internal disunity, Sarir disintegrated in the early twelfth century, giving way to the Khanate of Avaristan, a long-lived Muslim state which relied on the alliance with the Golden Horde and braved the devastating Mongol invasions of 1222 and 1239, followed by Tamerlane's raid in 1389. The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in parts of present-day Russia... Mongol invasions can refer to: 1205–1209 invasion of Western China 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus 1220–1224 of the Cumans 1223–36 invasion of Volga Bulgaria 1231–1259 invasion of Korea 1237... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ...


As the Mongol authority gradually eroded, new centres of power emerged in Kaitagi and Tarki. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, legal traditions were codified, mountainous communities (djamaats) obtained a considerable degree of autonomy, while the Kumyk potentates (shamhals) asked for the Tsar's protection. Russians intensified their hold in the region in the eighteenth century, when Peter the Great annexed maritime Dagestan in the course of the First Russo-Persian War. Although the territories were returned to Persia in 1735, the next bout of hostilities resulted in the Russian capture of Derbent in 1796. Tarki is a village in Dagestan, situated approximately 6 kilometers from the republics capital, Makhachkala, on Tarkitau mountain. ... Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. ... Shamkhal or Samkhal is the Kumyk title for the khans of Tarki, Daghestan, during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Eugene Lanceray. ... The Persian Expedition of Catherine the Great, alongside the Persian Expedition of Peter the Great, was one of the Russo-Persian Wars of the 18th century which did not entail any lasting consequences for both belligerents. ...


The eighteenth century also saw the resurgence of the Khanate of Avaristan, which managed to repulse the attacks of Nadir Shah of Persia and impose tribute on Shirvan and Georgia. In 1803 the khanate voluntarily submitted to Russian authority, but it took Persia a decade to recognize all of Dagestan as the Russian possession (Treaty of Gulistan). Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... Shervan or Shirvan was a former Persian province in Caucasus, a state ruled by the Shervanshahs and the birthplace of the Persian poet Khaqani. ... Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. ...

Dagestani man, photographed by Prokudin-Gorskii, circa 1907 to 1915.
Dagestani man, photographed by Prokudin-Gorskii, circa 1907 to 1915.

The Russian administration, however, disappointed and embittered the highlanders. The institution of heavy taxation, coupled with the expropriation of estates and the construction of fortresses (including Makhachkala), electrified highlanders into rising under the aegis of the radical Muslim Imamate of Dagestan, led by Ghazi Mohammed (1828-32), Gamzat-bek (1832-34) and Shamil (1834-59). This Caucasian War raged until 1864, when Shamil was captured and the Khanate of Avaristan was abolished. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Sergei Prokudin-Gorski. ... The Imamate of Dagestan was the state established by the imams of Dagestan during the early and middle of the nineteenth century in the Eastern Caucasus, especially in Chechnya and Dagestan, to fight against the Russian Empire during the Caucasian War. ... Ghazi Mollah, also known as Ghazi Mohammed (Кази-Мулла, Гази-Магомед in Russian) (1795-1832) was the first imam of Dagestan and Chechnya (1828). ... Gamzat-bek (Гамзат-бек in Russian) (1789 — October 1(September 19), 1834) was the second imam of Dagestan, who succeeded Ghazi Mollah upon his death in 1832. ... Imam Shamil of Chechnya Imam Shamil (1797 - March 1871) was a Daghestani Avar political and religious leader of the Muslims of the Northern Caucasus. ... Construction of the Georgian Military Road through disputed territories was a key factor in the eventual Russian success A Scene from the Caucasian War, by Franz Roubaud Russian Invasion of the Caucasus, better known in Russia as the Caucasian War of 1817-1864, was a series of military actions of...


Dagestan and Chechnya profited from the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878, to rise against Imperial Russia for the last time. The Soviets afforded more autonomy to the region and, after more than three years of fighting White movement reactionaries and local nationalists, the Dagestan ASSR was proclaimed on 20 January 1921. Nevertheless, Stalin's industrialization largely bypassed Dagestan and the economy stagnated, making the republic the poorest region in Russia. Plevna Monument near the walls of Kitai-gorod. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... White Army redirects here. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[2] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...


In 1999, a group of Muslim fundamentalists from Chechnya under Shamil Basayev, together with local converts and exiles from the 1998 uprising attempt, staged an abortive insurrection in Dagestan in which hundreds of combatants and civilians died. Russian forces subsequently reinvaded Chechnya later that year. Fundamentalism is a movement to maintain strict adherence to founding principles. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Shamil Basayev in Dagestan, 1999 Shamil Salmanovich Basayev (Russian: Шамиль Салманович Басаев) (January 14, 1965 – July 10, 2006) was a Vice-President of the internationally unrecognized separatist government of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Islamist guerrilla leader, self-admitted terrorist and a national hero for many Chechens. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of new religious beliefs that differ from the converts previous beliefs; in some cultures (e. ... Uprising is another word for rebellion. ... Combatants Russian Federation Daghestani militia Chechen rebels Shura of Dagestan Commanders Viktor Kazantsev Shamil Basayev Ibn al-Khattab Strength 17,000 unknown Casualties At least 279 dead and 987 wounded 2,500 dead The Dagestan War (in Russia called by the name Chechen invasion of Dagestan) began when Chechnya-based... A combatant is a person who takes a direct part in the hostilities of an armed conflict who upon capture qualifies for prisoner of war under the Third Geneva Convention (GCIII). ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Combatants Russian Federation Pro-Russian Chechens Republic of Ichkeria Caucasian insurgents and foreign fighters Commanders Vladimir Putin Akhmad Kadyrov† Ramzan Kadyrov Aslan Maskhadov† Abdul Halim Sadulayev† Doku Umarov Shamil Basayev† Strength At least 93,000 in Chechnya in 1999. ...


Dagestani conflict

Since 2000, Dagestan has been the venue of a low-level guerilla war, bleeding over from Chechnya; the fighting has claimed the lives of hundreds of federal servicemen and officials – mostly members of local police forces – as well as many Dagestani national rebels and civilians. are you looking for the political definition of guerilla war? Guerilla War is a video game by SNK. It is an overhead shooter. ...


More recently, among other incidents:

  • In early 2005, government forces surrounded a group of five rebels in a two-story house on the outskirts of Makhachkala. The rebels battled the authorities for seventeen hours, killing one of Russia's elite Alpha Group commandos and wounding another, until armored vehicles and a helicopter blew apart most of the house and its neighbour. All the rebels were killed.
  • On July 1, 2005, eleven Russian MVD OSNAZ troops were killed and seven wounded in the capital when their trucks were bombed.
  • On August 20, 2005, a remote-controlled bomb killed at least three police officers and wounded several more on a downtown street in the Makhachkala. The bomb detonated as a foot patrol walked past a grove of trees.
  • In January 2006, a three-day battle between three thousand Russian troops led by the republic's Interior Minister and an estimated eight rebels[citation needed] took place on a mountain near Avary. At least three OMON and Spetznaz servicemen died and more than ten were wounded. Despite heavy artillery and aerial bombardment, the rebels managaged to avoid encirclement, leaving behind an abandoned dugout.
  • On March 22, 2006, a group of assailants fatally shot the chief administrator of the Botlikh district of Dagestan during a fierce gunbattle in Makhachkala.
  • On August 27, 2006, three police officers and four suspected militants were killed during a two-hour gun fight in Makhachkala.

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A member of the FSB Alpha Group, equipped with the silenced AS VAL assault rifle. ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... ... A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors consisting of two or more rotor blades. ... The US government and media was using the term insurgent as early as 1899 to describe rebels during the Philippine-American War, here Filipinos described as insurgents at the time lie in a trench after being executed by US forces. ... An intelligence officer is a person employed by an organisation to collect, compile and analyse information (known as intelligence) which is of use to that organisation. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Chief of Police in United States usage is the title typically given to the head of a police department. ... Magomed Omarov (died February 2, 2005) was the deputy Interior Minister for the Russian republic of Dagestan. ... The Interior Minister is a member of a Cabinet in a Government. ... It has been suggested that Selective assassination be merged into this article or section. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Modern emblem of Russian MVD Russian Gendarme officers in the 1860s The Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del (MVD) (Министерство внутренних дел) was the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the imperial Russia, later USSR, and still bears the same name in the Russian Federation. ... OSNAZ (Russian: [voiska] osobogo naznacheniya, ОСНАЗ = [войска] особого назначения, special purpose [detachments]) or ChON (Russian: chasti osobogo naznacheniya, ЧОН= Части особого назначения were special forces troops within the KGB (its predecessors and its successor, Federal Security Service) and the MVD. OSNAZ has always been shrouded in a veil of mystery and remains so even to this day. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Central business district. ... Makhachkala (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the capital of the Republic of Dagestan. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the land of the Avars and forms the northern part of the Dagestan republic of Russia. ... The OMON insignia OMON (Russian: Отряд милиции особого назначения; Otryad Militsii Osobogo Naznacheniya, Special Purpose Detachment of Militsiya) is a generic name for the system of special units of militsiya (state police) within the Russian and earlier the Soviet, Ministerstvo Vnutrennih Del (MVD; Ministry of Internal Affairs). ... Spetsnaz soldier training Spetsnaz (Войска специального назначения - спецназ/Voiska spetsialnogo naznacheniya - spetsnaz, /Specnaz/ in SAMPA) is a general term... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... The aerial bombing of cities became a common tactic in World War II. World War I The first ever aerial bombardment of civilians was on January 19, 1915, in which two German Zeppelins dropped 24 fifty-kilogram high-explosive bombs and ineffective three-kilogram incendiaries on Great Yarmouth, Sheringham, Kings... Look up dugout in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Politics

The Parliament of Dagestan is the People's Assembly, consisting of 121 deputees elected for a four-year term. The People's Assembly is the highest executive and legislative body of the republic. A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... Peoples Assembly could refer to various legislative bodies Albania - Peoples Assembly Algeria - National Peoples Assembly Burma - Peoples Assembly Egypt - Peoples Assembly of Egypt North Korea - Supreme Peoples Assembly This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise...


According to the Constitution of Dagestan, the highest executive authority lies with the State Council, comprising representatives of fourteen ethnicities. The members of the State Council are appointed by the Constitutional Assembly of Dagestan for a term of four years. The State Council appoints the members of the Government. State Council or National Council is the name of a major governmental body in some countries. ...


The ethnicities represented in the State Council are Aguls, Avars, Azeris, Chechens, Dargins, Kumyks, Laks, Lezgins, Russians, Rutuls, Tabasarans, Tats, and Tsakhurs. Aguls (Агулы in Russian) are a people in Dagestan, Russia. ... Avars or Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan, in which they are the predominant group. ... Azerbaijanis or Azerbaijani Turks, are a Muslim people who number more than 25 million worldwide. ... This article covers the Chechen people as an ethnic group, not Chechen meaning citizens of Chechnya. ... Dargwa language: It is a native to the region and spoken by 350,000 people in Western Dagestan with two dialects Dargwa and Lakh. ... Flag of the Kumyks Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. ... The Laks are an ethnic group in Dagestan, Iran and other surrounding areas. ... Flag of the Lezgian people The Lezgins, also called the Lezgin, Lezgi, Lezgis, Lezgs, and Lezgians are an ethnic group who live mainly in southern Dagestan and northern Azerbaijan who speak the Lezgi language. ... Rutuls (Рутульцы, or рутулы in Russian) are a people in Dagestan (Russia) and some parts of Azerbaijan. ... The Tabasarans are an ethnic group who live mostly in Dagestan, Russia. ... The Tat are an Iranian ethnic group from the Caucasus. ... Media:Example. ...


Formerly, the Chairman of the State Council was the highest executive post in the republic, held by Magomedali Magomedovich Magomedov until 2006. On February 20, 2006, the People's Assembly passed a resolution terminating this post and disbanding the State Council. Russian President Vladimir Putin offered the People's Assembly the candidature of Mukhu Aliyev for the newly established post of the President of Dagestan. The nomination was accepted by the People's Assembly, and Mukhu Aliyev became the first President of Dagestan. Chairman of the State Council of the Republic of Dagestan Born June 15, 1930 in Levashi, Levashinsky district, Republic of Dagestan. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The President of Russia (ru: Президент России is the highest position within the Government of Russia. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of Russia. ... Mukhu Aliyev Mukhu Gimbatovich Aliyev (Russian: ) (born August 6, 1940) is the President of Dagestan, a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


The Constitution of Dagestan was adopted on July 26, 1994. July 26 is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ...


Economy

The village of Tindi, in Daghestan, in the late 1890s. The photograph was taken by M. de Déchy, who returned from the area with large collections of plants, fossils, and photographs.
The village of Tindi, in Daghestan, in the late 1890s. The photograph was taken by M. de Déchy, who returned from the area with large collections of plants, fossils, and photographs.

As of 2000, the economy of Dagestan consisted of the following sectors: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1275x1755, 446 KB)The village of Tindi, in Daghestan, in the late 1890s. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1275x1755, 446 KB)The village of Tindi, in Daghestan, in the late 1890s. ... The secondary sector of industry is the manufacturing sector of industry. ...

Important industries include food processing, power generation, oil drilling, machine building, chemicals, and instrument making. Dagestan's major exports are oil and fuel. Important agricultural products include fish from the Caspian Sea, wine and brandy, and various garden fruits. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The tertiary sector of industry (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing), and primary industry (extraction such as mining, agriculture and fishing). ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for consumption by humans or animals. ... Itaipu Dam is a hydroelectric generating station Electricity generation is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ... An oil well is a laymans term for any perforation through the Earths surface designed to find and release both petroleum oil and gas hydrocarbons. ... Wind turbines The scientific definition of a machine is any device that transmits or modifies energy. ... Chemical tanks in Lillebonne, France Chemical industry includes those industries involved in the production of petrochemicals, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymers, paints, oleochemicals etc. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded, covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Brandy (short for brandywine, from Dutch brandewijn—burnt wine[1]) is a general term for distilled wine, usually 40–60% ethyl alcohol by volume. ...


Dagestan has economic cooperation with Iran[1].


Dagestan continues to be the least urbanized republic in the Caucasus.[citation needed]


Religion

94% percent of Dagestan's population is Muslim, with Christians accounting for the remaining 6%.[citation needed] There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...


As with much of the Caucasus region, Dagestan's native Islam consists of Sufi orders that have been in place for centuries. In recent years there has been tension and even violence between local Sufi orders and Wahabbi missionaries who have come to the region seeking converts. Resul Magomedov, who is a contemporary writer of Daghestan, writes about Islamic contribution to themselves; “Before Islam, all Daghestan tribes were broke off in respect of language, religion, ethnical structure and geography like all other Caucasian peoples. This situation caused severe hostility and conflicts. After all native tribes became Muslims, a unity in belief could be sustained among Daghestan tribes which also stopped ethnic conflicts among them. If these conflicts continued, our homeland would face great disasters. This unity could only be established by medressehs spread out all the country. The scientists, scholars, imams graduated from these medressehs had an important role in stopping these conflicts in this multinational region and they helped tribes to establish friendly relations. Islam should also serve such a goal today.” [2] Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ...


References and notes

  1. ^ http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/menu-236/0612077439195407.htm
  2. ^ Religion in Dagestan

See also

Dagestan is a region of Russia. ... This article gives an overview of countries (including puppet-countries) that existed in Europe after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ...

External links

Coordinates: 43°03′26″N, 46°54′55″E It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Image File history File links Caucasiamapussr. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Adygea. ... The Republic of Adygea (Russian: ; Adyghe: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) enclaved within Krasnodar Krai. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nagorno-Karabakh. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chechnya. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Dagestan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Abkhazia. ... Capital Sokhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Government  -  Chairman, Cabinet of Ministers  -  Chairman, Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia Autonomous republic of Georgia  -  Georgian independence Declared Recognised 9 April 1991 25 December 1991  Currency Georgian lari (GEL) Anthem Aiaaira Capital Sukhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Russian1 Government  -  President Sergei Bagapsh  -  Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Ossetia. ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ingushetia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kabardino-Balkaria. ... Capital Nalchik Area - total - % water Ranked 83rd - 12,500 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 60th - est. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Karachay-Cherkessia. ... Karachay-Cherkess Republic (Russian: , or, less formal, Karachay-Cherkessia ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Krasnodar Krai (Russian: , Krasnodarsky kray) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the Southern Federal District. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Ossetia. ... Capital Vladikavkaz Area - total - % water Ranked 84th - 8,000 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 68th - est. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1723x1080, 67 KB) Flag of Stavropol Krai, Russia. ... Stavropol Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 691 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1420 × 1232 pixel, file size: 238 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Russia, Caucusus: Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Dagestan Republic - Encyclopedia.com (1248 words)
An ancient area of human settlement, Dagestan belonged to Caucasian Albania in the 1st millennium BC It was later invaded by Huns, Persian Sassanids, and, in the 7th cent.
Dagestan came under Soviet rule in 1920 and in 1921 was made an autonomous republic.
Dagestan was a signatory to the Mar. 31, 1992, treaty of federation that created the Russian Federation (see Russia).
Dagestan Republic — Infoplease.com (619 words)
Dagestan in the south consists mainly of sections of the Caucasus Mts.
Except for the Caspian plain and the Nogai steppe and the irrigated lowlands in the north, the terrain is one of steep slopes and narrow valleys.
The Deepening Dangers of Dagestan : Guerrilla war in the Caucasus and terrorism in Moscow could spiral into disaster, both for Russia......
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