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Encyclopedia > Dacian language
Dacian
Spoken in: Romania, Moldova, parts of Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, and Northern Bulgaria
Language extinction: probably by the sixth century AD
Language family: Indo-European
 Dacian
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: ine
ISO 639-3: xdc

Indo-European topics Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is is a language which has stopped changing in grammar, vocabulary, and the complete meaning of a sentence. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...

Indo-European languages
Albanian · Armenian · Baltic
Celtic · Germanic · Greek
Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan, Iranian)
Italic · Slavic  

extinct: Anatolian · Paleo-Balkans (Dacian,
Phrygian, Thracian) · Tocharian For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ... The Paleo-Balkan languages were the Indo-European languages which were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times: Dacian language Thracian language Illyrian language Paionian language Ancient Macedonian language The only remnant of them is Albanian, but it is still disputed which language was its ancestor. ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people of the central Asia Minor. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ...

Indo-European peoples
Albanians · Armenians
Balts · Celts · Germanic peoples
Greeks · Indo-Aryans
Iranians · Latins · Slavs

historical: Anatolians (Hittites, Luwians)
Celts (Galatians, Gauls) · Germanic tribes
Illyrians · Indo-Iranians (Iranian tribes)
Italic peoples · Thracians · Tocharians   For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... http://www. ... This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ... Charlemagne, first to unify the Germanic tribal confederations. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Latin peoples, also known as Romance peoples, are those European linguistic-cultural groups and their descendants all over the world that speak Romance languages. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Distribution of the Luwian language (after Melchert 2003) Luwian hieroglyphic inscription from the city of Carchemish. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ...

Proto-Indo-Europeans
Language · Society · Religion
 
Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis · Anatolia
Armenia · India · PCT
 
Indo-European studies

The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. It is often considered to have been a northern variant of the Thracian language or closely related to it. (see Daco-Thracian) The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... The question of the homeland (Urheimat) of the Proto-Indo-Europeans and the Proto-Indo-European language has been a recurring topic in Indo-European studies since the 19th century. ... Map of Indo European migrations from ca. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the 7th to 5th millennia. ... The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Daco-Thracian is a hypothesis that the Dacian language and the Thracian language were very close languages on the same Indo-European branch or possibly even dialects of each other. ...

Contents

Characteristics and sources

Many of the characteristics of the Dacian language are unknown and disputed. There are almost no written documents in Dacian. What is known of the language derives from:

  • the toponyms, hydronyms, proper names (including names of kings)
  • Dacian names of about fifty plants written in Greek and Roman sources (see List of Dacian plant names) -- however, an etymology has been established only for a few of them[1]
  • the substratum words found in the current Romanian language, the language that is spoken in most of the places Dacians lived: there are about 400 words with uncertain origin (like brânză=cheese, balaur=dragon, etc), about 160 of which have cognates in Albanian. These words may have entered Romanian from the Dacian language in ancient times.[citation needed]
  • Dacian writings: The longest inscription known is DECEBALUS PER SCORILO; its meaning is disputed but generally thought to be "Decebalus, Scorilo’s son" if indeed it is Dacian, or "Decebalus through Scorilo" if actually this is a Latin inscription.
  • The Roman poet Ovid claimed that he learned the Dacian language after being exiled to Tomis (today Constanţa) in Dacia. In his Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto he claimed to have composed poems in the language - if this is true, they were not preserved.

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A hydronym (from Greek hudor, water and onuma, name) is a proper name of a body of water. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This is a List of Dacian plant names taken from Dioscorides De Materia Medica and PseudoApuleis. ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... This is a list of Romanian words believed to be of Dacian origin and thus representing the Eastern Romance substratum. ... A slice of bread spread with bryndza Bryndza is a sheeps milk cheese made in all the Balkan area, Eastern Austria, Poland, Romania,Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine. ... In Romanian folkore a balaur is a creature similar to a dragon, although distinct: dragons as such also exist in Romanian folklore. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... Tomi (also called Tomi) was a Greek colony in the province of Scythia on the Black Seas shore, founded around 500 BC for commercial exchanges with local Dacian populations. ... County Constanţa Mayor Radu Ştefan Mazăre Area 124. ... Tristia (Sorrows) is a work of poetry written by the Roman poet Ovid some time after 8AD, during his exile from Rome. ... Epistulae ex Ponto (Letters from the Black Sea) is a work of Ovid, in four books. ...

Geographic distribution

Dacian used to be one of the major languages of South-Eastern Europe, stretching from what is now Eastern Hungary to the Black Sea shore.[citation needed] Based on archaeological findings, the origins of the Dacian culture are believed to be in Moldavia, being identified as an evolution of the Iron Age Basarabi culture. The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Basarabi is a village in Dolj county, south-western Romania. ...


Sound changes from PIE

Dacian was a Satem language. For details of its sound changes, see Proto-Indo-European to Dacian sound changes. The Satem division of the Indo-European family includes the following branches: Indo-Iranian, Baltic and Slavic, Armenian, Albanian, perhaps also a number of barely documented extinct languages, such as Phrygian, Thracian, and Dacian (see: Indo-European languages). ... The Dacian language was a Satem Indo European Language. ...


Classification

In the 1950s, the Bulgarian linguist Vladimir Georgiev published his work[2] which argued that the phonology of the Dacian language is close to the phonology of Albanian, further supporting the theory that Dacian was on the same language branch as the Albanian language, a language branch termed Daco-Moesian (or Daco-Mysian), Moesian (or Mysian) being thought of as a transitional dialect between Dacian and Thracian. Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Albanian ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 8 million people, primarily in Albania and Serbia (province of Kosovo-Metohija), but also in other parts of the Balkans with an Albanian population (parts of the Republic of Macedonia, and some parts in Montenegro and Serbia), along the eastern coast of Italy... The Moesi (Moesoi) were a Thracic tribe who inhabited part of what would become the Roman province of Moesia, which was named after them. ...


There are cognates between Daco-Thracian and Albanian which may be evidence of the Daco-Thracian-Albanian language affinity, and many substratum words in Romanian have Albanian cognates. Cognates are words that have a common origin. ...


Ancient Greek geographer Strabo claimed that the Getae spoke the same language as the Thracians.[3] However, Georgiev argued that Dacian and Thracian are two different languages, with two different phonetic systems, his idea being supported by the placenames, which end in -dava in Dacian and Moesian, as opposed to -para, in Thracian placenames.[2] The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ...


The fate of Dacian

A map showing a theoretical scenario, the Albanians as a migrant Dacian people.
A map showing a theoretical scenario, the Albanians as a migrant Dacian people.

It is unclear exactly when the Dacian language became extinct, or even whether it has a living descendant. The initial Roman conquest of part of Dacia did not put an end to the language, as Free Dacian tribes such as the Carpi may have continued to speak Dacian in the area North-East of the Carpathian (in the areas of modern Moldova and Ukraine) as late as the 6th or 7th century AD, still capable of leaving some influences in the forming Slavic languages.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (972x675, 689 KB) This is a map of the general areas in which ethnogenesis of the Romanian people is believed to have occured. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (972x675, 689 KB) This is a map of the general areas in which ethnogenesis of the Romanian people is believed to have occured. ... The Carpi or Carpians were a Dacian tribe that were originally located on the Eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, in what is now Bacău county, Romania. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup...

  • Another hypothesis considers Albanian to be a Daco-Moesian Dialect that split off from Dacian before 300 BC and that Dacian itself became extinct;

The argument for this early split (before 300BC) is the following: inherited Albanian words (Ex: Alb. motër 'sister' < Late IE ma:ter 'mother') shows the transformation Late IE /a:/ > Alb /o/, but all the Latin loans in Albanian having an /a:/ shows Latin a: > Alb a. This indicates that the transformation PAlb /a:/ > PAlb /o/ happened and ended before the Roman arrival in the Balkans. On the other hand, Romanian substratum words shared with Albanian show a Romanian /a/ that correspond to an Albanian /o/ when both sounds source is an original Common /a:/ (mazãre/modhull<*ma:dzula 'pea'; raţã/rosë<*ra:tya: 'duck') indicating that when these words have had the same Common form in Pre-Romanian and Proto-Albanian the transformation PAlb /a:/ > PAlb /o/ had not started yet. The correlation between these two facts indicates that the split between Pre-Roman Dacians(the Dacians that were later Romanized) and Proto-Albanian happened before the Roman arrival in the Balkans. Albanian ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 8 million people, primarily in Albania and Serbia (province of Kosovo-Metohija), but also in other parts of the Balkans with an Albanian population (parts of the Republic of Macedonia, and some parts in Montenegro and Serbia), along the eastern coast of Italy... Hasdeu: photograph and signature Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, a name chosen in 1857 by Tadeu Hasdeu (February 26, 1838—August 25, 1907), was a Romanian writer and philologist, who pioneered many branches of Romanian philology and history. ...


Dacian as the substratum of Proto-Romanian

Blue=lands conquered by the Roman Empire.Red = area populated by Free Dacians.Language map based on the range of the Dacian toponyms
Blue=lands conquered by the Roman Empire.
Red = area populated by Free Dacians.
Language map based on the range of the Dacian toponyms

The Dacian language may form the substratum of the Proto-Romanian language, which developed from the Vulgar Latin spoken in the Balkans north of the Jirecek line that roughly divides Latin influence from Greek influence. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (926x725, 179 KB) based on NASA worldwind (PD) Dacians and Romans File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Talk:Dacia Dacian language Eastern Romance substratum ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (926x725, 179 KB) based on NASA worldwind (PD) Dacians and Romans File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Talk:Dacia Dacian language Eastern Romance substratum ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Common Romanian (also known as Proto-Romanian) is a hypothetical language considered to have been spoken by the Romanians after the breakdown of the Roman Empire and before it was broken into modern Eastern Romance languages and dialects: Romanian Aromanian Megleno-Romanian Istro-Romanian The place where this language was... Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... The Jire&#269;ek Line The Jire&#269;ek Line is an imaginary line that divided in the ancient Balkans, until the 4th century, the influences of the Latin (in North) and Greek (in South) languages. ...


Whether Dacian in fact forms the substratum of Proto-Romanian is disputed (see Origin of Romanians), yet this theory does not rely on the Romanization having occurred in Dacia, as Dacian was also spoken in Moesia, and as far south as northern Dardania. About 300 words in Eastern Romance (Romanian, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, Istro-Romanian) may derive from Dacian, and many of these show a satem-reflex, as one would expect in Daco-Thracian words (see Eastern Romance substratum). The Romanians (also sometimes referred to along with other Balkan Latin peoples as Vlachs) are a nation speaking Romanian, a Romance language, and living in Central and Eastern Europe. ... For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Ancient Dardania Dardania (Albanian: Dardania;) was an ancient country encompassing southern parts of present-day Kosova (including the area of the modern-day province of Kosovo, since 1999 under UN administration), mostly, but not entirely, western parts of the present-day Republic of Macedonia, and parts of present-day north... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ... The Eastern Romance languages contain around 300 words considered by many linguists to be of substratum origin [1]. Including place-names and river-names, and most of the forms labelled as being of unknown etymology, the number of the substratum elements in Eastern Romance may surpass 500 basic roots. ...


See also

The cities of the Dacians were known as Dava, Daua, Deva, Deba or Daba. ... This is a list of kings of the ancient land of Dacia. ... This is a List of Dacian plant names taken from Dioscorides De Materia Medica and PseudoApuleis. ... This is a list of Romanian words believed to be of Dacian origin and thus representing the Eastern Romance substratum. ... The Eastern Romance languages contain around 300 words considered by many linguists to be of substratum origin [1]. Including place-names and river-names, and most of the forms labelled as being of unknown etymology, the number of the substratum elements in Eastern Romance may surpass 500 basic roots. ... The Romanians (also sometimes referred to along with other Balkan Latin peoples as Vlachs) are a nation speaking Romanian, a Romance language, and living in Central and Eastern Europe. ... The Sinaia lead plates are a set of lead plates written in an unknown language and are alleged to be a chronicle of the Dacians, but they are widely considered by historians and linguists to be a 19th century fake. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Daicoviciu, p.27
  2. ^ a b Georgiev, Raporturi..."
  3. ^ Strabo, "Geographica" Book VII, Chapter 3, 10

References

  • I. I. Russu, Limba traco-dacilor, Bucharest, Editura Ştiinţifică, 1967
  • Vladimir Georgiev (Gheorghiev), Raporturile dintre limbile dacă, tracă şi frigiană, "Studii Clasice" Journal, II, 1960, 39-58
  • Hadrian Daicoviciu, Dacii, Editura Enciclopedică Română, 1972
  • Dimiter Detschew, Die thrakischen Sprachreste, Wien 1957.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Wikipedia: Romanian language (1385 words)
Although we may never know much about the Dacian language, there are some words that are found only in Romanian (in all dialects), some of them have a cognate in Albanian language and these are generally thought to be inherited from Dacian, most of them being related to the pastoral life.
All dialects of Romanian are believed to have been unified in a common language until sometime between the 7th and the 10th century, before the Slavonic languages interfered with Romanian.
All the four dialects are offsprings of the Romance language spoken both in the North and South Danube, before the settlement of the Slavonian tribes South of the river - Daco-Romanian in North, and the other three dialects in the South.
Romanian language - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (4949 words)
Romanian is a Romance language, belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European language family, having much in common with languages such as French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish.
Romanian is one of the five languages in which religious services are performed in the autonomous monastic state of Mount Athos, spoken in the sketae of Prodromos and Lacu (a sketa being a community of monks; sketae is plural).
The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient Dacians.
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