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Encyclopedia > DVCPRO HD
A MiniDV tape
For other uses, see DV (disambiguation).

Digital Video (DV) is a video format launched in 1996, and, in its smaller tape form factor MiniDV, has since become one of the standards for consumer and semiprofessional video production. The DV specification (originally known as the Blue Book, current official name IEC 61834) defines both the codec and the tape format. Features include intraframe compression for uncomplicated editing, a standard interface for transfer to non-linear editing systems (IEEE 1394/FireWire), and good video quality, especially compared to earlier consumer analog formats such as 8 mm, Hi-8 and VHS-C. DV now enables filmmakers to produce cheap movies, associated with no-budget cinema. Download high resolution version (954x1230, 165 KB)Photo taken my me Jan. ... Download high resolution version (954x1230, 165 KB)Photo taken my me Jan. ... DV can mean DV - a Digital Video tape format DV - Diversity Immigrant Visa, frequently used with the number of year immigrants who won a particular edition are admitted into the United States (ex. ... Video is the technology of processing electronic signals representing moving pictures. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The initials IEC can stand for: Independent Electoral Commission Industrial Emergency Council Institut des Experts-comptables et des Conseils fiscaux Institut dEstudis Catalans, Catalan Studies Institute Interactive Evolutionary Computation International Education Centre International Electrical Congress International Electrotechnical Commission See also IEC connector for IEC cord International Engineering Consortium International... Note: Please see National Latin Examination for the standardized test that is also abbreviated NLE. A non-linear editing system is a video editing or audio editing system that can perform random access on the source material. ... A 6-Pin Firewire 400 connector FireWire (also known as i. ... A 6-Pin FireWire 400 connector FireWire (also known as i. ... A 8mm Camcorder The 8mm Video Format (official name: Video8) is an analog video recording format for the consumer televisions (NTSC and PAL.) In 1983, Sony of Japan introduced the Handycam, one of the first Video8 cameras. ... VHS-C is the compact VHS format used for portable video recorders. ...


There have been some variants on the DV standard, most notably the more professional DVCAM and DVCPRO standards by Sony and Panasonic, respectively. Also, there is a recent high-definition version called HDV, which is rather different on a technical level since it only uses the DV and MiniDV tape form factor, but MPEG-2 for compression. Sony Corporation (Japanese katakana: ソニー) (TYO: 6758), (NYSE: SNE) is a global consumer electronics corporation based in Tokyo, Japan. ... Panasonic is principal sponsor of the Toyota F1 team Panasonic is a brand used by Matsushita, a Japanese company, to market its products throughout the world. ... High Definition Video (HDV) is a video format which is intended to provide the facility to record high-definition (as opposed to standard definition) MPEG-2 video on standard DV media (DV or MiniDV cassette tape). ... MPEG-2 (1994) is the designation for a group of audio and video coding standards agreed upon by MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group), and published as the ISO/IEC 13818 international standard. ...

Contents

Technical Standards

Video compression

DV uses DCT intraframe compression at a fixed bitrate of 25 megabits per second, which amounts to roughly 3.6 megabytes per second or 4 minutes per Gigabyte. At equal bitrates, DV is somewhat better than MJPEG (which is very similar), and is comparable to intraframe MPEG-2. Note that many MPEG-2 encoders for acquisition applications do not use intraframe compression. The discrete cosine transform (DCT) is a Fourier-related transform similar to the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), but using only real numbers. ... In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ... The megabit is a unit of information storage, commonly abbreviated Mbit. 1 megabit = 106 = 1 000 000 bits or 220 = 1 048 576 bits (see Binary prefix). ... This article is about a unit of data measurement. ... This article is about the unit of measurement, for the computer hardware manufacturer see Gigabyte Technology. ... MPEG-2 (1994) is the designation for a group of audio and video coding standards agreed upon by MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group), and published as the ISO/IEC 13818 international standard. ...


Chroma subsampling

The chroma subsampling is 4:1:1 for NTSC or 4:2:0 for PAL, which reduces the amount of color resolution stored. Therefore, not all analog formats are outperformed by DV. The Betacam SP format, for example, can still be desirable because it has similar color fidelity, no digital artifacts and good low-light performance. The lower sampling of the color space is also a reason why DV is sometimes avoided in applications where chroma-key will be used. However, a large contingent feel the benefits (no generation loss, small format, digital audio) are an acceptable tradeoff given the compromise in color sampling rate. In digital image processing, chroma subsampling is the use of lower resolution for the colour (chroma) information in an image than for the brightness (intensity or luma) information. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in the United States and many other countries, including most of the Americas and some parts of East Asia. ... For other meanings of PAL see PAL (disambiguation). ... Betacam and VHS size comparison Betacam SP L, Betacam SP S, VHS Betacam is a family of half-inch professional videotape formats developed by Sony from 1982 onwards. ... A sample refers to a value or set of values at a point in time and/or space. ... A color model is an abstract mathematical model describing the way colors can be represented as tuples of numbers, typically as three or four values or color components (e. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... Generation loss refers to the loss of quality between copies, usually associated with magnetic audio and video media. ... Digital audio describes sound recording and reproduction systems which work by using a digital representation of the audio waveform. ...


Audio

DV allows either 2 digital audio channels (usually stereo) at 16 bit resolution and 48 kHz sampling rate, or 4 digital audio channels at 12 bit resolution and 32 kHz sampling rate. For professional or broadcast applications, 48 kHz is used almost exclusively. In addition, the DV spec includes the ability to record audio at 44.1 kHz, the same sampling rate used for CD audio, but in practice, this option is rarely used. Stereo or stereophony generally refers to dual-channel sound recording and sound reproduction – sound that contains data for more than one speaker simultaneously. ... The sampling frequency or sampling rate defines the number of samples per second taken from a continuous signal to make a discrete signal. ...


Connectivity

The IEEE 1394 or Firewire serial data transfer bus is not a part of the DV specification, but co-evolved with it. Nearly all DV cameras have a IEEE 1394 interface and analog composite video and Y/C outputs. High end DV VCRs may have additional professional outputs such as SDI, SDTI or analog component video. All DV variants have a timecode, but some older or consumer computer applications fail to take advantage of it. A 6-Pin Firewire 400 connector FireWire (also known as i. ... A 6-Pin FireWire 400 connector FireWire (also known as i. ... Composite video is the format of an analog television signal before it is modulated onto an RF carrier. ... S-Video (also known as Y/C) is a baseband analog video format offering a higher quality signal than composite video, but a lower quality than RGB and component video. ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... Serial Digital Interface (SDI), standardized in ITU-R 656, is a digitized video format used for broadcast grade video. ... Component video is a type of video information that is transmitted or stored as two or more separate signals (as opposed to composite video, such as NTSC or PAL, which is a single signal). ...


On computers, DV streams are usually stored in container formats such as AVI or Quicktime, but sometimes raw DV data is recorded directly. This article is about the author with the pen name Avi. ... QuickTime is a multimedia technology developed by Apple Computer, capable of handling various formats of digital video, sound, text, animation, music, and immersive virtual reality panoramic images. ...


Physical format

DV cassettes
Left to right: DVCAM-L, DVCPRO-M, MiniDV

The DV format uses "L-size" cassettes, while MiniDV cassettes are called "S-size". Both MiniDV and DV tapes can come with a low capacity embedded memory chip (a scant 4 Mbits for MiniDV cassettes). This embedded memory can be used to quickly sample stills from edit points (for example, each time the record button on the camcorder is pressed when filming, a new "scene" timecode is entered into memory). DVCPRO has no "S-size", but an additional "M-size" as well as an "XL-size" for use with DVCPRO HD VTRs. All DV variants use a tape that is 1/4 inch (6.35 mm) wide. Download high resolution version (1606x1164, 301 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1606x1164, 301 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Mid-19th century tool for converting between different standards of the inch An inch is an Imperial unit of length. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ...


MiniDV / DV

The "L" cassette is about 120 x 90 x 12 mm and can record up to two hours of video. The better known MiniDV tapes are 65 x 48 x 12 mm and hold either an hour or an hour and a half of video depending on whether the video is recorded at Standard Play (SP) or Extended Play (EP). The tapes sell for less than USD 5 each as of 2003. DV on SP has a helical scan track width of 10 micrometres, EP uses a track width of only 6.7 micrometres. 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Helical Scan, or striping is a method of recording higher bandwidth signals onto magnetic tape than would otherwise be possible at the same tape speed with fixed heads. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer), symbol µm, is an SI unit of length. ...


Software is currently available for ordinary home computers which allows users to record any sort of computer data on MiniDV cassettes using common DV decks or camcorders. A 60-minute MiniDV tape will hold approximately 13 Gigabytes of data in this form of usage as the DV video format has a constant data rate of 3.6 Megabytes per second (3.6 MB/s x 60 seconds x 60 minutes = 12,960 MB per hour = 12.9 GB per hour). This article is about the unit of measurement, for the computer hardware manufacturer see Gigabyte Technology. ...


DVCAM

Sony's DVCAM is a semiprofessional variant of the DV standard that uses the same cassettes as DV and MiniDV, but transports the tape 50% faster, leading to a higher track width of 15 micrometres. The data format is the same as DV, but because of the greater track width the tapes are much more robust, and the EP mode of DV is not supported. All DVCAM recorders and cameras can play back DV material, but DVCPRO support was only recently added to some models. DVCAM tapes (or DV tapes recorded in DVCAM mode) have their recording time reduced by one third.


DVCAM is not available in higher bitrates or HD modes. Sony reserves this market for their digital Betacam and HDCAM product lines. Betacam and VHS size comparison Betacam SP L, Betacam SP S, VHS Betacam is a family of half-inch professional videotape formats developed by Sony from 1982 onwards. ... Betacam and VHS size comparison Betacam SP L, Betacam SP S, VHS Betacam is a family of half-inch professional videotape formats developed by Sony from 1982 onwards. ...


DVCPRO

Panasonic's DVCPRO was specifically created for ENG use (NBC's newsgathering division was a major customer), with better linear editing capabilities and robustness. It has an even greater track width of 18 micrometres and uses another tape type (Metal Particle instead of Metal Evaporated). Additionally, the tape has a longitudinal analog audio cue track. Audio is only available in the 16 bit/48 kHz variant, there is no EP mode, and DVCPRO always uses 4:1:1 color subsampling (even in PAL mode). Apart from that, standard DVCPRO data (also known as DVCPRO25) is the same as DV. However, unlike Sony, Panasonic chose to promote its DV variant for professional high-end applications. With two DV codecs running in parallel for a data rate of 50 Mbit/s and 4:2:2 color sampling, the DVCPRO50 standard was created for ENG compatibility but with reserves for HDTV upscaling. The HD variant, DVCPRO HD (also known as DVCPRO100), uses four parallel codecs and even higher tape speed for a data rate of 100 Mbit/s, at a HDTV resolution of 720p progressive or 1080i interlaced. A camcorder using as special variable-framerate (from 4 to 60 fps) variant of DVCPRO HD called VariCam is also available. All these variants are backward compatible but not forward compatible. For the Canadian television drama, see E.N.G. ENG is a broadcasting (usually television) industry acronym which stands for electronic news gathering. ... The National Broadcasting Company or NBC is an American radio and television broadcasting company based in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... Linear video editing is the process of selecting, arranging and modifying the images and sound recorded on video tape whether captured by a video camera or recorded in a studio. ... High-definition television (HDTV) means broadcast of television signals with a higher resolution than traditional formats (NTSC, SECAM, PAL) allow. ... HD represents, among other things: The American poet Hilda Doolittle High Definition media formats, for instance HDTV (high definition television) or the HD-DVD format Hard disk or hard drive, a type of computer storage hardware Harley Davidson, an iconic American motorcycle manufacturer The Home Depot, a chain of home... In technology (especially computing), backward compatibility has several related but differing meanings: A system is backward compatible if it is compatible with earlier versions of itself, or sometimes other earlier systems, particularly systems it intends to supplant. ... Forward compatibility is the ability of a system to accept input from later versions of itself. ...


DVCPRO cassettes are always labeled with a pair of run times, the smaller of the two being the capacity for DVCPRO50. A "M" tape can hold up to 66/33 minutes of video. The color of the lid indicates the format: DVCPRO tapes have a yellow lid, longer "L" tapes made specially for DVCPRO50 have a blue lid and DVCPRO HD tapes have a red lid.


The DVCPRO VCRs can play back DV and DVCAM tapes, but MiniDV tapes usually require an adaptor.


Other variants

Sony's XDCAM format allows recording of DVCAM streams on an optical medium similar to a Blu-Ray Disc, while Panasonic's DVCPRO P2 uses recording of DV/DVCPRO/DVCPRO50 streams on PCMCIA-compatible flash memory cards. Ikegami's Editcam System can record in DVCPRO or DVCPRO50 format on a removable hard disk. Note that most of these distinctions are for marketing purposes only - since DVCPRO and DVCAM only differ in the method in which they write the DV stream to tape, all these non-tape formats are virtually identical in regard to the video data. XDCAM is a professional digital camera system introduced by Sony in 2003. ... Blu-ray discs Blu-ray Disc is a next-generation optical disc format meant for high definition video (HD) and high density data storage, and is one of two competing standards for HD optical media. ... DVCPRO P2 is a professional digital video format introduced by Panasonic in 2004, and especially tailored to ENG applications. ... The PCMCIA is the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, an industry trade association that creates standards for notebook computer peripheral devices. ... A USB Flash Memory Card Flash memory is a form of EEPROM that allows multiple memory locations to be erased or written in one programming operation. ... Ikegami () is a japanese manufacturer of professional and broadcast television equipment, most notably professional video cameras, both for ENG and studio use. ... Editcam is a professional digital camera system manufactered by Ikegami and first introduced in 1995, available both as professional camcorders and modular dock recorders. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... Traditionally, marketing has been a term applied to the craft of linking the producers (or potential producers) of a product or service with customers, both existing and potential. ...


JVC's D-9 format (also known as Digital-S) is very similar to DVCPRO50, but records on tapes in the S-VHS form factor. (NOTE: D-9 is not to be confused with D-VHS, which uses MPEG-2 compression at a significantly lower bitrate) Victor Company of Japan, or (Japan Victor Company) JVC, is a large international corporation headquartered in Yokohama, Japan, which produces audio, video, and consumer electronics products. ... S-VHS or Super VHS was an improved, backward-compatible version of the VHS standard for domestic video cassette recorders. ... D-VHS is a digital video format developed by JVC, in collaboration with Hitachi, Matsushita and Philips. ... MPEG-2 (1994) is the designation for a group of audio and video coding standards agreed upon by MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group), and published as the ISO/IEC 13818 international standard. ...


The Digital8 standard uses the DV codec, but uses Hi8 tapes to record onto. Because of Video8's and Hi8's success in the past, many precious recordings exist in these formats. The Digital8 format was designed as a consumer format for transition from analog to digital. The video and audio quality of Digital8 is comparable to DV. Digital8 (or D8) is a digital videotape format invented by Sony in the late 1990s. ... Codec is a portmanteau of coder/decoder, which describes a device or program capable of performing transformations on a data stream or signal. ... A 8mm Camcorder The 8mm Video Format (official name: Video8) is a type of video cassette recorder and video tape. ...


See also

8mm Camcorder mini-DV Camcorder A camcorder is a portable electronic device (generally a digital camera) for recording video images and audio onto a storage device. ... High Definition Video (HDV) is a video format which is intended to provide the facility to record high-definition (as opposed to standard definition) MPEG-2 video on standard DV media (DV or MiniDV cassette tape). ... MicroMV is a new videotape format by Sony. ... The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is a working group of ISO/IEC charged with the development of video and audio encoding standards. ... DVD is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for storing data, including movies with high video and sound quality. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The DVCPRO HD Format (94 words)
DVCPRO HD increases the data rate to 100MBps, which is why it is sometimes called DVCPRO100.
DVCPRO HD cassettes are identified by a red lid.
Despite the "HD" tag, DVCPRO HD is not true high-definition in the current sense.
DVCPro HD (318 words)
These days, HD production is all about integration from diverse source material and hybrid workflows.
Also we’re able to take your finished project and transfer from DVCpro HD to D-5 for a higher grade archival master or a duplication master.
The order form for DVCPro HD services is available for download.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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