FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "DOS" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Instructions on how to use the dir command.

DOS (from Disk Operating System) commonly refers to the family of closely related operating systems which dominated the IBM PC compatible market between 1981 and 1995 (or until about 2000, if one includes DOS-based Windows 95 and Windows 98 systems): DR-DOS, FreeDOS, MS-DOS, Novell-DOS, OpenDOS, PC-DOS, PTS-DOS, ROM-DOS and several others. They are single user, single task operating systems. MS-DOS from Microsoft was the most widely used. These operating systems ran on IBM PC compatible type hardware using the Intel x86 CPUs or their compatible cousins from other makers. MS-DOS, inspired by CP/M, is still common today and was the foundation for many of Microsoft's operating systems (from Windows 1.0 through Windows Me). MS-DOS was also later used as the foundation for FreeDOS. International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ... A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals. ... Disk Operating System (specifically) and disk operating system (generically), most often abbreviated as DOS (not to be confused with the DOS family of disk operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform), refer to operating system software used in most computers that provides the abstraction and management of secondary storage... A disk operating system is an operating system that resides on a disk. ... Image File history File links MS-DOS_6. ... Image File history File links MS-DOS_6. ... In computing, dir is a command used for file and directory listing, specifically in CP/M and the command line interface (CLI) of the DOS operating system. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... IBM PC compatible computers are those generally similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT. Such computers used to be referred to as PC clones, or IBM clones since they almost exactly duplicated all the significant features of the PC, XT, or AT internal design, facilitated by various manufacturers... Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ... This article is about the operating system. ... FreeDOS (formerly Free-DOS and PD-DOS) is an operating system for IBM PC compatible computers. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... Novell DOS was Novell Corporations name for DR-DOS during the period when Novell sold DR-DOS, after the acquisition of Digital Research in 1991. ... OpenDOS is a freeware DOS-like and MS-DOS-compatible operating system. ... IBM PC-DOS was one of the three major operating systems that dominated the personal computer market from about 1985 to 1995. ... PTS-DOS is a disk operating system, a DOS clone, developed in Russia by Phystechsoft. ... Full embedded OS; compact, reliable, fully compatible DOS for embedded uses, mobile computing environments, fast connecting of embedded systems to Internet ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... IBM PC compatible computers are those generally similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT. Such computers used to be referred to as PC clones, or IBM clones since they almost exactly duplicated all the significant features of the PC, XT, or AT internal design, facilitated by various manufacturers... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... CP/M is an operating system originally created for Intel 8080/85 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. ... Windows 1. ... Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows Me (IPA pronunciation: [miː], [ɛm iː]), is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit graphical operating system released on September 14, 2000 by Microsoft. ... FreeDOS (formerly Free-DOS and PD-DOS) is an operating system for IBM PC compatible computers. ...

Contents

History

MS-DOS (and rebranded IBM PC-DOS which was licensed therefrom), and its predecessor, 86-DOS, was inspired by CP/M (Control Program / (for) Microcomputers) from Digital Research — which was the dominant disk operating system for 8-bit Intel 8080 and Zilog Z80 based microcomputers. Tim Paterson at Seattle Computer Products developed a variant of CP/M-80, intended as an internal product for testing the SCP's new 16-bit [8086]] CPU card for the S-100 bus. It did not run on the 8080 CPU needed for CP/M-80. The system was named 86-DOS (it had initially been called QDOS, which stood for Quick and Dirty Operating System). IBM PC-DOS was one of three major operating systems that dominated the personal computer market from about 1985 to 1995. ... 86-DOS was an operating system developed and marketed by Seattle Computer Products for its Intel 8086-based computer kit. ... CP/M is an operating system originally created for Intel 8080/85 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. ... Digital Research, Inc. ... AMD clone NEC 8080AF (2nd-source). ... Zilog, often seen as ZiLOG, is a manufacturer of 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit, and 32-bit CPUs, and is most famous for its Intel 8080-compatible Z80 series. ... The Zilog Z80 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Zilog from 1976 onwards. ... Tim Paterson (born 1956) is an American computer programmer, best known as the original author of the popular MS-DOS operating system. ... Seattle Computer Products (SCP) is a Seattle, Washington computer hardware company. ... CP/M (Command Processor for Microcomputers) was an operating system for Intel 8080/85 and Zilog Z80 based microcomputers. ... In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... CPU redirects here. ... For other uses, see S-100. ... 86-DOS was an operating system developed and marketed by Seattle Computer Products for its Intel 8086-based computer kit. ...


IBM was introducing their first microcomputer, built with the Intel 8088 microprocessor, and needed an operating system, but the initial negotiations for the use of CP/M on these broke down. IBM approached Microsoft's CEO, Bill Gates, who purchased QDOS from SCP allegedly for $50,000. This became Microsoft Disk Operating System, MS-DOS. Microsoft also licensed their system to multiple computer companies, who used their own names. Eventually, Microsoft would require the use of the MS -DOS name, with the exception of the IBM variant, which would continue to be developed concurrently and sold as PC-DOS (this was for IBM's new 'PC' using the 8088 CPU (internally the same as the 8086)).[1] The Commodore 64 was one of the most popular microcomputers of its era, and is the best selling model of home computer of all time. ... The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... IBM PC-DOS was one of the three major operating systems that dominated the personal computer market from about 1985 to 1995. ...


Gary Killdall's Digital Research would attempt to regain the market lost from CP/M with DR-DOS, an MS-DOS compatible DOS and CP/M hybrid. Digital Research would later be bought out by Novell, and DR DOS became Novell DOS 7. DR DOS would later be part of Caldera (as OpenDOS), Lineo (as DR DOS), and DeviceLogics. Gary Arlen Kildall (May 19, 1942 – July 11, 1994) was an American computer scientist and microcomputer entrepreneur who created the CP/M operating system and founded Digital Research, Inc. ... Digital Research, Inc. ... This article is about the operating system. ... Novell Inc. ... OpenDOS is a freeware DOS-like and MS-DOS-compatible operating system. ...


DOS in Microsoft Windows

Early versions of Microsoft Windows, including Windows 3.11 were little more than a graphical shell for DOS. DOS in later versions of Windows was essentially reduced to the role of a boot loader for the protected-mode Windows kernel. Windows redirects here. ... A typical Windows 3. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Shell_(computing). ...


Microsoft provided a utility called TweakUI to allow one to boot DOS without going into Windows. It's part of their PowerToys software. After installing it you go to the control panel and click on the TweakUI icon. Then click on the Boot tab and change the boot settings any way you want. You can find TweakUI on the Windows distribution disks or search Microsoft's site for it. Manually editing the MSDOS.SYS file in the Windows root directory so that the line BootGUI=1 to BootGUI=0, then adding a line LOGO=0 also reveals MS DOS 7 booting into Windows. MS-DOS 7 is just like MS-DOS 6 except that added support for long file names. The MSDos utilities programs are hidden in two places. Most of them are in the C:WINDOWSCOMMAND directory. The rest of them are on the Windows 95/98 CD in the OTHEROLDMSDOS directory.[2]


Non-Microsoft DOS

It is also possible to run DOS programs under OS/2 and even the early versions of Linux using virtual-machine emulators. Because of the long existence and ubiquity of DOS in the world of the PC-compatible platform, DOS was often considered to be the native operating system of the PC compatible platform. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ...


The FreeDOS project began June 26, 1994, when Microsoft announced it would no longer sell nor support MS-DOS. Jim Hall then posted a manifesto proposing the development of an open-source replacement. Within a few weeks, other programmers including Pat Villani and Tim Norman joined the project. A kernel, the command.com command line interpreter (shell) and core utilities were created by pooling code they had written or found available. There were several official pre-release distributions of FreeDOS before the FreeDOS 1.0 distribution was released on September 3, 2006. FreeDOS does not require license fees or royalties. The only other MS-DOS compatible operating systems that are actively distributed now are Enhanced DR-DOS, PTS-DOS and ROM-DOS.[3]


Timeline

Microsoft bought non-exclusive rights for marketing 86-DOS in October 1980. In July 1981, Microsoft bought exclusive rights for 86-DOS (by now up to version 1.14) and renamed the operating system MS-DOS.


The first IBM branded version, PC-DOS 1.0, was released in August, 1981. It supported up to 640 kB of RAM[4] and four 160 kB 5.25" single sided floppy disks. A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Look up RAM, Ram, ram in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ...


In May 1982, PC-DOS 1.1 added support for 320 kB double-sided floppy disks.


PC-DOS 2.0 and MS-DOS 2.0, released in March 1983, were the first versions to support the PC/XT and fixed disk drives (commonly referred to as hard disk drives). Floppy disk capacity was increased to 180 kB (single sided) and 360 kB (double sided) by using nine sectors per track instead of eight. In the context of computer hardware, a sector is a sub-division of a track on a magnetic disk or optical disc. ...


At the same time, Microsoft announced its intention to create a GUI for DOS. Its first version, Windows 1.0, was announced on November 1983, but was unfinished and did not interest IBM. By November 1985, the first finished version, Microsoft Windows 1.01, was released. GUI can refer to the following: GUI is short for graphical user interface, a term used to describe a type of interface in computing. ...


MS-DOS 3.0, released in September 1984, first supported 1.2Mb floppy disks and 32Mb hard disks. MS-DOS 3.1, released November that year, introduced network support.


MS-DOS 3.2, released in April 1986, was the first retail release of MS-DOS. It added support of 720 kB 3.5" floppy disks. Previous versions had been sold only to computer manufacturers who pre-loaded them on their computers, because operating systems were considered part of a computer, not an independent product.


MS-DOS 3.3, released in April 1987, featured logical disks. A physical disk could be divided into several partitions, considered as independent disks by the operating system. Support was also added for 1.44 MB 3.5" floppy disks.

The first version of DR DOS was released in May of 1988, and was compatible with MS/PC-DOS 3.3. Later versions of DR DOS would continue to identify as "DOS 3.31." to applications, despite using newer version numbers.

MS-DOS 4.0, released in July 1988, supported disks up to 2 GB (disk sizes were typically 40-60 MB in 1988), and added a full-screen shell called DOSSHELL. Other shells, like Norton Commander and PCShell, already existed in the market. In November of 1988, Microsoft addressed many bugs in a service release, MS-DOS 4.01. The DOS Shell for MS-DOS 6. ... Norton Commander (commonly shortened to NC) is an Orthodox File Manager (OFM) program, written by John Socha and released by Peter Norton Computing (later acquired by the Symantec corporation). ...

DR DOS skipped version 4 due to perceived unpopularity of MS-DOS 4.x. Wishing to get a jump on Microsoft, Digital Research released DR DOS 5 in May 1990, which included much more powerful utilities that previous DOS versions.

MS-DOS 5.0 was released in April 1991, mainly as a follow-up to DR DOS 5. It included the full-screen BASIC interpreter QBasic, which also provided a full-screen text editor (previously, MS-DOS had only a line-based text editor, edlin). A disk cache utility SmartDrive, undelete capabilities, and other improvements were also included. It had severe problems with some disk utilities, fixed later in MS-DOS 5.01, released later in the same year. This article is about the programming language. ... The EDLIN line editor was the only text editor provided with MS-DOS before version 5. ... SmartDrive is a disk caching program that shipped with MS-DOS versions 4. ...

DR DOS 6.0 was released in 1991.

In March 1992, Microsoft released Windows 3.1, which became the first popular version of Microsoft Windows, with more than 1,000,000 purchasing the graphical user interface. A section of the Windows 3.1 beta installer (the "AARD code") caused the installation to fail on non-Microsoft DOS systems, including DR DOS. This led to a decline in the use of DR DOS. The AARD code was a compatibility check in the installer for Microsoft Windows 3. ...


MS-DOS 6.0 was released in March 1993. Following competition from Digital Research's SuperStor, Microsoft added a disk compression utility called DoubleSpace. At the time, typical hard disk sizes were about 200-400 MB, and many users badly needed more disk space. It turned out that DoubleSpace contained stolen code from another compression utility, Stacker, which led to later legal problems. MS-DOS 6.0 also featured the disk defragmenter DEFRAG, backup program MSBACKUP, memory optimization with MEMMAKER, and rudimentary virus protection via MSAV. Digital Research, Inc. ... DoubleSpace was the original name of the disk compression software that was supplied with MS-DOS starting from version 6. ... A partial list of the most common commands for Microsofts MS-DOS operating system follows. ... Microsoft Anti-Virus for MS-DOS Microsoft Anti-Virus for Windows Microsoft Anti-Virus (MSAV) was an antivirus program introduced by Microsoft for its MS-DOS operating system. ...


As with versions 4.0 and 5.0, MS-DOS 6.0 turned out to be buggy. Due to complaints about loss of data, Microsoft released an updated version, MS-DOS 6.2, with an improved DoubleSpace utility, a new disk check utility, SCANDISK (similar to fsck from Unix), and other improvements. The system utility fsck (for file system check or file system consistency check) is a tool for checking the consistency of a file system in the Unix system and clones thereof. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ...

December 1993 saw the release of Novell DOS 7, which was DR DOS under a new name. Its multiple bugs, as well as DR DOS' already declining market share and Windows 95 looming on the horizon, led to low sales.[5] By this time, PC DOS was at version 6.1, and IBM split its development from Microsoft. From this point, the two developed independently.

The next version of MS-DOS, 6.21 (released March 1994), appeared due to legal problems. Stac Electronics sued Microsoft due to stolen source code from their utility, Stacker, and forced them to remove DoubleSpace from their operating system. Stac Electronics was an engineering company founded in 1984 by four friends at Caltech. ...


In May 1994, Microsoft released MS-DOS 6.22, with another disk compression package, DriveSpace, licensed from VertiSoft Systems.


MS-DOS 6.22 was the last stand-alone version of MS-DOS available to the general public. MS-DOS was removed from marketing by Microsoft on November 30, 2001. [6]


Microsoft also released versions 6.23 to 6.25 for banks and American military organizations. These versions introduced FAT32 support. Microsoft Windows 95 incorporated MS-DOS version 7.0, but only as the kernel (as Windows became the full operating system). Windows 98 also used MS-DOS 7. At this point, Microsoft announced abandonment of the DOS kernel and released Windows 2000 on the NT kernel, but following its commercial failure, released one more DOS kernel Windows, Windows ME. The next system, Windows XP, was based on the NT kernel. Windows ME used MS-DOS 8; Windows XP and Vista continue to use MS-DOS 8 on emergency startup disks. File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... The Windows NT operating system familys architecture consists of two layers (user mode and kernel mode), with many different modules within both of these layers. ...


IBM released PC-DOS 7.0 in early 1995. It incorporated many new utilities such as anti-virus software, comprehensive backup programs, PCMCIA support, and DOS Pen extensions. Also added were new features to enhance available memory and disk space. The last version of PC DOS was PC DOS 2000, released in 1998. Its major feature was Y2K compatibility. The year 2000 problem (also known as the Y2K problem and the millennium bug) was a flaw in computer program design that caused some date-related processing to operate incorrectly for dates and times on and after January 1, 2000. ...


Following Novell DOS 7, Novell sold DR DOS to Caldera, who released it as "OpenDOS". It would later be transferred to a branch company, Lineo, who released another version as DR DOS 7, which would close-source it again. Lineo sold DR DOS to another company, DeviceLogics, who has not released any newer versions. The source of OpenDos is developed separately, and is called "Enhanced DR DOS." Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ...


Accessing hardware under DOS

The operating system offers a hardware abstraction layer that allows development of character-based applications, but not for accessing most of the hardware, such as graphics cards, printers, or mice. This required programmers to access the hardware directly, resulting in each application having its own set of device drivers for each hardware peripheral. Hardware manufacturers would release specifications to ensure device drivers for popular applications were available. A hardware abstraction layer (HAL) is an abstraction layer, implemented in software, between the physical hardware of a computer and the software that runs on that computer. ... Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware. ... A video card, also referred to as a graphics accelerator card, display adapter, graphics card, and numerous other terms, is an item of personal computer hardware whose function is to generate and output images to a display. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper transparencies. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... A device driver, or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a computer hardware device. ...


DOS and other PC operating systems

Early versions of Microsoft Windows were shell programs that ran in DOS. Windows 3.11 extended the shell by going into protected mode and added 32-bit support. These were 16-bit/32-bit hybrids. Microsoft Windows 95 further reduced DOS to the role of the bootloader. Windows 98 and Windows Me were the last Microsoft Operating Systems to run on DOS. The DOS-based branch was eventually abandoned in favor of Windows NT, a 32-bit system that was the foundation for Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Vista. Windows redirects here. ... A typical Windows 3. ... Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. ... In computing, booting is a bootstrapping process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ... Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows Me (IPA pronunciation: [miː], [ɛm iː]), is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit graphical operating system released on September 14, 2000 by Microsoft. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor computers. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ...


Reserved device names under DOS

There are reserved device names in DOS that cannot be used as filenames regardless of extension; these restrictions also affect several Windows versions, in some cases causing crashes and security vulnerabilities.


A partial list of these reserved names is: NUL:, COM1: or AUX:, COM2:, COM3:, COM4:, CON:, LPT1: or PRN:, LPT2:, LPT3:, and CLOCK$.


More recent versions of both MS-DOS and IBM-DOS allow reserved device names without the trailing colon; e.g., PRN refers to PRN:.


The NUL filename redirects to a null file, similar in function to the UNIX device /dev/null. It is best suited for being used in batch command files to discard unneeded output. If NUL is copied to a file that already exists, it will truncate the target file; otherwise, a zero byte file will be created. (Thus, copy NUL foo is functionally similar to the UNIX commands cat </dev/null >foo and cp /dev/null foo.) Naming a file as NUL, regardless of extension, could cause unpredictable behavior in most applications. Well-designed applications will generate an error stating that NUL is a DOS reserved filename; others generate the file but whatever the program saves is lost; finally, some applications may hang or leave the computer in an inconsistent state, requiring a reboot. In Unix-like operating systems, /dev/null or the null device is a special file that discards all data written to it, and provides no data to any process that reads from it. ... This article is about starting or restarting a computer system. ...


Drive naming scheme

Under Microsoft's DOS operating system and its derivatives drives are referred to by identifying letters. Standard practice is to reserve "A" and "B" for floppy drives. On systems with only one floppy drive DOS permits the use of both letters for one drive, and DOS will ask to swap disks. This permits copying from floppy to floppy or having a program run from one floppy while having its data on another. Hard drives were originally assigned the letters "C" and "D". DOS could only support one active partition per drive. As support for more hard drives became available, this developed into assigning the active primary partition on each drive letters first, then making a second pass over the drives to allocate letters to logical drives in the extended partition, then making a third, which gives the other non-active primary partitions their names. (Always assumed, they exist and contain a DOS-readable file system.) Lastly, DOS allocate letters for optical disc drives, RAM disks and other hardware. Letter assignments usually occur in the order of the drivers loaded, but the drivers can instruct DOS to assign a different letter. An example is network drives, for which the driver will assign letters nearer the end of the alphabets. Drive letter assignment is the process of assigning drive letters to primary and logical partitions (drive volumes) in the root namespace; this usage is found in Microsoft operating systems. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... A partition in the IBM PC architecture, is a part of a hard disk that can have an independent file system. ... A partition in the IBM PC architecture, is a part of a hard disk that can have an independent file system. ... A partition in the IBM PC architecture, is a part of a hard disk that can have an independent file system. ... In computing, sound reproduction, and video, an optical disc is flat, circular, usually polycarbonate disc whereon data is stored. ... A RAM-Disk, Ramdisk or Ramdrive is a virtual solid state disk that uses a segment of active computer memory, RAM, as secondary storage, a role typically filled by hard drives. ...


Because DOS applications use these drive letters directly (unlike the /dev folder in Unix-like systems), they can be disrupted by adding new hardware that needs a drive letter. An example is the addition of a new hard drive with a primary partition to an original hard drive that contains logical drives in extended partitions. As primary partitions have higher priority than the logical drives, it will change drive letters in the configuration. Moreover, attempts to add a new hard drive with only logical drives in an extended partition would still disrupt the letters of RAM disks and optical drives. This problem persisted through the 9x versions of Windows until NT, which preserves the letters of existing drives until the user changes it. Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ...


The DOS boot sequence

The boot information for PC-compatible computers is located at track zero. In DOS, this code will read the DOS BIOS into memory and execute it. The BIOS is located in IBMBIO.COM on DR DOS and PC DOS, and IO.SYS on MS DOS. The BIOS will then load the DOS kernel, located in IBMDOS.COM (PC DOS or DR DOS) or MSDOS.SYS (MS DOS). In the Windows DOS versions (MS DOS 7 and 8), the BIOS and kernel are combined in IO.SYS, and MSDOS.SYS is a text configuration file. For other uses, see Bios. ... IBMBIO.COM serves exactly the same purpose as IO.SYS and it is part of PC-DOS and earlier versions of MS-DOS. Categories: | ... IO.SYS is an essential part of DOS and Windows 9x. ... IBMDOS.COM is the IBM-DOS, DR-DOS and PC-DOS equivalent of the MS-DOS file MSDOS.SYS. Categories: DOS on IBM PC compatibles | DOS ... MSDOS.SYS is an important system file on MS-DOS and Windows 9x systems. ...


The kernel then executes the CONFIG.SYS file. In CONFIG.SYS, the SHELL command specifies the location of the shell (typically COMMAND.COM). The shell will then launch, and open a startup batch file (typically AUTOEXEC.BAT) CONFIG.SYS is the primary configuration file for the MS-DOS and OS/2 operating systems. ... COMMAND.COM is the name for the default operating system shell (or command line interpreter) for DOS and 16/32bits versions of Windows (95/98/98 SE/Me). ... AUTOEXEC.BAT is the name of a system file found originally on the MS-DOS operating system. ...


DOS emulators

Under Linux it is possible to run copies of DOS and many of its clones under DOSEMU, a Linux-native virtual machine for running real mode programs. There are a number of other emulators for running DOS under various versions of UNIX, even on non-x86 platforms, such as DOSBox This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... DOSEMU, alternatively rendered dosemu, is a compatibility layer software package that enables MS-DOS software to run under Linux on x86-based PCs (IBM PC compatible computers). ... In computer science, a virtual machine is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and its operating system, so that the end user can operate software on an abstract machine. ... Real mode (also called real address mode in Intels manuals) is an operating mode of 80286 and later x86-compatible CPUs. ... This article is about emulators in computer science. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... DOS Version of Z running in DOSBox in Debian. ...


DOS emulators are gaining popularity among Windows XP users because Windows XP system is incompatible with pure DOS. They are used to play 'abandoned games' made for DOS. One of the most famous emulators is DOSBox, designed for game-playing on modern operating systems. Another emulator ExDOS is designed for business. VDMSound is also popular on Windows XP for its GUI and sound support. Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Abandonware is widely thought to be computer software that is no longer current. ... DOS Version of Z running in DOSBox in Debian. ... VDMSound is a modern program that allows Windows XP to have Sound Blaster support. ...


Even so, there are free alternative to DOS like FreeDOS or OpenDos. FreeDOS (formerly Free-DOS and PD-DOS) is an operating system for IBM PC compatible computers. ...


DOS Operating Systems

PC-DOS a version of DOS that was sold for the IBM-PC. MS-DOS Microsoft's version of DOS. OS/2 Microsoft and IBM colabaration of a successor to DOS, IBM later took development of OS/2 which permited the user to multitask DOS- based applications. IBM PC-DOS was one of the three major operating systems that dominated the personal computer market from about 1985 to 1995. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Microsof Windows An operating System that had the DOS API. NovellDOS a derviative of DR-DOS OpenDOS The open-source version of DR-DOS. FreeDOS a DOS-based operating system aiming 100% MS-DOS compatiblity. DR-DOS A CP/M operating system that had MS-DOS compatibility. This article is about the operating system. ... OpenDOS is a freeware DOS-like and MS-DOS-compatible operating system. ... FreeDOS (formerly Free-DOS and PD-DOS) is an operating system for IBM PC compatible computers. ... This article is about the operating system. ...


See also

  • cmd.exe, the command line interpreter on OS/2, Windows CE and on Windows NT-based systems
  • COMMAND.COM, the command line interpreter for DOS and 16/32bits versions of Windows (95/98/98 SE/Me)
  • Wine (software)

This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... COMMAND.COM is the name for the default operating system shell (or command line interpreter) for DOS and 16/32bits versions of Windows (95/98/98 SE/Me). ... Wine is a project which aims to allow a PC with an x86 architecture processor running a Unix-like operating system and the X Window System to execute programs that were originally written for Microsoft Windows. ...

References

  1. ^ http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa033099.htm
  2. ^ http://www.ctyme.com/msdos7.htm
  3. ^ Hall, Jim (September 23, 2006). History of FreeDOS. freedos.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  4. ^ Sedory, Daniel (2005). IBM PC DOS 1.00. The Starman. Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
  5. ^ http://www.ug.bcc.bilkent.edu.tr/~farukg/yazilar/histwindows.htm
  6. ^ http://www.microsoft.com/windows/lifecycle/default.mspx Microsoft Licensing Roadmap

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Dos Centavos (0 words)
Moreover, it asserts that dying is something we do alone.
At the very least, the irreligious do not kill in the name of something that we're constantly told is "greater than we are".
To do nothing (or too-little) for the betterment of those in need, is not in itself a crime.
dos (the band) (9473 words)
lots of dos gigs at this time consisted of kira flying out to meet watt while he was on tour with firehose and open for them during a stretch of four or five dates.
dos songs have come from jams, from lyrics given to them, are covers of great female vocalists they admire, the songs come from other bands they have played in, are written together, are written with one writing both bass lines, just about any way a song can come about, they have.
dos gigs became fewer and fewer though with watt embarking on a solo career after releasing "ball-hog or tugboat" in 1995 for columbia that contained almost fifty people helping watt out to form a band for each song on it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m