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DVD
DVD-R read/write side
Media type Optical disc
Capacity ~4.7 GB (single-sided single-layer), ~8.54 GB (single-sided double-layer)
Read mechanism 650 nm laser, 1350 kB/s (1×)
Write mechanism 1350 kB/s (1×)
Usage Data storage, video, audio, games

DVD (also known as "Digital Versatile Disc" or "Digital Video Disc" - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. Its main uses are video and data storage. Most DVDs are of the same dimensions as compact discs (CDs) but store more than six times as much data. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 621 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (959 × 926 pixel, file size: 620 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): DVD ... “Optical media” redirects here. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... “Optical media” redirects here. ... Many different consumer electronic devices can store data. ... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s...


Variations of the term DVD often describe the way data is stored on the discs: DVD-ROM has data which can only be read and not written, DVD-R and DVD+R can be written once and then function as a DVD-ROM, and DVD-RAM, DVD-RW, or DVD+RW hold data that can be erased and thus re-written multiple times. The wavelength used by standard DVD lasers is 650 nm[1], and thus has a red color. A DVD+R disc The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... You can recognize a DVD-RAM immediately because visually there are lots of little rectangles distributed on the surface of the data carrier. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ...


DVD-Video and DVD-Audio discs respectively refer to properly formatted and structured video and audio content. Other types of DVDs, including those with video content, may be referred to as DVD-Data discs. As next generation High definition optical formats also use a disc identical in some aspects yet more advanced than a DVD, such as Blu-ray Disc, the original DVD is often given the retronym SD DVD (for standard definition).[2][3] DVD-Video format logo DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD (DVD-ROM) discs, and is currently the dominant form of consumer video formats in the United States, Canada, Europe and Australia. ... DVD-Audio is a digital format for delivering very high-fidelity audio content on a DVD. DVD-Audio includes no video and should not be confused with video DVDs containing concerts and music videos. ... Generally, high-definition refers to an increase in resolution or clarity such as in: High-definition television (HDTV), television formats that have a higher resolution than their contemporary counterparts High-definition video, which is used in HDTV broadcasting, as well as digital film and computer HD video file formats HDV... Blu-ray Disc (also known as Blu-ray or BD) is an optical disc storage media format. ... A retronym is a type of neologism coined for an old object or concept whose original name has come to be used for something else, is no longer unique, or is otherwise inappropriate or misleading. ...

Contents

History

Optical disc authoring
This box: view  talk  edit
Optical media types
Standards
Further reading

In 1993, two high-density optical storage formats were being developed; one was the MultiMedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, and the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Hitachi, Mitsubishi Electric, Pioneer, Thomson, and JVC. IBM's president, Lou Gerstner, acting as a matchmaker, led an effort to unite the two camps behind a single standard, anticipating a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s. In computing, optical disc authoring, including CD authoring and DVD authoring, known often as burning, is the process of recording source material—video, audio or other data—onto an optical disc (compact disc or DVD). ... “Optical media” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that ISO image be merged into this article or section. ... In computing, sound reproduction, and video, an optical disc is flat, circular, usually polycarbonate disc whereon data is stored. ... In computing, optical disc authoring, including CD authoring and DVD authoring, known often as burning, is the process of recording source material—video, audio or other data—onto an optical disc (compact disc or DVD). ... Optical disc authoring software is computer software for authoring optical discs including CD-ROMs and DVDs. ... Optical disc authoring requires a number of different technologies working in tandem, from the media to the firmware to the control electronics of the drive. ... In optical disc authoring, there are multiple modes for recording, including Disc-At-Once, Track-At-Once, and Session-At-Once. ... Packet writing is an optical disc recording technology used to allow writeable CD and DVD media to be used in a similar manner to a floppy disk. ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... CD redirects here. ... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... The DTS-CD, DTS Audio CD or 5. ... Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format aimed at providing much higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the Red Book audio CD. Introduced in 2000, it was developed by Sony and Philips Electronics, the same companies that created the Compact Disc. ... Photo Compact Disc (PCD) logo/trademark This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... Compact Disc ReWritable (CD-RW) is a rewritable optical disc format. ... VCD redirects here. ... Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD) is a format used for storing video on standard compact discs or CD-Rs. ... A CD+G (also known as CD+Graphics) is a special audio compact disc that contains graphics data in addition to the audio data on the disc. ... CD-Text is an extension of the Red Book standard for audio CDs. ... CD-i or Compact Disc Interactive is the name of an interactive multimedia CD player developed and marketed by Royal Philips Electronics N.V. CD-i also refers to the multimedia Compact Disc standard utilized by the CD-i console, also known as Green Book, which was co-developed by... See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ... The Sony MZ1 MiniDisc player, the first to hit the market in 1992. ... A DVD+R disc The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... DVD-R DL (Dual Layer) (Also Known as DVD-R9) is a derivative of the DVD-R format standard. ... DVD+R DL (Double Layer), also known as DVD+R9, is a derivative of the DVD+R format created by the DVD+RW Alliance. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... JVC has announced they have gotten around to developing dual layered DVD-RW discs (DVD-RW DL). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... You can recognize a DVD-RAM immediately because visually there are lots of little rectangles distributed on the surface of the data carrier. ... DVD-D is a self-destructing disposable DVD format. ... Ultra Density Optical (UDO) is a next-generation optical disc format designed for high-density storage of high-definition video and data. ... A UMD The Universal Media Disc (UMD) is an optical disc medium developed by Sony for use on the PlayStation Portable. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... HD DVD-R is the writable disc variant of HD DVD, and is now currently available with a single-layer capacity of 15GB. Currently, HD DVD-R has slower write speeds than the competing BD-R format (1–2x vs 1–4x) and lower storage capacity. ... HD DVD, or High-Definition DVD is a high-density optical disc format designed for the storage of data and high-definition video. ... An example of proposed HD DVD-RAM media. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Blu-ray Disc (also known as Blu-ray or BD) is an optical disc storage media format. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Rainbow Books are a collection of standards defining the allowed formats of Compact Discs. ... ISO 9660, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines a file system for CD-ROM media. ... Joliet is the name of an extension to the ISO 9660 file system. ... The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP, IEEE P1282) is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX file system semantics. ... The Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP, IEEE P1282) is an extension to the ISO 9660 volume format which adds POSIX file system semantics. ... The El Torito Bootable CD Specification is an extension to the ISO 9660 CD-ROM specification. ... Overview Apple Macintosh computers use the HFS (or HFS+) file system on hard disks, mainly. ... The Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a format specification of a file system for storing files on optical media. ... The Mount Rainier logo Mount Rainier is a format for re-writable optical discs which provides for packet writing and defect management. ... Although research into optical data storage has been ongoing for many decades, the first popular system was CD-ROM, introduced in 1982, adapted to data storage (the CD-ROM format) with the 1985 Yellow Book, and re-adapted as the first mass market optical storage medium with CD-R and... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... Time Warner Inc. ... Logo for the Panasonic brand Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... It has been suggested that Hitachi Works be merged into this article or section. ... Mitsubishi Electric Corporation ) (TYO: 6503 ) is a Japanese company based in the Tokyo Building in Tokyo, manufactures electric and architectural equipment, as well as a major worldwide producer of photovoltaic panels. ... Old Pioneer Logo (Until 1998) Pioneer Corporation ) (TYO: 6773 ) is a Japanese multinational corporation that specializes in digital entertainment products, based in Tokyo, Japan. ... This article is about the media and entertainment company. ... Victor Company of Japan, Limited ) (TYO: 6792 ), usually referred to as JVC, is an international consumer and professional electronics corporation based in Yokohama, Japan which was founded in 1927. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ... Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. ... The videotape format war was a period of an intense format war of rival incompatible models of video cassette recorders in the 1970s and early 1980s. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ... Sonys Betamax is the 12. ...


Philips and Sony abandoned their MultiMedia Compact Disc and fully agreed upon Toshiba's SuperDensity Disc with only one modification, namely changing to EFMPlus modulation. EFMPlus was chosen as it has a great resilience against disc damage such as scratches and fingerprints. EFMPlus, created by Kees Immink, who also designed EFM, is 6% less efficient than the modulation technique originally used by Toshiba, which resulted in a capacity of 4.7 GB as opposed to the original 5 GB. The result was the DVD specification, finalized for the DVD movie player and DVD-ROM computer applications in December 1995.[4] In May 1997, the DVD Consortium was replaced by the DVD Forum, which is open to all other companies. Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation (EFM) is an encoding technique used by CDs and MiniDiscs. ... Kees A. Schouhamer Immink Kees (Kornelis) Antonie Schouhamer Immink was born in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, on December 18, 1946. ... Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation (EFM) is an encoding technique used by CDs and MiniDiscs. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... The DVD Forum is an international organization composed primarily of hardware and software companies that use and develop the DVD format. ... The DVD Forum is an international organization composed primarily of hardware and software companies that use and develop the DVD format. ...


Etymology

"DVD" was originally used as an initialism for the unofficial term "digital videodisk".[5] It was reported in 1995, at the time of the specification finalization, that the letters officially stood for "digital versatile disc" (due to non-video applications),[6] however, the text of the press release announcing the specification finalization only refers to the technology as "DVD", making no mention of what (if anything) the letters stood for.[4] A newsgroup FAQ written by Jim Taylor (a prominent figure in the industry) claims that four years later, in 1999, the DVD Forum stated that the format name was simply the three letters "DVD" and did not stand for anything.[7] Look up acronym, initialism, alphabetism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For frequently asked questions about Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:FAQ FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) are a series of questions and answers all pertaining to a certain topic. ...


The official DVD specification documents have never defined DVD. Usage in the present day varies, with "DVD", "Digital Video Disc", and "Digital Versatile Disc" being the most common.


The DVD Forum website has a section called "DVD Primer" in which the answer to the question, "What does DVD mean?" reads, "The keyword is 'versatile.' Digital Versatile discs provide superb video, audio and data storage and access -- all on one disc."[8] The DVD Forum is an international organization composed primarily of hardware and software companies that use and develop the DVD format. ...


DVD capacity

Capacity and nomenclature[9][10]
Designation Sides Layers Diameter Capacity
(cm) (GB) (GiB)
DVD-1 [11] SS SL 1 1 8 1.46 1.36
DVD-2 SS DL 1 2 8 2.66 2.47
DVD-3 DS SL 2 2 8 2.92 2.72
DVD-4 DS DL 2 4 8 5.32 4.95
DVD-5 SS SL 1 1 12 4.7 4.37
DVD-9 SS DL 1 2 12 8.54 7.95
DVD-10 DS SL 2 2 12 9.4 8.74
DVD-14[12] DS DL/SL 2 3 12 13.24 12.32
DVD-18 DS DL 2 4 12 17.08 15.90

The basic types of DVD are referred to by a rough approximation of their capacity in gigabytes.


The 12 cm type is a standard DVD, and the 8 cm variety is known as a mini-DVD. These are the same sizes as a standard CD and a mini-CD, respectively. There are two types of MiniDVD cDVD, which are 80-mm versions of the 120-mm DVD mini-DVD, which are standard CDs filled with the DVD-video format // cDVD A Mini-DVD-RAM with DVD Round Holder. ... MiniCDs are smaller form-factor CDs Amongst the various formats are the CD single, an 80-mm disc. ...


Note: Like with hard disk drives in the DVD realm gigabyte and the symbol GB are usually used in the SI sense, i.e. 109 (or 1,000,000,000) bytes. For distinction, gibibyte with symbol GiB is used, i.e. 230 (or 1,073,741,824) bytes. Most computer operating systems display file sizes in gibibytes, mebibytes and kibibytes labeled as gigabyte, megabyte and kilobyte respectively. This article is about the unit of measurement. ... Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A gibibyte is a unit of information or computer storage. ... MiB redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...


Each DVD sector contains 2418 bytes of data, 2048 bytes of which are user data.

Size comparison: A 12 cm DVD+RW and a 19 cm pencil.
Size comparison: A 12 cm DVD+RW and a 19 cm pencil.

There is a small difference in storage space between ‘+’ and ‘-’ formats: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (848x691, 682 KB)[edit] License I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (848x691, 682 KB)[edit] License I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the handwriting instrument. ...

Capacity differences of writable DVD formats
Type Sectors Bytes GB GiB
DVD-R SL 2,298,496 4,707,319,808 4.71 4.384
DVD+R SL 2,295,104 4,700,372,992 4.70 4.378
DVD-R DL 4,171,712 8,543,666,176 8.54 7.957
DVD+R DL 4,173,824 8,547,991,552 8.55 7.961

Technology

Internal mechanism of a DVD-ROM Drive
Internal mechanism of a DVD-ROM Drive

DVD uses 650 nm wavelength laser diode light as opposed to 780 nm for CD or 405 nm for HD-DVD or Blu-ray Disc. This permits a smaller spot on the media surface (1.32 µm for DVD versus 2.11 µm for CD) compared to CDs. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A packaged laser diode with penny for scale. ...


Writing speeds for DVD were 1×, that is 1350 kB/s (1318 KiB/s), in the first drives and media models. More recent models at 18× or 20× have 18 or 20 times that speed. Note that for CD drives, 1× means 153.6 kB/s (150 KiB/s), 9 times slower. DVD FAQ A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ... // In computing, binary prefixes can be used to quantify large numbers where powers of two are more useful than powers of ten (such as computer memory sizes). ...

DVD drive speeds
Drive speed Data rate Write time (min)
(Mibit/s) (MB/s) SL DL
10.55 1.35 61 107
21.09 2.70 30 54
2.6× 27.43 3.51 24 42
42.19 5.40 15 27
63.30 8.10 11 18
84.38 10.80 8 14
16× 168.75 21.60 4 7

DVD recordable and rewritable

Main article: DVD recordable

HP initially developed recordable DVD media from the need to store data for back-up and transport. DVD recordable and DVD rewritable refer to DVD optical disc formats that can be recorded (written, burned), either write once or rewritable (write multiple times) format written by laser, as compared to DVD-ROM, which is mass-produced by pressing. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ...


DVD recordables are now also used for consumer audio and video recording. Three formats were developed: DVD-R/RW (minus/dash), DVD+R/RW (plus), DVD-RAM. A DVD+R disc The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... You can recognize a DVD-RAM immediately because visually there are lots of little rectangles distributed on the surface of the data carrier. ...


Dual layer recording

Dual Layer recording allows DVD-R and DVD+R discs to store significantly more data, up to 8.5 gigabytes per side, per disc, compared with 4.7 gigabytes for single-layer discs. DVD-R DL was developed for the DVD Forum by Pioneer Corporation, DVD+R DL was developed for the DVD+RW Alliance by Philips and Mitsubishi Kagaku Media (MKM).[13] A DVD+R disc The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... DVD-R DL (Dual Layer) (Also Known as DVD-R9) is a derivative of the DVD-R format standard. ... Old Pioneer Logo (Until 1998) Pioneer Corporation ) (TYO: 6773 ) is a Japanese multinational corporation that specializes in digital entertainment products, based in Tokyo, Japan. ... DVD+R DL (Double Layer), also known as DVD+R9, is a derivative of the DVD+R format created by the DVD+RW Alliance. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ...


A Dual Layer disc differs from its usual DVD counterpart by employing a second physical layer within the disc itself. The drive with Dual Layer capability accesses the second layer by shining the laser through the first semi-transparent layer. The layer change can exhibit a noticeable pause in some DVD players, up to several seconds.[14] This caused more than a few viewers to worry that their dual layer discs were damaged or defective, with the end result that studios began listing a standard message explaining the dual layer pausing effect on all dual layer disc packaging.


DVD recordable discs supporting this technology are backward compatible with some existing DVD players and DVD-ROM drives.[13] Many current DVD recorders support dual-layer technology, and the price is now comparable to that of single-layer drives, though the blank media remains more expensive. The recording speeds reached by dual-layer media are still well below those of single-layer media.


There are two modes for dual layer orientation. With parallel track path (PTP), used on DVD-ROM, both layers start at the inside diameter (ID) and end at the outside diameter (OD) with the lead-out. With opposite track path (OTP), used on DVD-Video, the lower layer starts at the ID and the upper layer starts at the OD, where the other layer ends, they share one lead-in and one lead-out.[15]


DVD-Video

Main article: DVD-Video

DVD-Video is a standard for storing video content on DVD media. In the U.S., mass retailer sales of DVD-Video titles and players began in late 1997.[16] By June 2003, weekly DVD-Video rentals began out-numbering weekly VHS cassette rentals, reflecting the rapid adoption rate of the technology in the U.S. marketplace.[17] DVD-Video format logo DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD (DVD-ROM) discs, and is currently the dominant form of consumer video formats in the United States, Canada, Europe and Australia. ...


Though many resolutions and formats are supported, most consumer DVD-Video discs use either 4:3 or anamorphic 16:9 aspect ratio MPEG-2 video, stored at a resolution of 720×480 (NTSC) or 720×576 (PAL) at 29.97 or 25 FPS. Audio is commonly stored using the Dolby Digital (AC-3) or Digital Theater System (DTS) formats, ranging from 16-bits/48 kHz to 24-bits/96 kHz format with monaural to 7.1 channel "Surround Sound" presentation, and/or MPEG-1 Layer 2. Although the specifications for video and audio requirements vary by global region and television system, many DVD players support all possible formats. DVD-Video also supports features like menus, selectable subtitles, multiple camera angles, and multiple audio tracks. For the film format, see anamorphic format. ... The aspect ratio of a two-dimensional shape is the ratio of its longer dimension to its shorter dimension. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States, Canada, Japan, Mexico, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, and some other countries (see map). ... For other uses, see PAL (disambiguation). ... Frame rate, or frame frequency, is the measurement of how quickly an imaging device can produce several consecutive images, called frames. ... Dolby Digital is the marketing name for a series of lossy audio compression technologies by Dolby Laboratories. ... DTS (also known as Digital Theater Systems), owned by DTS, Inc. ... Label for 1. ... Multichannel audio is the name for a variety of techniques for expanding and enriching the sound of audio playback by recording additional sound channels that can be reproduced on additional speakers. ... MPEG-1 defines a group of Audio and Video (AV) coding and compression standards agreed upon by MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group). ...


DVD-Audio

Main article: DVD-Audio

DVD-Audio is a format for delivering high-fidelity audio content on a DVD. It offers many channel configuration options (from mono to 5.1 surround sound) at various sampling frequencies (up to 24-bits/192 kHz versus CDDAs 16-bits/44.1 kHz). Compared with the CD format, the much higher capacity DVD format enables the inclusion of considerably more music (with respect to total running time and quantity of songs) and/or far higher audio quality (reflected by higher sampling rates and greater bit-depth, and/or additional channels for spatial sound reproduction). DVD-Audio is a digital format for delivering very high-fidelity audio content on a DVD. DVD-Audio includes no video and should not be confused with video DVDs containing concerts and music videos. ... Label for 1. ... Multichannel audio is the name for a variety of techniques for expanding and enriching the sound of audio playback by recording additional sound channels that can be reproduced on additional speakers. ... Rainbow Books: Red Book (CD Digital Audio), Yellow Book (CD-ROM and CD-ROM XA), Orange Book (CD_R and CD-RW), White Book (Video CD), Blue Book (Enhanced Music CD, CD+G and CD-Plus), Beige Book (Photo CD), Green Book (CD-i). ... The sampling frequency or sampling rate defines the number of samples per second taken from a continuous signal to make a discrete signal. ... Color depth is a computer graphics term describing the number of bits used to represent the color of a single pixel in a bitmapped image or video frame buffer. ... 3D audio effects are a group of sound effects that attempt to widen the stereo image produced by two loudspeakers or stereo headphones, or to create the illusion of sound sources placed anywhere in 3 dimensional space, including behind, above or below the listener. ...


Despite DVD-Audio's superior technical specifications, there is debate as to whether the resulting audio enhancements are distinguishable in typical listening environments. DVD-Audio currently forms a niche market, probably due to the very sort of format war with rival standard SACD that DVD-Video avoided. Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format aimed at providing much higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the Red Book audio CD. Introduced in 2000, it was developed by Sony and Philips Electronics, the same companies that created the Compact Disc. ...


Security

DVD-Audio discs employ a robust copy prevention mechanism, called Content Protection for Prerecorded Media (CPPM) developed by the 4C group (IBM, Intel, Matsushita, and Toshiba). CPRM or Content Protection for Recordable Media is a mechanism for controlling the copying, moving and deletion of digital media on a host device, such as a personal computer, or other digital player. ... Copy prevention, also known as copy protection, is any technical measure designed to prevent duplication of information. ... The Flaming Lips CD and DVD release of Yoshimi Battles the Pink Robots, one of the first major albums to employ the DVD-Audio format DVD-Audio is a format for delivering high-fidelity audio content on a DVD. It offers many channels (from mono to 5. ...


To date, CPPM has not been "broken" in the sense that DVD-Video's CSS has been broken, but ways to circumvent it have been developed.[18] By modifying commercial DVD(-Audio) playback software to write the decrypted and decoded audio streams to the hard disk, users can, essentially, extract content from DVD-Audio discs much in the same way they can from DVD-Video discs. Content Scramble System (CSS) is a Digital Rights Management (DRM) scheme used on almost all commercially produced DVD-Video discs. ...


Successor

There were two potential successors to DVD being developed by different consortia. One was the DVD Forum's HD DVD, designed by Toshiba, and the other was the Blu-ray Disc (BD), designed by Sony and Panasonic. The two formats were engaged in a format war from 2006 to 2007. In January 2008, Warner Bros. dropped support for HD DVD, while the next month, Wal-Mart announced that it would follow suit.[19] On February 19, 2008, Toshiba announced that they would discontinue the development of HD DVD. In 2006, the release of two next-generation optical disc formats attempted to improve upon and eventually replace the DVD standard. ... The DVD Forum is an international organization composed primarily of hardware and software companies that use and develop the DVD format. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... Blu-ray Disc (also known as Blu-ray or BD) is an optical disc storage media format. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Panasonic is an international brand name for Japanese electric products manufacturer Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... A format war describes competition between mutually incompatible proprietary formats, usually for data storage devices and recording formats for electronic media, often forcing content publishers to take sides by supporting one format or the other. ... “WB” redirects here. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


However, unlike previous format changes (i.e. vinyl records to compact disc, VHS videotape to DVD), there is no immediate indication that production of the standard DVD will gradually wind down, as they still dominate with around 97% of video sales.[2] Consumers have been slow to adopt either Blu-ray or HD DVD, partially due to the consumer confusion and indifference from the format war. The initial cost has also been a major deterrent, with high definition players selling for $500 USD or more, while titles retail for $30 USD or higher, plus one requires a high-definition TV to take advantage of it. Some analysts suggest that the biggest obstacle to replacing DVD is due to its installed base; a large majority of consumers are satisfied with DVDs.[3] The DVD had succeeded because it offered a compelling alternative to VHS.


See also

DVD authoring describes the process of creating a DVD video that can be played on a DVD player. ... There are several competing DVD Formats: DVD-ROM: These are pressed similarly to CDs. ... Region 1–8 redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... DVD-Video format logo DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD (DVD-ROM) discs, and is currently the dominant form of consumer video formats in the United States, Canada, Europe and Australia. ... There are two types of MiniDVD cDVD, which are 80-mm versions of the 120-mm DVD mini-DVD, which are standard CDs filled with the DVD-video format // cDVD A Mini-DVD-RAM with DVD Round Holder. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Build Your Skills: A comparison between DVD and CD-ROM.
  2. ^ DVD-Workshop: University of Utah and elsewhere, e.g. as the SD export preset for standard definition DVDs in Final Cut Pro.
  3. ^ [1].
  4. ^ a b Toshiba (December 8, 1995). "DVD Format Unification". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-07-12.
  5. ^ A Battle for Influence Over Insatiable Disks. New York Times (1995-01-11). Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  6. ^ DVD designers go with AC-3 Final specs for 'digital versatile disc'.... The Hollywood Reporter (1995-12-11). Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
  7. ^ DVD FAQ. DVD Demystified (2006-09-12).
  8. ^ DVD Primer. DVD Forum (November 14, 2004). Retrieved on 2008-01-23.
  9. ^ Physical parameters
  10. ^ DVD in Detail
  11. ^ Dvd Faq
  12. ^ DVD-14. AfterDawn Ltd.. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  13. ^ a b Robert DeMoulin. Understanding Dual Layer DVD Recording. BurnWorld.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-06.
  14. ^ DVD players benchmark. hometheaterhifi.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-01.
  15. ^ Disc USA
  16. ^ Discount stores are a video lover's channel of choice. Discount Store News (via findarticles.com) (1998-08-10). Retrieved on 2008-03-06.
  17. ^ Bakalis, Anna (2003-06-20). It's unreel: DVD rentals overtake videocassettes. Washington Times.
  18. ^ DVD-Audio's CPPM can be got around with a WinDVD patch. Retrieved on 2007-07-06.
  19. ^ Wal-Mart picks Blu-Ray over HD DVD, Charlottetown Guardian, Feb. 15, 2008, accessed Feb. 19, 2008

Final Cut Pro is a professional non-linear editing system developed by Apple Inc. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 14, 2004 Iran has agreed to curb most of its uranium enrichment with three EU countries, France, Germany and the UK. (BBC) (EUObserver. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Times is a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C.. It was founded in 1982 as a conservative alternative to the Washington Post by members of the controversial Unification Church. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Bennett, Hugh (April 2004). Understanding Recordable & Rewritable DVD. Optical Storage Technology Association. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
  • Labarge, Ralph. DVD Authoring and Production. Gilroy, Calif.: CMP Books, 2001. ISBN 1-57820-082-2.
  • Taylor, Jim. DVD Demystified, 2nd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2000. ISBN 0-07-135026-8.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


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