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Encyclopedia > Dacia Aureliana
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Dacia
Roman Dacia
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The provinces of the Roman Empire in 120, with Dacia highlighted.
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The provinces of the Roman Empire in 120, with Dacia highlighted.

The Roman province of Dacia was included the modern Romanian regions of Transylvania, Banat and Oltenia, and temporally Muntenia and southern Moldova. It was under a governor of praetorian rank, and Legio XIII Gemina with numerous auxiliaries had their fixed quarters in the province. Due to a decrease in population of the conquered territory, caused by the Dacian Wars and consequent flight of many Dacians north of the Carpathians, colonists were brought over to cultivate the land and work the gold mines alongside the Dacian population that can be seen on Trajan's Column submitting to Trajan during the Dacian Wars. The colonists, besides the Roman troops, were mainly first- or second-generation Roman colonists from Noricum or Pannonia, later supplemented with colonists from other provinces: South Thracians (from the provinces of Moesia or Thrace) and settlers from the Roman provinces of Asia Minor. Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... This article provides only a brief outline of each period of the History of Romania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... This article refers to the time period (also known as Romania in the Dark Ages), roughly from the 5th century, to the 11th century - with the last phase of the Age of Migrations. ... // Context The Dark Ages in Romania ended around the 11th century, following the period in which the Romanian lands had been part of the First Bulgarian Empire (802-1018) and the settling of the Magyar tribes into Europe (896) who led by Arpad, settled in Pannonia. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... During the period of Austro-Hungarian rule in Transylvania and Ottoman suzerainty over Wallachia and Moldavia, most Romanians were in the situation of being second-class citizens (or even non-citizens) in their own country. ... Regulamentul Organic (-Romanian name, translated as Organic Statute or Organic Regulation; French: Règlement Organique, Russian: Oрганический регламент, Organichesky reglament)[1] was a quasi-constitutional organic law enforced in 1831-1832 by the Imperial Russian authorities in Moldavia and Wallachia (the two Danubian Principalities that were to become the basis of... The Romanian War of Independence was fought in 1877 against the Ottoman Empire. ... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... Greater Romania (1920 - 1940) Greater Romania (România Mare) generally refers to the territory of Romania in the years between the First and Second World Wars, the greatest territorial exent of a united country of ethnic Romanians, on historically Romanian lands. ... After a brief period of nominal neutrality, Romania joined the Axis Powers in June 1941, under the government of Ion Antonescu. ... The Soviets pressed for inclusion of Romanias heretofore negligible Communist Party in the post-war government, while non-communist political leaders were steadily eliminated from political life. ... (Redirected from 1989 Romanian Revolution) People on the streets of Bucharest The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and protests in late December of 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu. ... 1989 marked the Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe. ... Image File history File links REmpire-Dacia. ... Image File history File links REmpire-Dacia. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... For other uses, see number 120. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or Transilvania; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: or Erdelj / Ердељ) is a historical region in the center of Romania. ... Banat (Romanian: Banat; Serbian: Банат or Banat; German: Banat; Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság; Slovak: Banát) is a geographical and historical region in Southeastern Europe divided among three countries: the eastern part belongs to Romania (the counties of TimiÅŸ, CaraÅŸ-Severin, Arad, and MehedinÅ£i), the western... Map of Romania with Oltenia highlighted Oltenia or Lesser Wallachia is a historical province of Romania. ... Map of Romania with Muntenia highlighted Muntenia or Greater Wallachia is a historical province of Romania, usually considered Wallachia-proper (Muntenia, Å¢ara Românească, and the seldomly used Valahia are synonyms in Romanian). ... The Praetorian Guard (sometimes Prætorian Guard) (in Latin: praetoriani) comprised a special force of bodyguards used by Roman emperors. ... Sestertius minted in 248 by Philip the Arab to celebrate Dacia province and its legions, V Macedonica and XIII Gemina. ... The term auxiliaries comes from latin auxilia, name for non-citizen troops supporting Roman legions. ... Combatants Dacians Roman Empire Commanders Decebal Trajan Strength around 100,000 (based on population estimate) 70,000-80,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Dacian Wars (101-102, 105-106) were two short wars between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Emperor Trajans rule. ... Dacian kingdom during the reign of Burebista, 82 BC The Dacians (Lat. ... This is about the terrestrial mountain range. ... Trajans Column is a monument in Rome raised by Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Senate. ... Noricum in ancient geography was a celtic kingdom in Austria and later a province of the Roman Empire. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Thracian peltast, 5th to 4th century BC Thracian Horseman Thracians in an ethnic sense refers to various ancient peoples who spoke Dacian and Thracian, a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Thrace (Bulgarian: Тракия, Trakiya; Greek: Θράκη, ThrákÄ“; Latin: Thracia or Threcia, Turkish: Trakya, Macedonian: Тракија) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to...


For protection against the attacks of the free Dacians, Carpians and other neighbouring tribes, the Romans built forts and delimited the Roman held territory with a limes. Three great military roads were constructed, that linked the chief towns of the province. A fourth road, named after Trajan, ran through the Carpathians and entered Transylvania through the Turnu Roşu mountain pass. The chief towns of the province were Sarmizegetusa (Colonia Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa), Apulum, Napoca and Potaissa. The Carpi or Carpians were a Dacian tribe that were originally located on the Eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, in what is now Bacău county, Romania. ... The limes Germanicus, 2nd century. ... Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus (September 18, 53 – August 9, 117), Roman Emperor (98-117), commonly called Trajan, was the second of the Five Good Emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Sarmisegetuza was the most important Dacian military, religious and political center. ... County Alba County Status County capital Mayor Mircea Hava, since 2000 Area 103. ... Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ... Turda (Hungarian: Torda, German: Thorenburg) (population: 55,770) is a city and Municipality in Cluj County, Romania, situated on the ArieÅŸ river. ...

Two Dacians on the Arch of Constantine (4th century).

In 129, Hadrian divided Dacia into Dacia Superior and Dacia Inferior, the former comprising Transylvania and the latter Oltenia. Marcus Aurelius redivided it into three (tres Daciae): Porolissensis, from the chief town Porolissum, Apulensis, from Apulum, and Malvensis from Malva (site unknown). The tres Daciae formed a single society insofar as they had a common capital, Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, and a common assembly, which discussed provincial affairs, formulated complaints and adjusted the incidence of taxation. However, in other respects they were practically independent provinces, each under an ordinary procurator, subordinate to a governor of consular rank. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (797x1063, 385 KB) Rome, Arch of Constantine, by Alexander Z., 2005-01-06 File links The following pages link to this file: Arch of Constantine ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (797x1063, 385 KB) Rome, Arch of Constantine, by Alexander Z., 2005-01-06 File links The following pages link to this file: Arch of Constantine ... The Arch of Constantine seen from the Colosseum The arch seen from Via Triumphalis Detail of the arch (southern side, left) The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76–July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was Roman emperor from 117–138, and a member of the gens Aelia. ... Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ... Porolissum was an ancient Roman city in Dacia. ... Assembly may refer to the following things: In politics, any body meeting together to discuss matters, a parliament or a legislative assembly such as the French revolutionary Legislative Assembly, or a body more designed to mediate between otherwise independent bodies, such as the United Nations General Assembly. ... See Roman Governor for the duties of a promagistrate as a governor of a province A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... Consul (abbrev. ...


After the Dacian Wars, Dacians were recruited into the Roman Army, and were employed in the construction and guarding of Hadrian's Wall in Britannia, or elsewhere in the Roman Empire. Several Cohors Primae Dacorum ("First cohort of Dacians") and Alae Dacorum fighting in the ranks of the Legion were stationed at Deva (Chester), Vindolanda (on the Stanegate) and Camboglanna (Birdoswald Fort or Castlesteads), in Britannia. The Marcus Aurelius's Column and the Arch of Galerius depict Dacian troops with their characteristic phrygian cap and Draco. The English word dagger might come from Vulgar Latin daca, a Dacian knife, and it also may be related with the medieval Romanian word daga, a kind of knife with three blades, used only for assassination. The Roman army is the set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman republic and later Roman empire as part of the Roman military. ... Sections of Hadrians Wall remain near Greenhead and along the route, though other large sections have been dismantled over the years to use the stones for various nearby construction projects. ... Britannia on a 2005 £2 coin. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... A cohort (from the Latin cohors, plural cohortes) is a fairly large military unit, generally consisting of one type of soldier. ... Ala, Alares, Alarii. ... A modern reconstruction of a Roman centurion around 70 A modern reconstruction of a Roman miles, (10-240) The Roman legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) was the basic military unit of the ancient Roman army. ... Chester (Welsh: Caer meaning fort) is the county town of Cheshire in North West England. ... Vindolanda was a Roman auxiliary fort located at Chesterholm, just south of Hadrians Wall in northern England, near the border with Scotland, guarding the Roman road from the River Tyne, to the Solway Firth, now known as the Stanegate. ... The Stanegate, or stone road, was an important Roman road in ancient Britain. ... Birdoswald Fort is the site of an ancient Roman fort along Hadrians Wall, overlooking the River Irthing. ... The Arch of Galerius (Greek: τόξο του Γαλερίου or Aψίδα του Γαλερίου) and the Tomb of Galerius (Τάφος το&#965... The Phrygian cap or Liberty cap is a soft conical cap with the top pulled forward, worn by the inhabitants of Phrygia, a region of central Anatolia in antiquity. ... The Dacian Draco was the standard of the ancient Dacian military. ... A dagger (from Vulgar Latin: daca - a Dacian knife) is a blade weapon (essentially a double-edged knife) used for stabbing, thrusting or as a secondary defense weapon in close combat. ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political engraving at Pompeii, was the language of the ordinary people of the Roman Empire, distinct from the Classical Latin of literature. ...


Roman withdrawal

Sestertius minted to celebrate Dacia province and its legions, V Macedonica and XIII Gemina.
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Sestertius minted to celebrate Dacia province and its legions, V Macedonica and XIII Gemina.

The Roman hold on the country was still precarious. Indeed it is said that Hadrian, conscious of the difficulty of retaining it, had contemplated its abandonment and was only deterred by consideration for the safety of the numerous Roman settlers. Image File history File links Dacia. ... Image File history File links Dacia. ... The sestertius was an ancient Roman coin. ... This coin was issued by Roman emperor Gallienus to celebrate the V Macedonica, whose symbol, the eagle, is crowned of wrath by Victoria. ... Sestertius minted in 248 by Philip the Arab to celebrate Dacia province and its legions, V Macedonica and XIII Gemina. ...


In 256, during the reign of Emperor Gallienus, Dacian tribes such as the Carpians allied with the Goths crossed the Carpathians and drove the Romans from Dacia, with the exception of a few fortified places between the Timiş and the Danube. No details of the event are recorded, and the chief argument in support of the statement, found in Avienus' works, that "under the Emperor Gallienus Dacia was lost" is the sudden cessation of Roman inscriptions and coins in the country after that period. Events Births Arius, founder of Arianism Deaths Invasions Goths invade Asia Minor. ... Emperor Gallienus Gallienus depicted on a lead seal Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (218-268) ruled the Roman Empire as co-emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260, and then as the sole Roman Emperor from 260 to 268. ... The Carpi or Carpians were a Dacian tribe that were originally located on the Eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, in what is now Bacău county, Romania. ... The Danube bend at Visegrád is a popular destination of tourists The Danube (ancient Danuvius) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... Avienus was a Latin writer of the 4th century. ... The main Roman currency during most of the Roman Republic and the western half of the Roman Empire consisted of coins including: the aureus (gold), the denarius (silver), the sestertius (bronze), the dupondius (bronze), and the as (copper). ...


Emperor Aurelian (270-275), confronted with the secession of Gallia and Hispania from the empire since 260, with the advance of the Sassanids in Asia, and the devastations that the Carpians and the Goths had done into Moesia and Illyria, abandoned the province of Dacia created by Trajan and withdrew the troops altogether, fixing the Roman frontier at the Danube. A new Dacia Aureliana was reorganised south of the Danube, with its capital at Serdica (today's Sofia). Later on, Diocletian and Constantine I would reorganise the provinces Dacia Mediteranea, Moesia Inferior, Dardania, Prevalitania and Dacia Ripensis into a Diocese of Dacia, which along with the Diocese of Macedonia formed the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum. Lucius Domitius Aurelianus (September 9, 214–275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... Events Quintillus briefly holds power over the Roman Empire, and is succeeded by Aurelian Vandals and Sarmatians driven out of Roman territory Romans leave Utrecht after regular invasions of Germanic people. ... Events Eutychian elected pope (probable date) September 25 - Marcus Claudius Tacitus appointed emperor by the senate Births Eusebius of Caesarea (approximate date) Saint George, soldier of the Roman Empire and later Christian martyr (or 280, approximate date). ... Gallia may mean several things: Gallia was the Latin name for Gaul. ... Roman theater at Mérida; the statues are replicas Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra and Gibraltar) and to two provinces created there in the period of the Roman Republic: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Illyria Illyria (disambiguation) Illyria (Anc. ... Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: Country Bulgaria Province Sofia-City Mayor Boyko Borisov Area    - City 1,310 km²  - Land (?) km²  - Water (?) km² Elevation 550 m Population    - City (12 June 2006) 1,203,680  - Density 907/km²  - Metro 1,326,377 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Website... Emperor Diocletian. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... The Diocese of Macedonia included the provinces of Macedonia Prima, Macedonia Salutaris, Thessalia, Epirus Vetus, Epirus Nova, Achaea, and Creta. ... map of the praetorian prefecture of Illyricum, 318-379 AD The Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum (also termed simply the Prefecture of Illyricum) was one of four large prefectures (see Praetorian prefecture) into which the Late Roman Empire was divided. ...


The abandonment of Dacia Trajana by the Romans is mentioned by Eutropius in his Breviarium historiae Romanae, book IX : Eutropius was a pagan Roman historian of the later 4th century, writing in Latin, whose brief remarks about himself let us know that he had served under Emperor Julian the Apostate (ruled 361 - 363) and his history covers the reigns of Valentinian and Valens (died 378). ...

Provinciam Daciam, quam Traianus ultra Danubium fecerat, intermisit, vastato omni Illyrico et Moesia, desperans eam posse retinere, abductosque Romanos ex urbibus et agris Daciae in media Moesia collocavit appellavitque eam Daciam, quae nunc duas Moesias dividit et est in dextra Danubio in mare fluenti, cum antea fuerit in laeva.[1]
The province of Dacia, which Trajan had formed beyond the Danube, he gave up, despairing, after all Illyricum and Moesia had been depopulated, of being able to retain it. The Roman citizens, removed from the town and lands of Dacia, he settled in the interior of Moesia, calling that Dacia which now divides the two Moesiae, and which is on the right hand of the Danube as it runs to the sea, whereas Dacia was previously on the left.[2]

Post Roman history

From the military point of view, after the Roman withdrawal, the former Roman province Dacia Traiana became the possession of the Goths, Carpians and other Dacians, and later of the Huns. Incursions of these tribes into Roman territories continue well until the 5th century. Titles such as Dacicus Maximus or Carpicus Maximus were taken by Roman Emperors such as Constantine I or Diocletian. The Huns were a confederation of Eurasian tribes who appeared in Europe in the 4th century, the most famous being Attila. ... This document is a list of victory titles assumed by Roman Emperors, not including assumption of the title Imperator (is itself a victory title); note that the Roman Emperors were not the only persons to assume victory titles (Maximinus Thrax acquired his victory title during the reign of a previous... This document is a list of victory titles assumed by Roman Emperors, not including assumption of the title Imperator (is itself a victory title); note that the Roman Emperors were not the only persons to assume victory titles (Maximinus Thrax acquired his victory title during the reign of a previous...


To the south, the native population was involved into the political life of the Empire. The tradition of Roman Emperors of Thracian origin dates back as early as the 3rd century. Emperors like Regalianus, Maximinus Thrax, Galerius, Licinius and Constantine I were born in Roman families of Dacian origin. Dacians still remained an important part of the East Roman army, and dacians north of the Danube were used as mercenaries, as done by the Dacian born Vitalian (470-520, born in Balchik). In 513, he conducts a rebellion against Emperor Anastasius I occupying Thrace, Scythia and Moesia, and proclaiming himself tyrant (Ioannes Malalas). In 517, facing a byzantine army, Vitalian sends for help to the barbarians north of the Danube: the two Macedonias and Thessaly were devastated by the Getic cavalry that robbed all the way through Thermopylae and Ancient Epirus (Evagrius Scholasticus). Regalianus (died 260) had been made general by emperor Valerian and like many others of his rank he was proclaimed Roman emperor in 260 after the capture and execution of Valerian by the Sasanid Persians. ... Emperor Maximinus Thrax Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus (c. ... Galerius Maximianus ( 250–5 May 311), formally Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311. ... As of Licinius Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse). ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Balchik (Bulgarian Балчик, Romanian Balcic) is a Black Sea coastal town in the Southern Dobruja area of northeastern Bulgaria. ... Flavius Anastasius. ... John Malalas (or Ioannes, or Malelas) (Syriac for orator) (c. ... Evagrius Scholasticus, an ecclesiastical historian, who wrote six books, embracing a period of 163 years, from the second Council of Ephesus AD 431 to the 12th year of the emperor Maurice I, AD 594. ...


Christianity was supported by native clergy, from which evidentiate personalities like Auxentius Durostorensis, the biographer of Ulfilas, Nicetas of Remesiana (335–414), the author of the "Te Deum", Dionysius Exiguus (c. 470 – c. 544), the inventor of the Anno Domini era and the first known medieval European writer to use the number zero, or Saint Sava the Romanian. This Latin speaking population was the nucleous and continuer of Romanisation and Christianisation of the rest of the Dacian tribes, actions which represent the basis for the appearance of the Romanian people. Representation of Ulfilas surrounded by the Gothic alphabet Ulfilas or Wulfila (perhaps meaning little wolf) (c. ... Nicetas of Remesiana (335–414) was the bishop of the Dacians in what is now Serbia. ... Te Deum is an early Christian hymn of praise. ... Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... Sava the Goth, also known as Sava the Romanian, is the earliest known native born martyr on Romanian soil. ... A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... The Romanians (români in present-day Romanian and rumâni in historical contexts) are an ethnic group; they are the majority inhabitants of Romania and of Moldova (where they are also called Moldovans, as some have argued that the Moldovans are a distinct ethnic group[12]); each of these...


See also


Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ...

Roman Imperial Provinces (120)
Achaea | Aegyptus | Africa | Alpes Cottiae | Alpes Maritimae | Alpes Poenninae | Arabia Petraea | Armenia Inferior | Asia | Assyria | Bithynia | Britannia | Cappadocia | Cilicia | Commagene | Corduene | Corsica et Sardinia | Creta et Cyrenaica | Cyprus | Dacia | Dalmatia | Epirus | Galatia | Gallia Aquitania | Gallia Belgica | Gallia Lugdunensis | Gallia Narbonensis | Germania Inferior | Germania Superior | Hispania Baetica | Hispania Lusitania | Hispania Tarraconensis | Italia | Iudaea | Lycaonia | Lycia | Macedonia | Mauretania Caesariensis | Mauretania Tingitana | Moesia | Noricum | Numidia | Osroene | Pannonia | Pamphylia | Pisidia | Pontus | Raetia | Sicilia | Sophene | Syria | Thracia
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