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Encyclopedia > Dadaism
Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. Edited by Tristan Tzara. Zürich, 1917.

Dada, or Dadaism, was a cultural movement that involved visual arts, literature (mainly poetry), theatre, and graphic design, and began in neutral Zürich, Switzerland during World War I. Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Tristan Tzara (April 16, 1896 - December 25, 1963) is the pseudonym of Sami Rosenstock, born in Moineşti, Bacău, Romania. ... A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. ... Many times, the term art is used to refer to the visual arts. ... Bust of Homer, one of the earliest European poets, in the British Museum Poetry (ancient Greek: ποιεω (poieo) = I create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... Theatre is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed any one or more elements of the other performing arts. ... Graphic design is the applied art of arranging image and text to communicate a message. ... Zürich IPA (in English often Zurich, which is also the standard French form of the name) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 364,558 in 2002; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Deliberate irrationality and the rejection of the prevailing standards in art characterize Dada. The movement was a protest against the barbarism of World War I, the bourgeois interests Dada adherents believed inspired the war, and what they believed was an oppressive intellectual rigidity in both art and everyday society. The movement influenced later styles, movements and groups including surrealism and Fluxus. Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the unconscious. ... Fluxus (from to flow) is an art movement noted for the blending of different artistic disciplines, primarily visual art but also music and literature. ...

Contents

History

Zürich

In 1916, Hugo Ball, Tristan Tzara, Hans Arp, Richard Huelsenbeck — all living in exile in Zürich — along with others put on performances in the Cabaret Voltaire expressing their disgust with the war and the interests that inspired it. By some accounts Dada coalesced on October 6 at the cabaret. Hugo Ball (February 22, 1886 - September 14, 1927) was a German author and poet. ... Tristan Tzara (April 16, 1896 - December 25, 1963) is the pseudonym of Sami Rosenstock, born in Moineşti, Bacău, Romania. ... Jean Arp (September 16, 1886 - June 7, 1966) was a sculptor, painter, and poet. ... Richard Huelsenbeck (April 23, 1892 - April 30, 1974) was a poet, writer and drummer born in Frankenau, Germany. ... The Cabaret Voltaire was founded on February 5, 1916 by Hugo Ball in Zürich as a cabaret for artistic and political purposes. ...


At the first public soiree at the cabaret on July 14, 1916, Ball recited the first Dada manifesto (http://wikisource.org/wiki/Dada_Manifesto_%281916%2C_Hugo_Ball%29). Tzara, in 1918 wrote a Dada manifesto[1] (http://wikisource.org/wiki/Dada_Manifesto) considered one of the most important of the Dada writings. Other manifestos followed.


Cabaret Voltaire and Dada are among the publications from the Zürich Dada.[2] (http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/dada/index.htm)


Artists in Europe and the United States shared the sentiments of the Zürich group and soon other Dada groups formed.


New York

Marcel Duchamp, Beatrice Wood, and Francis Picabia, who had all left France at the onset of World War I, formed a group in [[New York], with Man Ray joining in the happenings. Much of their activity centered in Alfred Stieglitz's gallery, 291, and the studio of Walter and Louise Arensberg. Marcel Duchamp (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French/American artist. ... Beatrice Wood Beatrice Wood ( March 3, 1893 – March 12, 1998) was an American artist and ceramist, known as the Mama of Dada. Beatrice Wood was born in San Francisco, California, the daughter of wealthy socialites. ... Francis-Marie Martinez Picabia (January 28, 1879 - November 30, 1953) was a well-known painter and poet born of a French mother and a Spanish father who was an attaché at the Cuban legation in Paris, France. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Man Ray photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 Man Ray (August 27, 1890 - November 18, 1976) was an American Dadaist and surrealist photographer and film director. ... Alfred Stieglitz, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1935 Alfred Stieglitz (January 1, 1864_July 13, 1946) was a US-born photographer who was instrumental over his fifty-year career in making photography an acceptable art form alongside painting and sculpture. ... Walter Arensberg was a poet, who with his wife Louise, collected art and supported artistic endeavors. ...


Through publications such as The Blind Man, Rongwrong, and New York Dada[3] (http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/collection.htm), they criticized the traditionalist basis for museum art, and Duchamp began exhibiting readymades (found objects) such as a bottle rack. Found art, or more commonly and less confusingly, Found Object (French: objet trouvé) is a term used to describe art created from common objects not normally considered to be artistic (also assemblage). ...


Picabia's visits to Europe tied New York, Zürich and Paris groups together. He also published a Dada periodical, 391[4] (http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/391/index.htm), in Barcelona, Spain, New York City, Zürich, and Paris from 1917 through 1924. For other uses, see Barcelona (disambiguation). ...


Berlin

The groups in Germany were not as strongly anti-art,, instead their activity and art was more politcal and social.


In February 1918, Richard Huelsenbeck gave his first Dada speech in Berlin, and produced a Dada manifesto later in the year. Hannah Höch and George Grosz used Dada to express post-World War I communist sympathies. Grosz developed the technique of photomontage during this period. The artists published a series of short-lived political journals, and held an International Dada Fair in 1920. The Berlin group saw much in-fighting; Kurt Schwitters and others were excluded from the group. Schwitters moved to Hanover where he developed his individual type of Dada, that he dubbed Merz. Richard Huelsenbeck (April 23, 1892 - April 30, 1974) was a poet, writer and drummer born in Frankenau, Germany. ... Berlin (pronounced: , German ) is the capital of Germany and its largest city, with 3,426,000 inhabitants (as of January 2005); down from 4. ... Hannah Höch - born in Gotha, Germany in 1889. ... George Grosz (July 26, 1893 - July 6, 1959) was a prominent member of the Berlin Dada group. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Artistic photomontage showing what a complete iceberg might look like under water Photomontage is the process (and result) of making a composite picture by cutting and joining a number of photographs. ... Kurt Schwitters (June 20, 1887 - January 8, 1948) was a German painter who was born in Hanover, Germany. ... Map of Germany showing Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the river Leine, is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... Kurt Schwitters (June 20, 1887 - January 8, 1948) was a German painter, who was born in Hanover, Germany. ...


The Berlin group published periodicals such as Club Dada, Der Dada, Everyman His Own Football (Jedermann sein eigner Fussball), and Dada Almanach[5] (http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/collection.htm).


Cologne

In Cologne (Köln), Max Ernst, Johannes Theodor Baargeld and Arp in 1920 launched a controversial Dada exhibition, which focused on nonsense and anti-bourgeois sentiments. Cologne skyline at night. ... Max Ernst Max Ernst (April 2, 1891 – April 1, 1976) was a German painter. ... Johannes Theodor Baargeld, pseudonym of Alfred Emanuel Ferdinand Grünwald (9 October 1892 - 9 October 1927), was a German painter and poet who, together with Max Ernst, founded the Cologne Dada group. ... ARP can stand for: Address Resolution Protocol, a layer 2 computer network address discovery protocol Air Raid Precautions, in particular in Britain during World War II ARP Instruments, Inc. ...


Paris

The French avant-garde kept abreast of Dada activities in Zürich with regular communications from Tristan Tzara, who exchanged letters, poems, and magazines with Guillaume Apollinaire, André Breton, Max Jacob, and other French writers, critics and artists. The first introduction of Dada artwork to the Parisian public was at the Salon des Indépendants in 1921. Jean Crotti exhibited works associated with Dada including a work entitled, Explicatif bearing the word Tabu. A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Tristan Tzara (April 16, 1896 - December 25, 1963) is the pseudonym of Sami Rosenstock, born in Moineşti, Bacău, Romania. ... Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (August 26, 1880 – November 9, 1918) was a poet, writer, and art critic. ... André Breton ( February 18, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist. ... Max Jacob (July 12, 1876 – March 5, 1944) was a French poet, painter, writer, and critic. ... Salon des Indépendants is an exhibition of art held annually since 1884 in Paris, France. ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jean Crotti (April 24, 1878 - January 30, 1958) was a French painter. ...


Littérature[6] (http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/litterature/index.htm) (1919-24) was among the publications of the Paris group.


Poetry, music and sound

Not strictly a visual arts movment, Dada influence reached into sound and music. Kurt Schwitters developed what he called sound poems and composers such as Erwin Schulhoff, Hans Heusser and Albert Savinio wrote Dada music, while members of Les Six collaborated with Dada movement members and their pieces played at Dada gatherings. Le Groupe des Six, 1922, by Jacques-Emile Blanche. ...


Origin of the word Dada

The origin of the name Dada are unclear. Some believe that it is a nonsensical word. Some believe it originates from the Romanian artists Tristan Tzara and Marcel Janco's frequent use of the words da, da, meaning yes, yes in the Romanian language. Others believe that a group of artists assembled in Zürich in 1916, wanting a name for their new movement, chose it at random by stabbing a French-German dictionary, and picking the name that the point landed upon. Dada in French is a child's word for hobby-horse. In French the colloquialism, c'est mon dada, means it's my hobby. Tristan Tzara (April 16, 1896 - December 25, 1963) is the pseudonym of Sami Rosenstock, born in Moineşti, Bacău, Romania. ... Marcel Janco/Iancu/Ianco (May 24, 1895, Bucharest - April 21, 1984, Tel Aviv) was a Jewish-Romanian artist, painter and architect. ... Romanian (limba română IPA ) is an Eastern Romance language, spoken natively by about 26 million people, most of them in Romania, Moldova and Vojvodina, the three places where it is an official language. ... Zürich IPA (in English often Zurich, which is also the standard French form of the name) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 364,558 in 2002; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... A hobby horse (or hobbyhorse) can be several things: A toy horse, consisting of a model of a horses head, usually wooden, attached to a stick. ...


According to the Dada ideal, the movement would not be called Dadaism, much less designated be an art movement.


An anti-art movement?

According to its proponents, Dada was not art — it was anti-art. For everything that art stood for, Dada was to represent the opposite. Where art was concerned with aesthetics, Dada ignored aesthetics. If art was to have at least an implicit or latent message, Dada strove to have no meaning — interpretation of Dada is dependent entirely on the viewer. If art is to appeal to sensibilities, Dada offends. Perhaps it is then ironic that Dada is an influential movement in modern art. Dada became a commentary on art and the world, thus becoming art itself. Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική meaning a perceiver or sensitive) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ...


Dada and nihilism

The artists of the Dada movement were disillusioned by art, art history and history in general. Many of them were veterans of World War I and were cynical of humanity after seeing what men were capable of doing to each other on the battlefields of Europe. Thus they were attracted to a nihilistic world view (they thought that nothing achieved by mankind was worthwhile, not even art), and created art in which chance and randomness formed the basis of creation. A history resource for kids -Chronology of Events in History, Mythology, and Folklore. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Gods death or nonexistence is a quintessential nihilistic concern. ... In ordinary language, the word random is used to express apparent lack of purpose or cause. ...


The basis of Dada is nonsense. With the order of the world destroyed by World War I, Dada was a way to express the confusion felt by many people as their world turned upside down. There was not an attempt to find meaning in disorder, but rather to accept disorder as the nature of the world. Many embraced this disorder through Dada, using it as a means to express their distaste for the aesthetics of the previous order and carnage they believed it reaped. Through this rejection of traditional culture and aesthetics they hoped to destroy traditional culture and aesthetics. Nonsense is an utterance or written text in what appears to be a human language or other symbolic system, that does not in fact carry any identifiable meaning. ...


Legacy

Ernst and Tzara ended up in Paris, where Dada melded into surrealism in 1924. Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the unconscious. ...


While broad reaching, the movement was unstable. Artists went on to other ideas and movements, including surrealism, socialist realism and other forms of modernism. Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the unconscious. ... Stalin as an Organiser of the October Revolution by Karp Trokhimenko Socialist realism is a teleologically-oriented style of realistic art which has as its purpose the furtherance of the goals of socialism and communism. ... Le Corbusiers Villa Savoye, 1929-30: The modern style is noted for its rigorous geometrical forms, and became adopted internationally, though not without continuing controversy Modernism in the cultural historical sense is generally defined as the new artistic and literary styles that emerged in the decades before 1914 as...


By the dawn of World War II, many of the European Dadaists had fled or emigrated to the United States. Some died in death camps under Hitler, who disliked the kind of radical art that Dada represented. The movement became less active as post-World War II optimism led to new movements in art and literature. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Magdeburger Ehrenmal (Magdeburg cenotaph) created by Ernst Barlach was declared to be degenerate art due to the deformity and emaciation of the figures which corresponded to Nordaus theory of the connection between mental and physical degeneration. ...


In 1967, a large Dada retrospective was held in Paris, France. 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...


At the same time that the Zürich Dadaists made noise and spectacle at the Cabaret Voltaire, Vladimir Lenin wrote his revolutionary plans for Russia in a nearby apartment. He was unappreciative of the artistic revolutionary activity near him. Tom Stoppard used this coincidence as a premise for his play Travesties (1974), which includes Tzara, Lenin, and James Joyce as characters. The Cabaret Voltaire was founded on February 5, 1916 by Hugo Ball in Zürich as a cabaret for artistic and political purposes. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism, later expanded into... Sir Tom Stoppard OM (born July 3, 1937) is a Czech-born British playwright, famous for plays such as The Real Thing and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, and for the screenplay for Shakespeare in Love. ... Travesties is a comedic play by Tom Stoppard, first produced in 1975. ... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (February 2, 1882 – January 13, 1941) was an expatriate Irish writer and poet, and is widely considered one of the most significant writers of the 20th century. ...


Cabaret Voltaire fell into disrepair until it was occupied by a group claiming to be neo-Dadaists in June-August of 2002. After their eviction the Cabaret Voltaire became a museum dedicated to the history of Dada. 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Early practitioners

For a more complete list of Dadaists, see List of Dadaists. The following is a list of Dadaists. ...

Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (August 26, 1880 – November 9, 1918) was a poet, writer, and art critic. ... Jean Arp (September 16, 1886 - June 7, 1966) was a sculptor, painter, and poet. ... Hugo Ball (February 22, 1886 - September 14, 1927) was a German author and poet. ... Beatrice Wood Beatrice Wood ( March 3, 1893 – March 12, 1998) was an American artist and ceramist, known as the Mama of Dada. Beatrice Wood was born in San Francisco, California, the daughter of wealthy socialites. ... Jean Crotti (April 24, 1878 - January 30, 1958) was a French painter. ... Marcel Duchamp (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French/American artist. ... Max Ernst Max Ernst (April 2, 1891 – April 1, 1976) was a German painter. ... Raoul Hausmann (July 12, 1886–February 1, 1971) was a German painter, sculptor and writer. ... Emmy Hennings (February 17, 1885 – 1948) was the wife of celebrated Dadaist Hugo Ball. ... Richard Huelsenbeck (April 23, 1892 - April 30, 1974) was a poet, writer and drummer born in Frankenau, Germany. ... Marcel Janco/Iancu/Ianco (May 24, 1895, Bucharest - April 21, 1984, Tel Aviv) was a Jewish-Romanian artist, painter and architect. ... Francis-Marie Martinez Picabia (January 28, 1879 - November 30, 1953) was a well-known painter and poet born of a French mother and a Spanish father who was an attaché at the Cuban legation in Paris, France. ... Man Ray photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 Man Ray (August 27, 1890 - November 18, 1976) was an American Dadaist and surrealist photographer and film director. ... Hans Richter was a Dadaist artist, filmmaker and writer. ... Kurt Schwitters (June 20, 1887 - January 8, 1948) was a German painter who was born in Hanover, Germany. ... Tristan Tzara (April 16, 1896 - December 25, 1963) is the pseudonym of Sami Rosenstock, born in Moineşti, Bacău, Romania. ... Clément Pansaers ( 1885- 1922) was the main proponent of the Dada movement in Belgium. ...

Bibliography

  • Richard Huelsenbeck, Memoirs of a Dada Drummer, (University of California Press) (paperback)
  • Greil Marcus, "Lipstick Traces," (Harvard Press)

Related links

Expressionism in filmmaking developed in Germany (especially Berlin) during the 1920s. ... This article is about the art movement, futurism. ... (propose to merge this list with List of surrealistic pieces - the only composition mentioned on this page up till now (Relâche) is to be labelled Instantaneist, which is nearer to surrealism rather than to dada: I moved the mentioned piece to the list of surrealist pieces. ... Le Corbusiers Villa Savoye, 1929-30: The modern style is noted for its rigorous geometrical forms, and became adopted internationally, though not without continuing controversy Modernism in the cultural historical sense is generally defined as the new artistic and literary styles that emerged in the decades before 1914 as... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the unconscious. ...

External links

  • Dada Manifesto excerpt by Hugo Ball (1916) (http://wikisource.org/wiki/Dada_Manifesto_%281916%2C_Hugo_Ball%29)
  • Excerpts of Tristan Tzara's Dada Manifesto (1918) and Lecture on Dada (1922) (http://www.english.upenn.edu/~jenglish/English104/tzara.html)
  • Dada Manifesto excerpt by Tristan Tzara (1918) (http://www.artseensoho.com/Life/readings/tzara.html)
  • Dada Manifesto (1921) (http://www.ralphmag.org/AR/dada.html)
  • International Dada Archive. (http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/index.html) Includes scans of many Dada publications.
  • Dada Manifesto 2001 (http://www.nwlink.com/~phoenix/dada-manifesto-2001.htm)
  • Dada Online (http://www.peak.org/~dadaist/)
    • Definition of Dada (http://www.peak.org/~dadaist/English/Graphics/index.html)
    • Chronology of Dada (http://www.peak.org/~dadaist/English/Graphics/chronology.html)
    • Dada artists (http://www.peak.org/~dadaist/English/Graphics/artists.html)
    • Dada art. (http://www.peak.org/~dadaist/Art/index.html) Includes images showing the characteristics of Dada.
  • Computer-generated pseudo-random text. (http://dev.null.org/dadaengine/) Sometimes known as the Postmodernism generator.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dada - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2138 words)
Dada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that began in neutral Z├╝rich, Switzerland, during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1920.
Dada was an international movement, and it is difficult to classify artists as being from any one particular country, as they were constantly moving from one place to another.
In 1967, a large Dada retrospective was held in Paris, France.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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