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Encyclopedia > Dacha

Dacha listen (Russian: да́ча) is a Russian word for a house in the countryside. It is usually occupied part of the year by its owner or rented out to urban residents as a summer retreat. Image File history File linksMetadata Dommuzejpasternak. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Dommuzejpasternak. ... Boris Pasternak (1890-1960). ... House-museum of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino. ... Image File history File links Ru-dacha. ... Houses in Fishpool Street, St Albans, England Houses in the most general sense consist of human-built dwellings, each with enclosing walls, a floor, and a roof. ... Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ...


Anyone who occupies dacha for the time being is called dachnik (Russian: дачник).

Contents


History

First dachas in Russia began to appear during the reign of Peter the Great. Initially they were small estates in the country, which were given to loyal vassals by the Tsar. In archaic Russian, the word 'dacha' means 'something given'. A Reign is a period of time a person serves as a monarch or pope. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... An Estate comprises the houses and outbuildings and supporting farmland and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. ... Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is the official Slavonic title designating Emperor in the following states: Bulgaria in 913–1422 (for later usage in 1908–1946, see below) Serbia in...


During the Age of Enlightenment, the Russian aristocracy used their dachas for social and cultural gatherings, which were usually accompanied by a masquerade ball and a fireworks display. The Industrial Revolution saw a rapid growth of the urban population and increasing desire of the urban residents to escape, at least temporarily, heavily polluted cities. By the end of the 19th century, dacha became a favorite summer retreat for the upper and middle classes of the Russian society. The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a period which includes the Age of Reason. ... -1... A masquerade ball (or masque) is an event which the participants attend in costume, usually including a mask. ... The Sydney Harbour Bridge and the Sydney Opera House illuminated under New Years Eve Fireworks 2005 A fireworks event (also called a fireworks display or fireworks show) is a spectacular display of the effects produced by firework devices on various occasions. ... A Watt steam engine in Madrid. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Upper class refers to a group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


After the Bolshevik revolution of 1917, most dachas were taken away from their owners without restitution. Some were converted into vacation homes for the working class, while others, usually of better quality, were distributed among the prominent functionaries of the Communist Party and the newly emerged cultural and scientific elite. All but a few dachas remained the property of the state and the right to use them was usually revoked when a dacha occupant was dismissed or fell out of favor with the Soviet regime. The construction of new dachas was restricted until late 1940s and required a special approval of the Communist Party leadership. The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... Restitution is the name given to a form of legal relief in which the plaintiff recovers something from the defendant that belongs, or should belong, to the plaintiff. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... An official is, in the primary sense, someone who holds an office in an organisation, of any kind. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when... Look up elite, élite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when...


The period after World War II saw a moderate growth in dacha development. Since there was no actual law banning the construction of dachas, squatters began occupying unused plots of land near cities and towns, some building sheds, huts and more prominent dwellings that served as dachas. This practice of squatting was spurred by the desire of urban dwellers, all living in multi-story apartment buildings, to spend some time close to nature, and also to grow their own fruits and vegetables. The latter reason was caused by the failure of the centrally planned Soviet agricultural program to supply enough fresh produce. As time passed, the number of sqatters has grown geometrically and the government had no choice but to officially recognize their right to do amateur farming. The 1955 legislation introduced a new type of legal entity into the Soviet juridical system, a so-called gardeners' partnership (Russian: садоводческое товарищество; not to be confused with community garden). The gardeners' partnerships received a right to permanent use of land exclusively for agricultural purposes and a permission to connect to public electrical and water supply networks. In 1958 yet another form of organization was introduced, a cooperative for dacha construction (DSK) (Russian: дачно-строительный кооператив), which recognized the right of an individual to build a small house on the land leased from the government. Combatants Allies: Poland, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, France/Free France, United States, China, Canada, India, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Greece, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Burma, Slovakia Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8... The Chien Rouge in Lausanne, a squat held in the old hospital. ... Night view of Taipei City. ... Main street in Bastrop, Texas, a small town A town is a residential community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... An Australian Hay Shed A shed is generally a modest, single-storey structure, usually constructed of wood in a back garden or on an allotment, used for storage and as a workshop and very often as a retreat in which to relax and pursue hobbies, especially gardening and light engineering. ... A hut A hut is a simple building commonly constructed for a specific use, and designed to be cheaply constructed. ... The Chien Rouge in Lausanne, a squat held in the old hospital. ... An apartment building, block of flats or tenement is a multi-unit dwelling made up of several (generally four or more) apartments (US) or flats (UK). ... A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Supermarket produce section Produce is a general term for a group of farm-produced goods, generally limited to fruits and vegetables. ... The Chien Rouge in Lausanne, a squat held in the old hospital. ... Bold textJAMES CHECKLEY Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... A legal entity is a legal construct through which the law allows a group of natural persons to act as if it were an individual for certain purposes. ... Soviet redirects here. ... See also Portal:Law The stela of King Hammurabi depicts the god Shamash revealing a code of laws to the king. ... Community gardens are small plots of land allocated to groups of people by some organization that holds title or lease to the land, sometimes for rent, sometimes simply as a grant of land. ... A water supply system provides water to the locations that need it. ...


The 1980s saw the peak of the dacha boom with virtually every family in the country having a dacha of their own or spending weekends and holidays at friends' dachas. Oftenly being ill-equipped and having no indoor plumbing, dachas were nevertheless the ultimate solution for the millions of working class families to having an inexpensive summer retreat. Having a piece of land also offered an opportunity for the city dwellers to indulge themselves in growing their own fruits and vegetables. To this day, May Day holidays remain a feature of Russian life allowing urban residents a long weekend to plant seeds and tender fruit trees as the ground defrosts from a long Russian winter. Since there are no other national holidays that are long enough for planting, many employers give their staff an extra day off specifically for that purpose. The plumber wrench for screwing various pipes Plumbing, from the Latin for lead (plumbum), is the skilled trade of working with pipes and tubing for fluids such as water, sewage, steam and natural gas. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... May Day refers to any of several holidays celebrated on May 1 or in the beginning of May. ...


The collapse of communism in the Soviet Union saw the return to private landownership. Most dachas have since been privatized and Russia is now the nation with the largest number of owners of second homes. The growth of living standards in recent years allowed many dacha owners to spend their discretionary income on improvements. Thus, many recently built dachas are fully equipped houses suitable for use as permanent residences. The market-oriented economy transformed dacha into an asset, which generally reflects the prosperity of its owner and can be freely traded in the real estate market. A landlord is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, or land which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called the tenant. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or, especially in India, disinvestment) is the process of transferring property from public ownership to private ownership and/or transferring the management of a service or activity from the government to the private sector. ... 19th century Cottages in the small hamlet of Crafton, Buckinghamshire A cottage is a small house of any period. ... Disposable income is the amount of an individuals total income left after taxes, plus any transfer payments (grants) received from the government or elsewhere. ... Houses in Fishpool Street, St Albans, England For other meanings of the word house, see House (disambiguation). ...

Dacha of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino. ...

Dacha farming

The dacha plots (usually not more than 600 m²) are too small to grow the needed amount of fruits and vegetables, thus sometimes they are also grown on separate dedicated plots of ground. In Soviet times and sometimes now, such dedicated plots of ground often were made of the unused sections of agricultural fields owned by collective farms. However, in rural areas, many dacha owners own a greater land area, and are able to grow the needed amount of fruits and vegetables right on their plot. Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ...


Many small dacha plots, especially the ones that were recently purchased, are not used for large-scale fruit and vegetable farming. Instead, they are frequently used for gardening and planting exotic plants. A gardener Gardening is the art of growing plants with the goal of crafting a purposeful landscape. ...


Due to the high costs of good equipment, even relatively large plots of ground are often cultivated manually using instruments such as a [[spade] or a hayfork. In autumn the grown potatoes and other crops are gathered and transported to the city where they are stored in cellars, dugouts (usually located on unused plots of ground), or in personal automobile garages. Hayfork is a census-designated place located in Trinity County, California. ...


The annual process of potato harvesting (and sometimes planting) is a significant (though rather dislikable) event in life of Russians. It is commonly called "to go for potatoes" (Russian: ездить на картошку). In Soviet times, visiting a private field plot had been called "to go to the fields" (Russian: ездить на поля).


Many Russians prefer to grow vegetables themselves because of the excessive use of agrochemicals in the store-bought vegetables, and the higher costs of the vegetables in the stores and bazaars. Also, growing own food supplies, is a long-lived Russian tradition. Even some opulent Russians practice that tradition. A store is an enclosure for holding articles. ... The Grand Timcheh of Qoms Bazaar. ...


The means of transportation for people to get to their dachas, besides cars, are buses and electric trains, colloquially called "elektrichka" (Russian, sing.: электри́чка). Due to the high number of people traveling to dachas during the weekends (especially during the summer), traffic typically builds up around cities, and elektrichkas and buses become filled up. However, this is only the case near large cities. Around smaller cities, these problems are nearly non-existant. Elektrichka - Russias version of a suburban train. ... Dacha of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino. ... This article is about the form of transport. ...


Gosdacha

Early in the Soviet times the state-owned vacation houses allotted for government members were called "gosdachas" (Russian, sing.: госда́ча, short for "государственная дача" — "state dacha"). In modern Russia, President's Administration continue to own numerous estates throughout the country that are leased, often on non-market terms, to government officials. The President of Russia (ru: Президент России is the highest position within the Government of Russia. ...


Dachas of the elite

In modern times, the rise of a new class in the Russian society, the 'new Russians', has added a new dimension to the concept of dacha. New Russian (новый русский - novyi russkiy in Russian) is a term denoting a stereotypical caricature of the newly rich business class in post-Soviet Russia. ...


With construction costs often reaching into the millions of US dollars, the dachas of the country's elite bear no resemblance to Soviet-era small garden houses. Comparable in size and décor to mansions and palaces, they become an elaborate display of social status, wealth and power. These new symbols of prosperity are designed by professional architects, usually in eclectic style that reflect the nouveau-riche tastes of their owners, and feature numerous luxury items such as marble statues, fountains and exotic plants. Some have state-of-the-art sporting facilities such as an indoor swimming pool, multiple tennis courts and stables for race horses. A few privately owned estates even have small forests and ponds. The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The term garden house can mean: a small building in a garden (eg a folly or a shed) a small house in a large garden a house built under the provision of special legislation (usu. ... Mansion near Almelo, The Netherlands A mansion is a large and stately dwelling house for the wealthy. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... Architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... Eclecticism is a kind of mixed style in the fine arts: the borrowing of a variety of styles from different sources and combining them (Hume 2003, p. ... Nouveau riche ( Fr. ... Sweet clover (), introduced and naturalized to the U.S. from Eurasia as a forage and cover crop, supports insect biodiversity. ... The state of the art is the highest level of development, as of a device, technique, or scientific field, achieved at a particular time. ... 50 meter indoor swimming pool A swimming pool, swimming bath, or wading pool is an artificially enclosed body of water intended for recreational or competitive swimming, diving, or for other bathing activities that do not involve swimming, e. ... Empty tennis courts. ... This article is about the building; for another meaning, see stability. ... An Estate comprises the houses and outbuildings and supporting farmland and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. ... An Estate comprises the houses and outbuildings and supporting farmland and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. ... A forest is an area with a high density of trees (or, historically, a wooded function as carbon dioxide sinks, animal habitats, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the Earths biosphere. ... A pond is a body of water smaller than a lake. ...


Many of Russia's oligarchs and successful entrepreneurs, athletes, pop musicians and mafia bosses now choose dacha as their primary residence. As such, their estates are often surrounded by solid fences equipped with barbed wire, surveillance cameras, and motion detectors and are protected by heavily armed guards. Business oligarch, a synonym of business magnate, describes wealthy people that significantly influence the life of a state. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An athlete is a person who has above average physical skills (strength, agility, and endurance) and is thus suitable for physical activities, in particular, contests. ... For Popular music (music that is popular, rather than of a specific genre or style), see Popular music. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Izmailovskaya (Mafia). ... An Estate comprises the houses and outbuildings and supporting farmland and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. ... A selection of forms of barbed wire. ... Closed-circuit cameras are often used to discourage crime Closed-circuit television (CCTV), as a collection surveillance cameras doing video surveillance, is the use of television cameras for surveillance. ... A Motion Detector is a device connected to a burglar alarm that is used to detect motion. ...


See also

Other types of houses similar to that of dacha:

The term garden house can mean: a small building in a garden (eg a folly or a shed) a small house in a large garden a house built under the provision of special legislation (usu. ... 19th century Cottages in the small hamlet of Crafton, Buckinghamshire In modern usage, a cottage is a dwelling, typically in a non-urban location (although there are cottage-style dwellings in cities). ... A row of bungalows in Virginia A bungalow is any single story house. ... FarmHouse Fraternity is an all-male international social fraternity founded at the University of Missouri in 1905. ... A Holiday Cottage is a type of vacation accommodation which has become common in the United Kingdom and Canada. ... For the Blur single, see Country House (song). ...

External links

  • Summerfolk: A History of the Dacha (Amazon.com link)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Russian dacha (0 words)
Dacha house is one of 60 that form the small dacha village with three streets located between the small forest and a large field 10 miles from Moscow city limit...
Dachas were formed as cooperatives supervised by trade unions and the by-laws of these cooperatives were strict enough.
Dacha is the way to live closer to all these natural things for those who cannot afford or do not want the travels.
"The Traveller's Yellow Pages On-Line: DACHA RENTALS" (0 words)
Dachas are privately owned country houses or cottages located anywhere from the near suburbs to over 200 kilometers away.
Running water in a dacha is a luxury, the toilet is often in a separate building in the yard, showers are a rarity, separate Russian-style bath houses, located near a lake or river, are more frequent.
It is possible to rent a dacha (or a room in a dacha) for a whole season or for a shorter time.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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